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  • Disputas: 2020-06-04 13:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Saeidzadeh, Zara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Trans and Sex Change in Contemporary Iran: A Socio-Legal Study of Gendered Policies and Practices2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a result of a qualitative study that investigates the socio-legal status of trans persons who undergo sex-change surgery in contemporary Iran. It examines how social practices of gender shape the lives of trans men and trans women in Iranian society. Further, it explores the ‘legality’ and ‘illegality’ of sex change under shi’a Islamic jurisprudence and examines how the interplay between the medical and the judicial systems affects the social and legal status of trans people in Iran.

    The thesis uses two sets of materials: interviews and documents. Fortytwo interviews with 39 people were conducted, including trans people, trans activists, lawyers, medical professionals and a jurist in Iran. The majority of the interviews were carried out face-to-face in Iran during two fieldtrips in 2014 and 2015. A set of ten telephone interviews were also completed with trans people living in Iran in 2017. Using the concept of (mis)recognition developed by Nancy Fraser, the thesis argues that the lack of legal legislation, along with the plurality of Islamic legal opinions (fatwas) on sex change and the status of trans people, have resulted in arbitrary decision-making by medical and legal professionals (e.g. surgeons and judges). It further shows that while the dominant view on medicalisation of trans people misrecognises their status within lawand society, it nevertheless helps them to negotiate a liveable life. Drawing on the work of Raewyn Connell, the thesis explains how trans people’s process of social embodiment involves individual, medical and legal transition in which the surgery is only a part.

    The thesis shows how trans activism in Iran is shaped around the discourse of needs rather than that of human rights. Furthermore, the thesis problematises the strong influence of homonormativity and some Second Wave feminist thinking among Iranian feminists who consider sex-change surgery a patriarchal force.

    Delarbeid
    1. Transsexuality in Contemporary Iran: Legal and Social Misrecognition
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Transsexuality in Contemporary Iran: Legal and Social Misrecognition
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Feminist Legal Studies, ISSN 0966-3622, E-ISSN 1572-8455, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 249-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex change surgery has been practised in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa in 1982. Therefore, a medical and judicial process of transition has been regulated accordingly. However, this has not resulted in either the legalization of sex change surgery, nor in the recognition of transsexual identity within Iranian substantive law. Sex change surgery is allowed through Islamic law, rather than substantive law, in response to the existing social facts and norms, on the one hand, and structural cooperation with medical system, on the other. In this article, I argue that the Iranian heteronormative law’s understanding of transsexuality has amounted to the misrecognition of trans persons’ status within law and society. Using semi structured interviews, intersectional content analysis, and feminist methodologies, the findings indicate that transsexual bodies have gained meaning through religious and medical discourses within a framework of power relations, and that Iranian transsexual persons have reconstructed and redefined gender and gender relations in a way that informs their understanding of gender and sexuality beyond the existing Islamic legal and social norms. Moreover, intersectional analysis of the interviews demonstrates how the legal misrecognition of transsexuality creates space for a discourse which in itself leads to the misrecognition of other gendered identities, such as homosexuals and transwomen.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2016
    Emneord
    Fatwa; Iranian law; Misrecognition; Sex change surgery; Society; Transsexuality; Trans
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Genusvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53408 (URN)10.1007/s10691-016-9332-x (DOI)000391457600002 ()2-s2.0-84992740778 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Transsexuality in Iran: Socio-legal studies of policies and practices
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies:

