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  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 10:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Isenström, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching children about human rights is an important step towards strengthening human rights internationally and schools are considered primary sites for children to develop human rights understandings, attitudes and behaviours. This dissertation explores the teachers’ role in educating children about their human rights. Focusing on the everyday school life of young children, a holistic approach to rights-learning is applied that includes not only learning about human rights but also developing rights-conscious values, attitudes and behaviours. Also included in the concept rights-learning is the formation of a self-conception as a rights-holder. Against this background the aim of this dissertation is to clarify the impact of teachers’ actions on the construction of young children’s rights-learning, and their self-conceptions as rights-holders.

    Theoretically, the dissertation combines: (i) rights theorisation; (ii) theorisation of differing discourses of children and childhood; and (iii) Foucauldian governmentality. From these, analytical concepts of rights-learning situations, teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities and privileged rightssubject positions are constructed. The data used in the study derives from classroom observations and interviews with teachers, as well as drawing on previous research.

    The findings highlight that in everyday school practice the teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities will privilege different rights-subject positions for the children and thereby construct children’s rights-learning in different ways. With a holistic approach to rights-learning, as something that occurs in various interactions and situations in everyday school life, the findings presented in this dissertation can provide new perspectives and enrich discussions on teaching and learning children’s human rights.

    List of papers
    1. Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80552 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80553 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80554 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 13:15 Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the implications of family ownership and perceived growth barriers for firm decision-making and performance. The first article examines the inclusion of family business in economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden, as well as the views of professors and textbook authors and research on family business. It is found that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. The article concludes by discussing the causes of this omission, as well as strategies to overcome them in order to further our understanding of economic action. The second article presents a novel strategy for identifying domiciled family firms using total population data. By applying this strategy to Swedish data, family firms are found to contribute to one-third of Swedish employment and gross domestic product, and a significant share of Sweden’s largest firms are family-owned. In general, family firms are found to be smaller than their non-family equivalents, although they are more profitable. Meanwhile, differences between family firms and nonfamily firms are found to diminish with firm size. The third article examines whether family firms have a comparative employment growth advantage over nonfamily firms in regions with relatively low population density. As a group, family firms are found to be the main source of job creation in rural regions, largely as a result of their large numbers. Nevertheless, the average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm. Meanwhile, in line with the study’s conjecture, this difference is found to decrease across the urban-rural context, i.e., across metropolitan, urban and rural regions. The fourth paper examines the representation of women in top management teams1 in family firms and non-family firms. Moreover, the share of women in a firm’s top management team is found to be positively associated with the additional appointment of female managers. Lastly, kinship bonds between the owning families and prospective managers are found to be positively associated with the appointment of women on top management teams. The fifth paper aims to capture the relationship between perceived growth barriers and firm size, which is achieved by developing a novel data-driven strategy for identifying firm size groups. It is found that smaller firms typically face accessibility constraints on equity financing, whereas larger firms generally face barriers related to competition and accessibility to qualified staff. These results are benchmarked against those using prevailing strategies for measuring firm size, whereby it is suggested that there may be a need for methodological rethinking in the field regarding its treatment of firm size.

