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  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 13:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F1, Örebro
    Lakew, Yuliya
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Matters of Public Connection: The role of mediated and interpersonal communication in young people's environmental engagement2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What lies at the heart of environmental identity is the recognition of our interconnection with other people, living and not yet born, as well as nonhumans. To develop this sense of belonging, one needs to sustain public connection—a basic orientation to the public world where matters of shared concern are addressed. This connection is best sustained through communication— interpersonal and through media. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the role that public connection, interpersonal and mediated, plays in young people’s everyday environmental engagement. This dissertation addresses the task by focusing on how this role varies among adolescents of different ages, genders, and existing environmental attitudes and how it changes over time. Drawing on Bruno Latour’s notion of “matters of concern” and Steven Vogel’s environmental philosophy, this inquiry challenges the common understanding of environmental awareness as an “extremely scientific view of the world,” expands the role of the media and interpersonal communication beyond the dissemination of scientific and ecological information and its effects on people, and taps into communication’s potential to sustain public connection. To provide a more integrated and dynamic perspective on adolescents’ communication flows, I employ longitudinal quantitative data and draw heavily on a toolbox of person-oriented methods. Methodologically, the main focus lies in identifying types of young people who function in a similar way and comparing how the relationship between public connection and environmental engagement unfolds for these different types of individuals. This dissertation consists of three empirical studies. The findings suggest that the more strongly connected to the public world young people are, the more engaged they are with environmental issues. Both interpersonal discussions and news media use assist in strengthening engaged adolescents’ belief that their contribution matters for tackling climate change. However, environmentally aware youth may project their own beliefs onto other people rather than being influenced by others’ beliefs. Disengaged youth do not sustain public connection, whether through conversation or through media. The role of mediated public connection varies among adolescents. Media may not be the most important channel for environmentally engaged youth to sustain their orientation to the public realm. This is indicated by the deep gender divide, in which girls are more concerned about the environment but consume significantly less news than boys. While news consumption does not seem to contribute to environmental disengagement, its relevance to pro-environmental practices weakens as teenagers mature. Early adolescence may be a critical window of opportunity to instill values of connectivity and form everyday habits that can help us achieve a more sustainable future.

    List of papers
    1. The Elusiveness of Communicative Influence: How the Key Socializers Influence Adolescents’ Environmental Engagement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Elusiveness of Communicative Influence: How the Key Socializers Influence Adolescents’ Environmental Engagement
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78906 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Young, sceptical, and environmentally (dis)engaged: do news habits make a difference?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young, sceptical, and environmentally (dis)engaged: do news habits make a difference?
    2019 (English)In: JCOM - Journal of Science Communication, ISSN 1824-2049, E-ISSN 1824-2049, Vol. 18, no 4, article id A06Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that news consumption plays a positive role in youths' environmental engagement. This article examines if this also holds true for sceptics by comparing Swedish climate change sceptics with non-sceptical youngsters in their early and late adolescence. We conceptualise news consumption as foci of public connection and orientation rather than a source of environmental information. The results show that in their early teens, heavy news consumers among both sceptics and non-sceptics are indeed more engaged with environmental issues than their less news-oriented peers. However, in late adolescence, sceptics among news consumers show very little environmental engagement.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sissa Medialab srl, 2019
    Keywords
    Environmental communication, Science and media
    National Category
    Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76450 (URN)10.22323/2.18040206 (DOI)000482887300006 ()
    Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
    3. The gendered nature of adolescents’ environmental engagement: the role of interpersonal and mediated communication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The gendered nature of adolescents’ environmental engagement: the role of interpersonal and mediated communication
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78907 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Statistical Tales: Bringing in Reflexivity to Make Sense of Quantitative Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical Tales: Bringing in Reflexivity to Make Sense of Quantitative Data
    2017 (English)In: Present Scenarios of Media Production and Engagement / [ed] S. Tosoni, N. Carpentier, M. F. Murru, R. Kilborn, L. Kramp, R. Kunelius, A. McNicholas, T. Olsson, & P. Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, Bremen: edition lumière , 2017, p. 225-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexivity has long become part of qualitative researcher’s arsenal for validity and credibility claims. However, very few quantitative researchers take the time to look back at their research process and ponder over the cost of deriving knowledge from statistical models – what has been omitted, polished, ignored or not taken into account. In this chapter I will try to bring reflexivity into my own quantitative research of young people’s environmental behavior by reflecting over what knowledge I have produced so far and why. Having worked with five waves of longitudinal data for two different age cohorts, I lived through several ‘existential’ crises failing to comprehend the stories that the data was telling me and failing to ‘impose’ my theoretical stories on it. It has challenged me to unravel conventions and granted assumptions of media studies as a discipline, reflect upon data’s temporal and spatial components, the subjective position of the researcher, the limits and the meaningfulness of generalizations, and the role of interpretations in statistical analysis. My personal research journey serves as a helpful background for a discussion of difficulties working with longitudinal quantitative data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bremen: edition lumière, 2017
    Series
    Researching and Teaching Communication Book Series, ISSN 1736-3918, E-ISSN 1736-4752 ; 12
    Keywords
    Reflexivity, Quantitative Methods, Statistics, Positivism
    National Category
    Media Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78905 (URN)978-3-943245-72-1 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-02-13 13:15 Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Gidehag, Anton Nyrenström
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Understanding Firm Behavior: The Role of Recruitments and Institutional Reforms2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is firm behavior and how it is shaped by institutional changes and firms’ recruitment decisions.