    Lund University

    Gender Studies Department in Örebro University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-11-04 Laget: 2016-11-04 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Understanding Socio-Legal Complexities of Sex Change in Postrevolutionary Iran
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Understanding Socio-Legal Complexities of Sex Change in Postrevolutionary Iran
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Transgender Studies Quarterly, ISSN 2328-9252, E-ISSN 2328-9260, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 80-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex-changesurgeryhasbeenpracticedthroughamedico-judicialprocessinIranbasedon Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic juristic legal opinion (fatwa), which he issued just a few years after the Islamic revolution, in 1982. According to the Iranian legal system, judges can refer to the fatwas as a source of decision making if there are no stipulations on the matter within existing legal codes. In this article, I elucidate the divergent legal opinions on sex change among Islamic jurists in Iran and how this has amounted to different legal practices by judges in the country. The lack of law has generated difficult—and in some places impossible—conditions for trans persons to undergo sex- change surgery. According to Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa, and by drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted in Iran, I argue that sex-change surgery is not obligatory, opposing those who believe homosexuals in Iran are forced to undergo it. Trans people who decide to do so see it as a way to complete the transition, which indicates the importance of body materiality. Using the information gathered during interviews with trans persons in Iran, I examine bodily experiences during the process of transition, in which I have identified three phases: self-recognition, passing, and rebirth. These analyses show that transition does not happen at once or suddenly, it rather takes a long time and may continue after sex-change surgery, which is only one part of it.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Durham, USA: Duke University Press, 2019
    Emneord
    sharia, Iranian law, trans, sex-change surgery, process of transition, social embodiment
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Genusvetenskap; Kirurgi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72035 (URN)10.1215/23289252-7253510 (DOI)000456691300006 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-03 Laget: 2019-02-03 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. "Are trans men the manliest of men?": Gender practices, trans masculinity and mardanegi in contemporary Iran
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>"Are trans men the manliest of men?": Gender practices, trans masculinity and mardanegi in contemporary Iran
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 295-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I examine how trans men who undergo or plan to undergo medical transition construe their masculinity or mardanegi (I follow IJMES's transliteration guide - Persian to English) in Persian language, through certain gender practices that manifest their manhood as manly, real and psychologically well. I argue that trans men in Iran practice masculinity in ways that is not only in strong entanglement with women but also is distanced from non-trans heterosexual men, trans women and gay men. Drawing on 14 semi-structured interviews with trans men in Iran as part of a bigger project on sex change in contemporary Iran, I explain that trans men's masculinity in Iran is a localized, traditional-modern kind of trans masculinity that distinguishes itself from other gender groups due to trans men's specificity of gender location.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2020
    Emneord
    Trans men, Iran, Surgery, Sex change, Gender practices, Masculinities
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75400 (URN)10.1080/09589236.2019.1635439 (DOI)000475001100001 ()2-s2.0-85068734482 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-07-30 Laget: 2019-07-30 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. “Are trans women fake women?” Gender Embodiment and Trans Femininity in Contemporary Iran
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>“Are trans women fake women?” Gender Embodiment and Trans Femininity in Contemporary Iran
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81527 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-05 Laget: 2020-05-05 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-05bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-08 10:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Wastewater-Associated Aquatic Environments2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes (carbapenemases) in Enterobacteriaceae has led to limited therapeutic options. The increased resistance to these “last-resort” antibiotics is fueled by overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human medicine and agriculture. According to the One-Health concept, the microbiomes of humans, animals and natural environments are interconnected reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and changes in one compartment will affect the other compartments. Thus, the environmental waters exposed to the pathogens, ARGs and other contaminants of human origin can play a significant role in the spread of resistance. The study aimed to characterize carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and ARGs in wastewaters and associated river and lake waters in Örebro, Sweden. The study also analyzed de novo development of resistance in Klebsiella oxytoca during long-term growth in river water and the effect of temperature on the emergence of resistance. OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli (ST131) and VIM-1-producing K.oxytoca (ST172) were repeatedly detected in the wastewaters and associated river, suggesting that these isolates were persistently present in these environments. Furthermore, K. oxytoca ST172 isolated from the river was genetically similar to two isolates previously recovered from patients in a local hospital, which shows the possibility of transmission of CPE from hospital to aquatic environments. A high diversity of ARGs was detected in these environments especially in hospital wastewater where ten different carbapenemase genes were detected. These results emphasized that the effective treatment of wastewaters must be ensured to reduce or eliminate the spread of antibiotic resistance. Increased resistance to meropenem (up to 8-fold) and ceftazidime (>10-fold) was observed in K. oxytoca after exposure to both river and tap water after 600 generations and resistance emerged earlier when the bacteria was grown at the higher temperature. The exposure to contaminants and increased environmental temperature may induce similar changes in the environmental microbiome, generating novel resistant variants at accelerated rates that may pose a significant threat to human health.

