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  • Public defence: 2020-04-23 13:00 Föreläsningssal 5 (F135), Falun
    Bourbour Hosseinbeigi, Maryam
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digital technologies in preschool education: The interplay between interactive whiteboards and teachers' teaching practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at exploring the ways in which a digital technology, the interactive whiteboard (IWB), interplays with preschool teachers’ teaching practices. In the literature and ongoing debates there are different claims about if and how digital technologies can contribute to children’s development and solving preschool educational challenges. The ways children learn from and by digital technologies have been widely studied, however, there is relatively little research on how digital technologies interplay with teachers’ teaching. Correspondingly, the approach taken here to the ways in which digital technologies contribute to early childhood education is based on preschool teachers’ practices and reasonings.In particular the focus is placed on the following research questions. How do preschool teachers reason about the embedding of IWB into their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers use IWB to structure their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers scaffold children’s learning processes in a context where IWB is used? How do IWBs mediate teaching actions? and What is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions?

    To address these research questions, three sets of empirical data have been collected. These datasets, including interviews with preschool teachers and video observations of their teaching using IWB, were collected in 2012-2013 within the frame of the licentiate thesis and in late 2017 and early 2018 within the framework of the PhD thesis. Analytically, the study is built on a sociocultural perspective that assumes that learning is a constant social process.

    The findings of this study provide empirical knowledge regarding how preschool teachers reason about their use of IWB in teaching. The findings of the study, further, show that preschool teachers use diverse strategies to structure their teaching practice using the opportunities that IWB offers. The teachers’ use of IWBs exemplifies the ways they take into account the available technological features to support children’s learning within their ZPD.

    In its identification of scaffolding actions, this study provides rich details about how preschool teachers use a particular digital technology, IWB, in their teaching to support children’s learning and development. Scaffolding is seen as a collaborative process where preschool teachers’ active participation and emotional support plays an important role in fulfilling the given practices, and leads children’s learning to a higher level. By exploring how teachers’ teaching actions are meditated by the mediational aspects of IWB and what is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions, the current study, moreover, contributes to mapping the desirable or undesirable consequences of using digital technologies in early childhood education. It also exemplifies how the use of IWB interplays with preschoolt eachers’ teaching practices.

    The new dimensions to scaffolding theory constructed in this thesis, further, contribute to expanding of Wood et al. (1976) theory. This can have significance for other studies using digital technologies in educational settings and can contribute to early childhood education, since early interventions, such as the ways preschool teachers support children, are particularly crucial for a child’s learning and their development later on in life.

    List of papers
    1. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Nordic Early Childhood Education Research, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematics education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, 2014
    Keywords
    Mathematics education, interactive whiteboard, young children, Preschool teacher
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80992 (URN)10.7577/nbf.608 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    2015 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 185, no 1, p. 100-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided the primary data sources. The findings suggest that the use of IWB in preschool can be viewed as 'Multisensory resources to engage young children's reasoning', 'Challenging young children to engage in problem-solving activities' and 'Taking the child's interest as a point of departure'. This study also highlights the importance of preschool teachers' pedagogical and technological knowledge that shape and mediate the ways they embed IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2015
    Keywords
    preschool, interactive whiteboard, preschool teacher, mathematics education
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80989 (URN)10.1080/03004430.2014.908865 (DOI)000354280400007 ()2-s2.0-84916936551 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    2020 (English)In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore preschool teachers' actions in order to support children's learning processes in a context where an interactive whiteboard (IWB) is used. Five preschool teachers and 22 children aged 4-6 were video observed in 2017 and early spring 2018 over a period of 5 months. The findings of the study revealed 21 scaffolding actions which preschool teachers used including: Concretizing, Questioning, Instructing, Providing space, Affirming, Providing feedback, Inviting, Watching, Laughing together, Approaching, Standing/sitting beside, Simplifying, Filling in the blanks, Confirming, Participating, Challenging perception, Challenging thought, Explaining facts, Displaying, Explaining solutions, and Referring back. By characterizing teachers' actions in relation to different scaffolding functions, the relationship between action and scaffolding function was particularly clarified. Six of the functions, including recruitment, direction maintenance, marking critical features, reduction in degrees of freedom, frustration control and demonstration were aligned with Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. By identifying two additional functions, i.e., mutual enjoyment and participation in the activity, more importantly the study contributed to the development of Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. It can be said that the findings of the study expanded and deepened our understanding regarding scaffolding processes and the ways they can be implemented in teaching practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2020
    Keywords
    Scaffolding, Preschool teachers' actions, Interactive whiteboard, Scaffolding functions
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80255 (URN)10.1007/s10643-019-00971-3 (DOI)000512062600009 ()2-s2.0-85073984905 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80991 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-23 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Sakellari, Marianthi
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Functional analysis of the proteasome in eukaryotic organisms2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteasome degradation machinery is responsible for the turnover of a huge variety of normal and abnormal proteins, thus regulating a plethora of cellular processes. Aging is an inevitable biological process that is characterized by reduced proteasome function that leads to proteotoxic stress. Compound-related interventions, that ameliorate proteasome system collapse, retard aging process. In the present thesis, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), a natural compound with known proteasome activating properties in cells, was indicated to activate proteasome also in the multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Evaluation of the antiaging and protein anti-aggregation effects of this bioactive compound indicated that 18α-GA promoted longevity in nematodes through proteasome-and SKN-1-mediated activation and decelerated Alzheimer’sdisease progression and neuropathology both in nematodes and neuronal cells. Additionally, the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation was analyzed in eukaryotic organisms under various cellular conditions. Protein synthesis inhibition was observed to increase proteasome function and assembly in human primary embryonic fibroblasts, with heat shock protein chaperone machinery to contribute to the elevated proteasome assembly. Alternatively, protein synthesis inhibition increased the protein levels of specific proteasome subunits without influencing the proteasome activity in C. elegans. Furthermore, proteasome activation by means which have also pro-longevity effects decreased the protein synthesis rate both in human fibroblast cellsand nematodes. This thesis suggests: 1) that a diet-derived compound could act as a pro-longevity and anti-aggregation agent in the context of amulticellular organism and 2) the existence of a complex interplay between anabolic and catabolic processes under different cellular conditions, across species.

