Data from rating scale assessments have rank-invariant properties only, which means that the data represent an ordering, but lack of standardized magnitude, inter-categorical distances, and linearity. Even though the judgments often are coded by natural numbers they are not really metric. The aim of this thesis is to further develop the nonparametric rank-based Svensson methods for paired ordinal data that are based on the rank-invariant properties only.
The thesis consists of five papers. In Paper I the asymptotic properties of the measure of systematic disagreement in paired ordinal data, the Relative Position (RP), and the difference in RP between groups were studied. Based on the findings of asymptotic normality, two tests for analyses of change within group and between groups were proposed. In Paper II the asymptotic properties of rank-based measures, e.g. the Svensson’s measures of systematic disagreement and of additional individual variability were discussed, and a numerical method for approximation was suggested. In Paper III the asymptotic properties of the measures for paired ordinal data, discussed in Paper II, were verified by simulations. Furthermore, the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (rs) and the Svensson’s augmented rank-order agreement coefficient (ra) were compared. By demonstrating how they differ and why they differ, it is emphasized that they measure different things. In Paper IV the proposed test in Paper I for comparing two groups of systematic changes in paired ordinal data was compared with other nonparametric tests for group changes, both regarding different approaches of categorising changes. The simulation reveals that the proposed test works better for small and unbalanced samples. Paper V demonstrates that rank invariant approaches can also be used in analysis of ordinal data from multi-item scales, which is an appealing and appropriate alternative to calculating sum scores.