    Delarbeid
    1. Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST38 and Klebsiella oxytoca ST172 are persistent in Swedish wastewaters and associated river
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST38 and Klebsiella oxytoca ST172 are persistent in Swedish wastewaters and associated river
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81831 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-13 Laget: 2020-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 37, nr 12, s. 2241-2251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenem antibiotics are one of the last-resort agents against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in wastewater and aquatic environments is an indication of MDR bacteria in the community. This study evaluated CPE in aquatic environments and compared them to the local hospital isolates in Sweden. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of antibiotic resistance of environmental and clinical CPE were performed. The relatedness of the isolates and possible clonal dissemination was evaluated using phylogenetic and phyloproteomic analysis. Klebsiella oxytoca carrying carbapenemase genes (blaVIM-1, blaIMP-29) were isolated from wastewater and the recipient river, while K. oxytoca (blaVIM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaVIM-1, blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-3) were isolated from patients at the local clinics or hospital. The K. oxytoca classified as sequence type 172 (ST172) isolated from the river was genotypically related to two clinical isolates recovered from patients. The similarity between environmental and clinical isolates suggests the dispersion of blaVIM-1 producing K. oxytoca ST172 from hospital to aquatic environment and the likelihood of its presence in the community. This is the first report of CPE in aquatic environments in Sweden; therefore, surveillance of aquatic and hospital environments for CPE in other urban areas is important to determine the major transfer routes in order to formulate strategies to prevent the spread of MDR bacteria.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2018
    Emneord
    Antimicrobial resistance, Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Extended spectrum beta-lactamase, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Multidrug resistance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68676 (URN)10.1007/s10096-018-3365-9 (DOI)000449921100003 ()30171482 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053311566 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Nyckelfonden at Orebro University Hospital 

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-03 Laget: 2018-09-03 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Aquatic Environments Using Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Aquatic Environments Using Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81832 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-13 Laget: 2020-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-lactose fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic misuse has fueled the worldwide spread of resistant bacteria and the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (ARGs). There is evidence that ARGs are ubiquitous in non-clinical environments, especially those affected by anthropogenic activity. However, the emergence and primary sources of ARGs in the environment of countries with strict regulations for antibiotics usage are not fully explored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the repertoire of ARGs of culturable Gram-negative bacteria from directionally connected sites from the hospital to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and downstream aquatic environments in central Sweden. The ARGs were detected from genomic DNA isolated from a population of selectively cultured coliform and Gram-negative bacteria using qPCR. The results show that hospital wastewater was a reservoir of several class B beta-lactamase genes such as bla(IMP)(-1), bla(IMP)(-2), and bla(OXA-23), however, most of these genes were not observed in downstream locations. Moreover, beta-lactamase genes such as bla(OXA-48), bla(CDX-M-8), and bla(SFC-1), bla(VIM-1), and bla(VIM-13) were detected in downstream river water but not in the WWTP. The results indicate that the WWTP and hospital wastewaters were reservoirs of most ARGs and contribute to the diversity of ARGs in associated natural environments. However, this study suggests that other factors may also have minor contributions to the prevalence and diversity of ARGs in natural environments.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
    Emneord
    carbapenemase, urban wastewater, surface water, enterobacteriaceae, VIM-1, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance gene co-occurrence
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73758 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2019.00688 (DOI)000463403600001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837Knowledge Foundation, 20150084
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies:

    Nyckelfonden at Örebro University Hospital  

    Örebro University 

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-16 Laget: 2019-04-16 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Environmental Conditions Promote Genetic Changes and Increase Resistance to β-lactam Antibiotics in Klebsiella oxytoca
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Environmental Conditions Promote Genetic Changes and Increase Resistance to β-lactam Antibiotics in Klebsiella oxytoca
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81833 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-13 Laget: 2020-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Wastewater-Associated Aquatic Environments
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-11 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Zhang, Xueli
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer: a study from databases, machine learning predictions to laboratory confirmations2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis and better therapy response have been believed to be associated with better prognosis. CRC biomarkers are considered as precise indicators for the early diagnosis and better therapy response. It is, therefore, of importance to find out, analyze and evaluate the CRC biomarkers to further provide the more precis evidence for predicting novel potential biomarkers and eventually to improve early diagnosis, personalized therapy and prognosis for CRC.