    List of papers
    1. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 855-869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.

    Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment.

    Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2016
    Keywords
    Proteasome activation, lifespan extension, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, aggregation, proteostasis
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49639 (URN)10.1089/ars.2015.6494 (DOI)000388262600001 ()26886723 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    U.S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources

    Thales GenAge QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    MAESTRO by the European Union (European Social Fund)

    Operational Program, Education and Lifelong Learning, of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)

    European Union 266486

    IKYDA fellowship

    Empirikion Foundation Scientific Project

    John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation

    Academy of Finland 259797

    COST Actions PROTEOS-TASIS BM1307

    GENiE BM1408

    COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

    Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    2019 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 514, no 1, p. 224-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Protein synthesis and degradation balance have a crucial role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis and function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the major cellular proteolytic machineries responsible for the removal of normal, abnormal, denatured or in general damaged proteins. Proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme that consists of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complexes giving rise to multiple active forms. In the present study we investigated the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Pharmacological protein synthesis inhibition led to increased proteasome function and assembly of 30S/26S proteasome complexes, in human primary embryonic fibroblasts. The enhancement in proteasome function counted for the degradation of ubiquitinated, misfolded and oxidized proteins. Additionally, it was found that heat shock proteins 70 and 90 are probably involved in the elevated proteasome assembly. Our results provide an insight on how the mechanisms of protein synthesis, protein degradation and heat shock protein chaperones machinery interact under various cellular conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Proteasome, Proteasome activation, Protein synthesis inhibition, Hsp70, Hsp90
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79901 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.114 (DOI)000469406800033 ()31029420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064700180 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Funding Program: Thales "GenAge" - European Union  QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 

    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80902 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80903 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-28 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Nordström, Martin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Unconventional Monetary Policy at the International, National and Local Level2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on four essays. The first investigates time-variation in the relationship between short interest rates and consumption in the USA and Sweden. Results based on Bayesian VAR models indicate that the short rate ceased to respond to consumption shocks when constrained by the zero lower bound. Analysis using shadow rates indicate that the Federal Reserve was able to conduct effective monetary policy through unconventional instruments, but that the Riksbank was not.

    The second essay investigates the relation between municipal and government bond yields during the time when the Riksbank conducted quantitative easing in terms of government bond purchases. According to the results the spread between municipal and government bonds increased on days when the Riksbank announced bond purchases. However, further analysis using VAR models suggests that this was reversed in the medium run and the spread decreased – at least temporarily.

    The third essay studies the risks associated with municipal bonds. Due to previous bailouts it is not clear whether municipal debt has an implicit government guarantee. If there is a government guarantee municipal bonds should not be associated with credit risk, at least not in excess of government bonds. Analysis of the spread between government and municipal bonds, using a VAR model and looking at the variance decomposition and impulse-response functions, establishes that municipal bond yields are associated with credit risk.

    The final essay studies the forecasting accuracy of the policy rate path published by the Riksbank. For the period 2010 to 2014, the forecasting accuracy of the policy rate path was significantly worse than that of a forecast implicit in market prices. The poor forecasting accuracy during this period is attributed to that the Riksbank during this period had incentive to present a higher than expected policy rate path. This because it had reason to want long run interest rates to be high in order to discourage high debt levels due to high housing prices.

    List of papers
    1. Consumption and the interest rate – A changing dynamic?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumption and the interest rate – A changing dynamic?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81037 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    2. The Relation between Municipal and Government Bond Yields in an Era of Unconventional Monetary Policy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relation between Municipal and Government Bond Yields in an Era of Unconventional Monetary Policy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72417 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    3. A Guarantee – Does the Obligee Agree?: A Risk Premium Decomposition of Sub-Sovereign Bond Spreads
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Guarantee – Does the Obligee Agree?: A Risk Premium Decomposition of Sub-Sovereign Bond Spreads
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72416 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    4. A Forecast Evaluation of the Riksbank’s Policy-Rate Projections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Forecast Evaluation of the Riksbank’s Policy-Rate Projections
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81036 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-05-15 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Cervical screening with primary HPV - from research to clinical effectiveness2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-28 13:15 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Örebro
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Stress susceptibility, beta-blocker use and cancer survival2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Lange, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Örebro
    Raoof, Mustafa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Long term effects of gastric bypass on quality of life and bone mineral density2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-05-29 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Sandström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Seeking Asylum - Finding a Home?: A qualitative study on asylum seekers' integration in two different housing contexts2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-04 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Allbrand, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in placenta in relation to maternal obesity and fetal and postnatal growth2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-04 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Saeidzadeh, Zara
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Trans and Sex Change in Contemporary Iran: A Socio-Legal Study of Gendered Policies and Practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 09:00 Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, Hörsal P1, Örebro
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:15 Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L2, Örebro
    Thunberg, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Victimization, Positioning, and Support - Young Victims' Experiences of Crime2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Djekic, Demir
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2020-08-28 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Human papillomavirus and cellular biomarkers in cervical cancer2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)