    The first essay studies how the recruitment decisions made by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) affect their subsequent productivity development. Previous studies have shown that being able to recruit employees with complementary skills is associated with skill improvement among incumbent personnel, suggesting that new recruits promote productivity through knowledge spillovers. Using matched employer-employee data, we find that recruiting personnel from large multinational firms can be instrumental for the performance of SMEs.

    In the second essay, we evaluate the labor market effects of the 2007 Swedish youth payroll reform. This reform generated considerable labor cost savings for firms, related to their pre-reform number of young employees. We study the effects of these savings on firms’ subsequent employment growth and wage development. Our findings suggest that a total of 18,100 jobs were created over the period 2006-2008 and that the savings were partially used to increase the total wages for incumbent employees.

    The third essay utilizes the 2007 Swedish youth payroll reform to analyze whether general labor cost reductions enhance labor market opportunities for non-western immigrants. In contrast to targeted and time-limited wage subsidies for immigrants, which have frequently been used in the past, these savings were not tied to a specific group or to a certain time period. A strong and positive link between the amount of firms’ labor cost savings and the employment of first-generation non-western immigrants is found.

    The fourth essay evaluates the efficiency of a staff register reform introduced within the Swedish restaurant and hairdresser industries in 2007. The aim of this reform was to prevent firms from deliberately understating their wage payments and, thereby, evading taxes. We estimate the effect of the staff register reform on wages per employee and find wage increases of 2.17-10.2 percent per incumbent employee at restaurant firms during the four years following the introduction of the reform. Through a revenue-cost comparison, we compare the estimated gain in tax revenues to the total costs borne by firms and the tax authority. Our findings imply that the total costs exceed the tax revenues, suggesting that this reform is unlikely to be economically justified.

    List of papers
    1. Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-Level Evidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-Level Evidence
    2017 (English)In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 151-174, article id 1554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited professionals have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. For newly recruited managers there is no general link to the productivity of the hiring SME. We also find that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of key personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Senate Hall Ltd, 2017
    Keywords
    recruitment, knowledge spillovers, firm growth, productivity, SME
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59316 (URN)000406063300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis  

    Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Research Foundation  

    Available from: 2017-08-24 Created: 2017-08-24 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms respond to reduced labor costs? Evidence from the 2007 Swedish payroll tax reform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms respond to reduced labor costs? Evidence from the 2007 Swedish payroll tax reform
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79273 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Firms’ labor cost savings and recruitment of non-western immigrants: The unintended effect of a payroll tax reform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firms’ labor cost savings and recruitment of non-western immigrants: The unintended effect of a payroll tax reform
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79274 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Compulsory staff registers as a way of increasing firms’ wage reporting: A revenue-cost analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compulsory staff registers as a way of increasing firms’ wage reporting: A revenue-cost analysis
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79275 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-02-14 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Joelson, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    High-grade spondylolisthesis in young patients: Long-term results of in situ fusion2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this long-term follow-up of 38 of 40 consecutive patients was to evaluate the results of uninstrumented in situ fusion for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis three decades after surgery. The mean age at surgery was 14 (range 9-24) years. The first of four studies evaluated clinical outcome, function, work status, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after in situ fusion in relation to age-matched Swedish population data. The second study evaluated effects on sagittal balance after in situ fusion. The third study evaluated adjacent segment disk degeneration after in situ fusion. The fourth study evaluated self-imageand HRQoL after in situ fusion in relation to healthy controls.

    The main findings were that (1) young patients fused in situ for highgrade isthmic spondylolisthesis have long-term HRQoL similar to the general Swedish population and controls matched for age and gender, (2) signs of non-compensated sagittal imbalance were observed only ina few individuals whereas compensated sagittal balance was the norm, (3) there was no correlation between any radiographic sagittal balance parameter and HRQoL outcome, (4) there was only a minor reduction inadjacent segment disk height which had no impact on HRQoL outcome, and (5) the only patient reported outcome measure indicating a detrimental effect at long-term follow-up was self-assessed trunk appearance which was slightly negatively affected.