    In this study, we started with creating and establishing a CRC biomarker database. (CBD: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/index.html) In the CBD database, there were 870 reported CRC biomarkers collected from the published articles in PubMed. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data was carefully collected, sorted, displayed, and analyzed. The major applications of the CBD are to provide 1) the records of CRC biomarkers (DNA, RNA, protein and others) concerning diagnosis, treatment and prognosis; 2) the basic and clinical research information concerning the CRC biomarkers; 3) the primary results for bioinformatics and biostatics analysis of the CRC biomarkers; 4) downloading/uploading the biomedicine information for CRC biomarkers.

    Based on our CBD and other public databases, we further analyzed the presented CRC biomarkers (DNAs, RNAs, proteins) and predicted novel potential multiple biomarkers (the combination of single biomarkers) with biological networks and pathways analysis for diagnosis, therapy response and prognosis in CRC. We found several hub biomarkers and key pathways for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in CRC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test and survival analysis by microarray data revealed that multiple biomarkers could be better biomarkers than the single biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

    There are 62 diagnosis biomarkers for colon cancer in our CBD. In the previous studies, we found these present biomarkers were not enough to improve significantly the diagnosis of colon cancer. In order to find out novel biomarkers for the colon cancer diagnosis, we have performed /machine learning (ML) techniques such as support vector machine (SVM) and regression tree to predict candidate to discover diagnostic biomarkers for colon cancer. Based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network topology features of the identified biomarkers, we found 12 protein biomarkers which were considered as the candidate colon cancer diagnosis biomarkers. Among these protein biomarkers Chromogranin-A (CHGA)  was the most powerful biomarker, which showed good performance in bioinformatics test and Immunohistochemistry(IHC). We are now expanding this study to CRC.

    Expression of CHGA protein in colon cancer was further verified with a novel logistic regressionbased meta-analysis, and convinced as a valuable diagnostic biomarker as compared with the typical diagnostic biomarkers, such as TP53, KRAS and MKI67.

    microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have been considered as potential biomarkers. A novel miRNA-mRNA interaction network-based model was used to predict miRNA biomarkers for CRC and found that miRNA-186-5p, miRNA-10b-5p and miRNA-30e-5p might be the novel biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. In conclusion, we have created a useful CBD database for CRC biomarkers and provided detailed information for how to use the CBD in CRC biomarker investigations. Our studies have been focusing on the biomarkers in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. Based on our CBD and other powerful cancer associated databases, ML has been used to analyze the characteristics of the CRC biomarkers and predict novel potential CRC biomarkers. The predicted potential biomarkers were further confirmed at biomedical laboratory.