    List of papers
    1. Family business: A missing link in economics?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family business: A missing link in economics?
    2020 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms account for a substantial share of economic activity and deviate from standard economic assumptions on firmbehavior. However, little is known about how these firms are represented in economic theory. This article examines the inclusion of family business in the curricula of economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden as well as professors’ and textbook authors’ views and research on family business. Textbooks, articles and course offerings used in doctoral programs are considered to indicate the state of established knowledge in the field. The findings show that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. This article concludes that family business is excluded from ‘core’ economic theory due to a lack of paradigmatic pluralism, axiomatic incompatibility, path dependency, institutional bias and data constraints. Lastly, it is speculated that integration of family business theory into standard economic modeling is likely to occur outside prestigious universities due to path dependency in research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2020
    Keywords
    entrepreneurship, family business, family control, family firm, economics, teaching
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79162 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.100306 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
    2. The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2018
    Keywords
    Entrepreneur, Family firms, Employment, GDP, Register data
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61172 (URN)10.1007/s11187-017-9947-6 (DOI)000443439100003 ()2-s2.0-85030325971 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Familjeföretagandets betydelse
    Funder
    The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius FoundationSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    2018 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposition that family firms have comparative employment growth advantages in relation to non-family firms in regions with relatively low population density. This premise is tested across metropolitan, urban and rural regions using total population data on domestically and privately owned, single-plant, non-listed limited liability firms in Sweden. A panel of more than 89,000 firms is followed over a seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm across the urban-rural context. However, in line with the study’s conjecture, these differences are found to decrease across metropolitan, urban and rural regions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    family firms, employment, regional growth, entrepreneur, social capital
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69045 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2018.08.004 (DOI)000454963900006 ()2-s2.0-85057023468 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    The 2016 annual Swedish Graduate Program in Economics (SWEGPEC) workshop, the International Family Enterprise Research Academy (IFERA) 2017 Annual Conference
    Funder
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
    4. Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
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    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57683 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2018.095903 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055855794 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tillväxthinder i små och medelstora företag
    Funder
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthThe Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
    5. Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80350 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-03 Created: 2020-03-03 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 13:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Breazu, Petre
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Representing the Roma in Romanian Media: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I addressed the representation of the Roma in Romanian newspapers, television news, and social media. I focused on Romania, a country with the largest Roma population in Europe, and where the Roma have historically experienced centuries of discrimination and social exclusion. I conducted an in-depth Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA) to reveal what kind of discourses are used to represent this minority group, after Romania joined the European Union. The analysis in this thesis confirms the well-documented discourses in reference to Roma as criminal, uneducated, dirty, immoral, and as resisting assimilation into wider society. In addition, this research shows how these discourses have been incorporated into newer forms specific to the current political climate across Europe, increasingly dominated by right-wing populist politics, where minority groups, such as the Roma have become easy targets for politicians to justify their political failures and are scapegoated for lack of jobs, declining economic prosperity, instability, fears of immigration and of the loss of national autonomy and traditions. The detailed MCDA analysis allowed me to show how racism can be communicated in a variety of ways, not so much in relation to biological differences but in terms of culture, behaviour, traditions and national values. The multimodal approach was instrumental in showing how different media, with their different affordances have their specific way of avoiding overt racism while nevertheless the ideology remains. We see how the combination of different modes help to communicate the civil nature of violent actions, such as camp evictions, or the representation of poverty as a choice, rather than embedded in the social structures. Moreover we see on social media how ‘simple fun’, in the form of humour and ridicule, is loaded with extreme forms of racism that even call for ethnic cleansing.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 13:15 Örebro universitet, Gymnastik- och idrottshuset, Hörsal G, Örebro
    Edholm, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in physical function, accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, leading to loss of independency. In this respect, physical activity and healthy diet represent key lifestyle factors with potential to delay onset of age-related physical disability. The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore the effects of physical activity behaviours in general and resistance training (RT) in particular, with or without addition of a healthy diet (HD), on muscle mass and physical function in older community-dwelling women. A main finding was that physical activity of at least moderate intensity at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a previously sedentary lifestyle. Additionally, engagement in exercise-related activities during middleage years is linked to better physical function and higher muscle massat old age, regardless of present physical activity level. This thesis further highlights that in older women RT combined with HD rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elicits significant gains in muscle mass, whereas no corresponding gain was induced by RT alone. Likewise, larger improvements in muscle strength and physical function were evident in response to combined effects by RT and HD compared to RT alone. Taken together, findings from this thesis support public health efforts aiming to promote physical activity of at least moderate intensity together with a healthy diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to combat age-related decline in muscle mass and physical function.

    List of papers
    1. Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
    Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80862 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-26 Created: 2020-03-26 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2015
    Keywords
    aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
    Research subject
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

    Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2017
    Keywords
    aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-23 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Sakellari, Marianthi
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Functional analysis of the proteasome in eukaryotic organisms2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteasome degradation machinery is responsible for the turnover of a huge variety of normal and abnormal proteins, thus regulating a plethora of cellular processes. Aging is an inevitable biological process that is characterized by reduced proteasome function that leads to proteotoxic stress. Compound-related interventions, that ameliorate proteasome system collapse, retard aging process. In the present thesis, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), a natural compound with known proteasome activating properties in cells, was indicated to activate proteasome also in the multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Evaluation of the antiaging and protein anti-aggregation effects of this bioactive compound indicated that 18α-GA promoted longevity in nematodes through proteasome-and SKN-1-mediated activation and decelerated Alzheimer’sdisease progression and neuropathology both in nematodes and neuronal cells. Additionally, the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation was analyzed in eukaryotic organisms under various cellular conditions. Protein synthesis inhibition was observed to increase proteasome function and assembly in human primary embryonic fibroblasts, with heat shock protein chaperone machinery to contribute to the elevated proteasome assembly. Alternatively, protein synthesis inhibition increased the protein levels of specific proteasome subunits without influencing the proteasome activity in C. elegans. Furthermore, proteasome activation by means which have also pro-longevity effects decreased the protein synthesis rate both in human fibroblast cellsand nematodes. This thesis suggests: 1) that a diet-derived compound could act as a pro-longevity and anti-aggregation agent in the context of amulticellular organism and 2) the existence of a complex interplay between anabolic and catabolic processes under different cellular conditions, across species.

    List of papers
    1. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
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    2016 (English)In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 855-869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.

    Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment.

    Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2016
    Keywords
    Proteasome activation, lifespan extension, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, aggregation, proteostasis
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49639 (URN)10.1089/ars.2015.6494 (DOI)000388262600001 ()26886723 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    U.S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources

    Thales GenAge QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    MAESTRO by the European Union (European Social Fund)

    Operational Program, Education and Lifelong Learning, of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)

    European Union 266486

    IKYDA fellowship

    Empirikion Foundation Scientific Project

    John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation

    Academy of Finland 259797

    COST Actions PROTEOS-TASIS BM1307

    GENiE BM1408

    COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

    Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    2019 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 514, no 1, p. 224-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Protein synthesis and degradation balance have a crucial role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis and function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the major cellular proteolytic machineries responsible for the removal of normal, abnormal, denatured or in general damaged proteins. Proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme that consists of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complexes giving rise to multiple active forms. In the present study we investigated the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Pharmacological protein synthesis inhibition led to increased proteasome function and assembly of 30S/26S proteasome complexes, in human primary embryonic fibroblasts. The enhancement in proteasome function counted for the degradation of ubiquitinated, misfolded and oxidized proteins. Additionally, it was found that heat shock proteins 70 and 90 are probably involved in the elevated proteasome assembly. Our results provide an insight on how the mechanisms of protein synthesis, protein degradation and heat shock protein chaperones machinery interact under various cellular conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Proteasome, Proteasome activation, Protein synthesis inhibition, Hsp70, Hsp90
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79901 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.114 (DOI)000469406800033 ()31029420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064700180 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Funding Program: Thales "GenAge" - European Union  QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 

    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80902 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80903 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-23 13:00 Föreläsningssal 5 (F135), Falun
    Bourbour Hosseinbeigi, Maryam
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digital technologies in preschool education: The interplay between interactive whiteboards and teachers' teaching practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at exploring the ways in which a digital technology, the interactive whiteboard (IWB), interplays with preschool teachers’ teaching practices. In the literature and ongoing debates there are different claims about if and how digital technologies can contribute to children’s development and solving preschool educational challenges. The ways children learn from and by digital technologies have been widely studied, however, there is relatively little research on how digital technologies interplay with teachers’ teaching. Correspondingly, the approach taken here to the ways in which digital technologies contribute to early childhood education is based on preschool teachers’ practices and reasonings.In particular the focus is placed on the following research questions. How do preschool teachers reason about the embedding of IWB into their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers use IWB to structure their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers scaffold children’s learning processes in a context where IWB is used? How do IWBs mediate teaching actions? and What is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions?

    To address these research questions, three sets of empirical data have been collected. These datasets, including interviews with preschool teachers and video observations of their teaching using IWB, were collected in 2012-2013 within the frame of the licentiate thesis and in late 2017 and early 2018 within the framework of the PhD thesis. Analytically, the study is built on a sociocultural perspective that assumes that learning is a constant social process.

    The findings of this study provide empirical knowledge regarding how preschool teachers reason about their use of IWB in teaching. The findings of the study, further, show that preschool teachers use diverse strategies to structure their teaching practice using the opportunities that IWB offers. The teachers’ use of IWBs exemplifies the ways they take into account the available technological features to support children’s learning within their ZPD.