    List of papers
    1. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume, ISSN 0021-9355, E-ISSN 1535-1386, Vol. 96, no 12, article id e100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    METHODS: Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years.

    RESULTS: The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stanford University Press, 2014
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71914 (URN)10.2106/JBJS.M.00064 (DOI)000343798400003 ()24951743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84903448099 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Sagittal Balance and Health-Related Quality of Life Three Decades After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sagittal Balance and Health-Related Quality of Life Three Decades After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume, ISSN 0021-9355, E-ISSN 1535-1386, Vol. 100, no 16, p. 1357-1365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This case series of consecutive patients evaluated sagittal balance and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 decades after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    METHODS: Global sagittal balance, pelvic parameters, and compensatory mechanisms were evaluated on standing lateral radiographs of the spine and pelvis for 28 of 39 consecutive patients, 28 to 41 years after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade L5 to S1 spondylolisthesis. The mean age at surgery was 14 years (range, 9 to 24 years), and the mean age at the time of follow-up was 48 years (range, 39 to 59 years). A subset of the radiographic parameters was compared with the corresponding data from an 8-year follow-up examination of the same patients. HRQoL was evaluated with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22r questionnaire.

    RESULTS: We found that 3 of the 28 patients had a global sagittal imbalance (T1 spinopelvic inclination of >0°). Signs of compensatory mechanisms, such as reduced thoracic kyphosis and pelvic retroversion, were frequent. There was a significant decrease in sacral slope compared with 8-year follow-up data (p = 0.01). The median SRS-22r subscore was on the same level as Swedish normative data. We found no association between radiographic parameters and SRS-22r outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Three decades after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade spondylolisthesis, radiographic signs of noncompensated sagittal imbalance were observed in only a few individuals. The patients had normal SRS-22r scores. There was no association between any radiographic parameter and SRS-22r outcome. The findings are relevant in the controversial discussion on whether to perform a reduction procedure to treat high-grade spondylolisthesis.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stanford University Press, 2018
    National Category
    Orthopaedics Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68504 (URN)10.2106/JBJS.17.01415 (DOI)000441556200006 ()30106816 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056496721 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Adjacent Segment Disk Degeneration Three Decades After Fusion Without Attempted Reduction for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adjacent Segment Disk Degeneration Three Decades After Fusion Without Attempted Reduction for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79184 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Self-Image and Health-Related Quality of Life Three Decades After Fusion In Situ for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Image and Health-Related Quality of Life Three Decades After Fusion In Situ for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
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    2019 (English)In: Spine deformity, ISSN 2212-134X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 293-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Observational study.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-image after in situ fusion for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Certain clinical findings such as short trunk or waistline skin folds are often seen in high-grade spondylolisthesis. Since treatment with spinal fusion in situ does not address appearance, self-image and also health-related quality of life might be negatively affected in the short-term as well as the long-term perspective. This observational study evaluated health-related quality of life outcome including self-image three decades after in situ fusion for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in relation to healthy controls.

    METHODS: Thirty-eight of 39 consecutive patients, fused in situ for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a young age, completed the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22r questionnaire 28-41 years after surgery. The results were compared with the results of an age- and gender-matched control group.

    RESULTS: We found that the SRS-22r self-image domain scores were statistically significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas the pain and mental health scores were similar in patients and controls. Also, the SRS-22r function domain scores were statistically significantly lower in patients but the difference in means was small. We found no correlation between severity of slip and SRS-22r outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: In situ fusion for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis is a safe treatment option in the long term from a function and pain perspective, but the results of our study suggest that self-image is negatively affected long into adult life.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Fusion in situ, Health-related quality of life, SRS-22r, Self-image, Spondylolisthesis
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71913 (URN)10.1016/j.jspd.2018.08.012 (DOI)30660224 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054010418 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-02-28 10:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Örebro
    Ehn, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Life Strategies, Work and Health in People with Usher syndrome2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Gadan, Soran
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Long term aspects of defunctioning stoma following low anterior resection for rectal cancer2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-03-20 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Fagerström, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Long-term molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in a low-endemic setting2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-03-27 13:15 Örebro universitet, Hörsal M, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Lundh, Simon
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Application of Principles-based Accounting Standards: the case of internally generated intangibles2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Sandström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Seeking Asylum - Finding a Home?: A qualitative study on asylum seekers' integration in two different housing contexts2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)