    Delarbeid
    1. CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, ISSN 1758-0463, E-ISSN 1758-0463, artikkel-id bay046Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker database (CBD) was established based on 870 identified CRC biomarkers and their relevant information from 1115 original articles in PubMed published from 1986 to 2017. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data were collected, sorted, displayed and analysed. The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. The CBD was constructed under MySQL server. HTML, PHP and JavaScript languages have been used to implement the web interface. The Apache was selected as HTTP server. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage. We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC. The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC. They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oxford University Press, 2018
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68074 (URN)10.1093/database/bay046 (DOI)000436293800001 ()29846545 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-07-25 Laget: 2018-07-25 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Potential Applications of DNA, RNA and Protein Biomarkers in Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis for Colorectal Cancer: A Study from Databases to AI-Assisted Verification
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential Applications of DNA, RNA and Protein Biomarkers in Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis for Colorectal Cancer: A Study from Databases to AI-Assisted Verification
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to find out the most valuable biomarkers and pathways for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) we have collected the published CRC biomarkers and established a CRC biomarker database (CBD: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/index.html). In this study, we analysed the single and multiple DNA, RNA and protein biomarkers as well as their positions in cancer related pathways and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to describe their potential applications in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. CRC biomarkers were collected from the CBD. The RNA and protein biomarkers were matched to their corresponding DNAs by the miRDB database and the PubMed Gene database, respectively. The PPI networks were used to investigate the relationships between protein biomarkers and further detect the multiple biomarkers. The Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation were used to analyse biological functions of the biomarkers. AI classification techniques were utilized to further verify the significances of the multiple biomarkers in diagnosis and prognosis for CRC. We showed that a large number of the DNA, RNA and protein biomarkers were associated with the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis in various degrees in the CRC biomarker networks. The CRC biomarkers were closely related to the CRC initiation and progression. Moreover, the biomarkers played critical roles in cellular proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis and they were involved in Ras, p53 and PI3K pathways. There were overlaps among the DNA, RNA and protein biomarkers. AI classification verifications showed that the combined multiple protein biomarkers played important roles to accurate early diagnosis and predict outcome for CRC. There were several single and multiple CRC protein biomarkers which were associated with diagnosis, therapy and prognosis in CRC. Further, AI-assisted analysis revealed that multiple biomarkers had potential applications for diagnosis and prognosis in CRC.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    MDPI, 2019
    Emneord
    DNA, RNA, protein, single-biomarkers, multiple-biomarkers, cancer-related pathways, colorectal cancer
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73340 (URN)10.3390/cancers11020172 (DOI)000460747200046 ()30717315 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062386858 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-03-26 Laget: 2019-03-26 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Loss of CHGA protein as a potential biomarker for colon cancer diagnosis: a study on biomarker discovery by machine learning and confirmation by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancer tissue microarrays
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Loss of CHGA protein as a potential biomarker for colon cancer diagnosis: a study on biomarker discovery by machine learning and confirmation by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancer tissue microarrays
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81935 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-18 Laget: 2020-05-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Chromogranin-A Expression as a Novel Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Colon Cancer Patients
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Chromogranin-A Expression as a Novel Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Colon Cancer Patients
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 20, nr 12, artikkel-id 2919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The five-year survival rate for the early-stage patients is more than 90%, and only around 10% for the later stages. Moreover, half of the colon cancer patients have been clinically diagnosed at the later stages. It is; therefore, of importance to enhance the ability for the early diagnosis of colon cancer. Taking advantages from our previous studies, there are several potential biomarkers which have been associated with the early diagnosis of the colon cancer. In order to investigate these early diagnostic biomarkers for colon cancer, human chromogranin-A (CHGA) was further analyzed among the most powerful diagnostic biomarkers. In this study, we used a logistic regression-based meta-analysis to clarify associations of CHGA expression with colon cancer diagnosis. Both healthy populations and the normal mucosa from the colon cancer patients were selected as the double normal controls. The results showed decreased expression of CHGA in the early stages of colon cancer as compared to the normal controls. The decline of CHGA expression in the early stages of colon cancer is probably a new diagnostic biomarker for colon cancer diagnosis with high predicting possibility and verification performance. We have also compared the diagnostic powers of CHGA expression with the typical oncogene KRAS, classic tumor suppressor TP53, and well-known cellular proliferation index MKI67, and the CHGA showed stronger ability to predict early diagnosis for colon cancer than these other cancer biomarkers. In the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, CHGA was revealed to share some common pathways with KRAS and TP53. CHGA might be considered as a novel, promising, and powerful biomarker for early diagnosis of colon cancer.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    MDPI, 2019