    In its identification of scaffolding actions, this study provides rich details about how preschool teachers use a particular digital technology, IWB, in their teaching to support children’s learning and development. Scaffolding is seen as a collaborative process where preschool teachers’ active participation and emotional support plays an important role in fulfilling the given practices, and leads children’s learning to a higher level. By exploring how teachers’ teaching actions are meditated by the mediational aspects of IWB and what is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions, the current study, moreover, contributes to mapping the desirable or undesirable consequences of using digital technologies in early childhood education. It also exemplifies how the use of IWB interplays with preschoolt eachers’ teaching practices.

    The new dimensions to scaffolding theory constructed in this thesis, further, contribute to expanding of Wood et al. (1976) theory. This can have significance for other studies using digital technologies in educational settings and can contribute to early childhood education, since early interventions, such as the ways preschool teachers support children, are particularly crucial for a child’s learning and their development later on in life.

    List of papers
    1. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Nordic Early Childhood Education Research, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematics education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, 2014
    Keywords
    Mathematics education, interactive whiteboard, young children, Preschool teacher
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80992 (URN)10.7577/nbf.608 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    2015 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 185, no 1, p. 100-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided the primary data sources. The findings suggest that the use of IWB in preschool can be viewed as 'Multisensory resources to engage young children's reasoning', 'Challenging young children to engage in problem-solving activities' and 'Taking the child's interest as a point of departure'. This study also highlights the importance of preschool teachers' pedagogical and technological knowledge that shape and mediate the ways they embed IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2015
    Keywords
    preschool, interactive whiteboard, preschool teacher, mathematics education
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80989 (URN)10.1080/03004430.2014.908865 (DOI)000354280400007 ()2-s2.0-84916936551 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    2020 (English)In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore preschool teachers' actions in order to support children's learning processes in a context where an interactive whiteboard (IWB) is used. Five preschool teachers and 22 children aged 4-6 were video observed in 2017 and early spring 2018 over a period of 5 months. The findings of the study revealed 21 scaffolding actions which preschool teachers used including: Concretizing, Questioning, Instructing, Providing space, Affirming, Providing feedback, Inviting, Watching, Laughing together, Approaching, Standing/sitting beside, Simplifying, Filling in the blanks, Confirming, Participating, Challenging perception, Challenging thought, Explaining facts, Displaying, Explaining solutions, and Referring back. By characterizing teachers' actions in relation to different scaffolding functions, the relationship between action and scaffolding function was particularly clarified. Six of the functions, including recruitment, direction maintenance, marking critical features, reduction in degrees of freedom, frustration control and demonstration were aligned with Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. By identifying two additional functions, i.e., mutual enjoyment and participation in the activity, more importantly the study contributed to the development of Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. It can be said that the findings of the study expanded and deepened our understanding regarding scaffolding processes and the ways they can be implemented in teaching practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2020
    Keywords
    Scaffolding, Preschool teachers' actions, Interactive whiteboard, Scaffolding functions
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80255 (URN)10.1007/s10643-019-00971-3 (DOI)000512062600009 ()2-s2.0-85073984905 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80991 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-28 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Nordström, Martin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Unconventional Monetary Policy at the International, National and Local Level2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-15 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Cervical screening with primary HPV - from research to clinical effectiveness2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-28 13:15 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Örebro
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Stress susceptibility, beta-blocker use and cancer survival2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Lange, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Raoof, Mustafa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Long term effects of gastric bypass on quality of life and bone mineral density2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Sandström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Seeking Asylum - Finding a Home?: A qualitative study on asylum seekers' integration in two different housing contexts2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-04 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Allbrand, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in placenta in relation to maternal obesity and fetal and postnatal growth2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-04 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Saeidzadeh, Zara
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Trans and Sex Change in Contemporary Iran: A Socio-Legal Study of Gendered Policies and Practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 09:00 Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, Hörsal P1, Örebro
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:15 Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L2, Örebro
    Thunberg, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Victimization, Positioning, and Support - Young Victims' Experiences of Crime2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Djekic, Demir
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-08-28 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Human papillomavirus and cellular biomarkers in cervical cancer2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)