    Emneord
    CHGA, colon cancer, biomarker, early diagnosis, logistic regression, meta-analysis, PPI
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75234 (URN)10.3390/ijms20122919 (DOI)000473756000069 ()31207989 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068403124 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-07-25 Laget: 2019-07-25 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Novel MicroRNA Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Early Diagnosis and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Resistance but Not Prognosis: A Study from Databases to AI-Assisted Verifications
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Novel MicroRNA Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Early Diagnosis and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Resistance but Not Prognosis: A Study from Databases to AI-Assisted Verifications
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikkel-id E341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. In general, early diagnosis for CRC and individual therapy have led to better survival for the cancer patients. Accumulating studies concerning biomarkers have provided positive evidence to improve cancer early diagnosis and better therapy. It is, however, still necessary to further investigate the precise biomarkers for cancer early diagnosis and precision therapy and predicting prognosis. In this study, AI-assisted systems with bioinformatics algorithm integrated with microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) gene expression (GE) data has been approached to predict microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC based on the miRNA-messenger RNA (mRNA) interaction network. The relationships between the predicted miRNA biomarkers and other biological components were further analyzed on biological networks. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic test was utilized to verify the diagnostic value of the miRNA candidate biomarkers and the combined multiple biomarkers. Biological function analysis was performed to detect the relationship of candidate miRNA biomarkers and identified biomarkers in pathways. Text mining was used to analyze the relationships of predicted miRNAs and their target genes with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Survival analyses were conducted to evaluate the prognostic values of these miRNAs in CRC. According to the number of miRNAs single regulated mRNAs (NSR) and the number of their regulated transcription factor gene percentage (TFP) on the miRNA-mRNA network, there were 12 promising miRNA biomarkers were selected. There were five potential candidate miRNAs (miRNA-186-5p, miRNA-10b-5, miRNA-30e-5p, miRNA-21 and miRNA-30e) were confirmed as CRC diagnostic biomarkers, and two of them (miRNA-21 and miRNA-30e) were previously reported. Furthermore, the combinations of the five candidate miRNAs biomarkers showed better prediction accuracy for CRC early diagnosis than the single miRNA biomarkers. miRNA-10b-5p and miRNA-30e-5p were associated with the 5-FU therapy resistance by targeting the related genes. These miRNAs biomarkers were not statistically associated with CRC prognosis.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    MDPI, 2020
    Emneord
    CRC, biomarkers, diagnosis, miRNA, network models
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79936 (URN)10.3390/cancers12020341 (DOI)000522477300087 ()32028703 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079242365 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2016/341Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01098
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-02-20 Laget: 2020-02-20 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer: a study from databases, machine learning predictions to laboratory confirmations
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-12 09:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the use of evidence-based nursing (EBN) with respect to the four cornerstones of EBN: research, nursing theory, the patient’s perspective and clinical competence. Study I explored registered nurses (RNs) self-reported research utilization (RU) in relation to their work climate. A quantitative approach was used; further analyze led to a cluster solution of the measured variables, and low reported RU were compared with higher reported RU. The result showed that an academic degree underpinned the instrumental research utilization (IRU), also women reported higher use of conceptual research utilization (CRU). An association between low RU and dynamism/liveliness was seen, and younger RNs and RNs with shorter working experience reported higher scores for playfulness/humor and conflicts. Study II described how nurses conceived working in a ward where a nursing philosophy had been implemented. A phenomenographic method was used. The philosophy supported the clinical work and underpinned reflection and shared values. A prerequisite was a dedicated leader. The RNs described the care being of high quality. First line nurse managers (FLNMs) role and their experience of opportunities and obstacles to support EBN, was explored in study III. Data was collected using focus groups and analysed using phenomenography. The result showed that the FLNMs need to make an entity of vision and reality to be supportive according of EBN. The last study was an integrative literature review and the perspective of the patient in articles reporting on interventions designed to improve nursing was in focus. The result in study IV showed that the perspective of the patient represents five aspects, and that reporting clinical implications is important. In conclusion; the different perspectives all relates to EBN. Registered nurses need to be encouraged to develop their academic training, to be able to work according to EBN. A nursing philosophy provides time for reflection and a feeling of performing care of high quality. FLNMs need to take their role to support the RNs in order to work evidence-based. Conscious and communicated aspects supported the perspective of the patient.

    Delarbeid
    1. Registered nurses’ self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate – using cluster analysis to search for patterns
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Registered nurses’ self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate – using cluster analysis to search for patterns
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81865 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-15 Laget: 2020-05-15 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Conceptions of an implemented nursing philosophy: A phenomenographic study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Conceptions of an implemented nursing philosophy: A phenomenographic study
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 86-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses conceive their work on a ward where a nursing philosophy has been systematically implemented.

    Introduction: There is no international consensus today in relation to the organizing of nursing on the basis of an established nursing theory.

    Design and method: This study has a phenomenographic methodology, with an epistemological base in life-world perspective. Data were collected through thematized interviews with nurses on a ward where a nursing philosophy has been implemented for several years.

    Result: The conceptions of working with a nursing philosophy is described in an overarching statement formulated as a movement From implicit to explicit - where openness and freedom to speak are essential based on five categories of description (conceptions): Making it happen – the manager´s significance for implementation, Integrating the philosophy within me – creating a collective platform, “Welcome to us” – a caring atmosphere, The patient’s sense of being confirmed – establishing quality of care, “Us and them” –being inside or outside.

    Conclusion: Working with an implemented nursing philosophy seemed to provide support to the nurse in day-to-day work and thereby contributes to shared values. On the basis of the results we are not able to state that the specific nursing philosophy used can be the only contribution to the experienced support.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sciedu Press, 2014
    Emneord
    Nursing philosophy, Reflections, Feeling of confidence, Theory, Phenomenography
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81864 (URN)10.5430/cns.v2n3p86 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-15 Laget: 2020-05-15 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. First line nurse managers' experience of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence-based nursing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>First line nurse managers' experience of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence-based nursing
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 634-641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to explore first line nurse managers’ experiences of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence‐based nursing.

    Design: A qualitative study with a phenomenographical approach.

    Method: Data were collected through focus group interviews with 15 first line nurse managers’ in four settings.

    Results: The results are presented in four categories of description headed: Manage the everyday work vs. evidence‐based nursing; Uncertainties about evidence‐based nursing and nursing research; Time as a reality, as an approach; and Shaping awareness—towards an active approach to evidence‐based nursing. The overarching category of description has been formulated as follows: The internal relation—how active leadership influences evidence‐based nursing. The outcome space is presented as: The individual path—how to make vision and reality become a working entity around evidence‐based nursing.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
    Emneord
    Coherent strategy, evidence‐based nursing, first line nurse manager, leadership, phenomenography, reflection
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68352 (URN)10.1002/nop2.172 (DOI)000446838700020 ()30338109 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-08-07 Laget: 2018-08-07 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Is the patient’s perspective taken into account? – Interventions to improve evidence-based nursing: An integrative literature review
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Is the patient’s perspective taken into account? – Interventions to improve evidence-based nursing: An integrative literature review
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81866 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-15 Laget: 2020-05-15 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-12 10:15 Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L2, Örebro
    Thunberg, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Victimization, Positioning, and Support: Young Victims' Experiences of Crime2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Victimization early in life can result in a number of different short and long-term consequences, for which young people might need help and support. However, from previous research it is unclear what kind of support young people perceive as supportive. The present dissertation therefore aims to theoretically and empirically investigate young people’s experiences of victimization and support. The aim is operationalized in three questions: (1) To what extent do young people with experiences of various types of victimization seek and receive support, both from professionals and from family and friends? (2) How do young people understand and construct themselves as victims? (3) How is support constructed, and which needs for support do young people perceive themselves as having after their victimization? The dissertation uses a mixed methods approach building on a quantitative dataset consisting of a survey with 2500 participants, and a qualitative dataset consisting of 19 narrative interviews with young victims of crime. The results show that few young victims seek and receive professional psychosocial support, while a greater percentage of them receive support from family and friends. Theoretically, this can be understood through how young victims construct their own victimhood, which affects what kind of support they received and perceived as supportive. Each individual describes what he or she perceived as supportive with regard to the victimization, which included firstly information and practical help, and secondly talking about the victimizing event. Information enabled the young victims to participate in the judicial and support process more on their own conditions, as they understood what was going to happen. Because of this, support as a concept needs to include various types of support adapted to the individual’s specific needs and circumstances. This means that specific types of support need to be constructed by the support provider together with the individual victim. This calls for a collaborative practice when supporting young victims of crime and for the support to be as individualized as possible.

    Delarbeid
    1. Does Professional or Social Network Support Meet the Needs of Victimized and Polyvictimized Youths in Sweden?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does Professional or Social Network Support Meet the Needs of Victimized and Polyvictimized Youths in Sweden?
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 390-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The authors use survey data on 2,160 young victims of crime and/or abuse in Sweden to examine whether professional psychosocial and/or social network support meets their needs. The results show that the likelihood of having sought and/or received professional psychosocial support increases with being a victim of more types of crime and/or abuse, as does the likelihood of experiencing anxiety and/or posttraumatic stress.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2018
    Emneord
    mental health problems; poly-victimization; support; victimization; youth
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Socialt arbete
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59122 (URN)10.1080/15564886.2017.1340384 (DOI)000429940300006 ()2-s2.0-85024372759 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    National Board of Health and Welfare  21-13275/2009

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-08-21 Laget: 2017-08-21 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Young victims’ positioning: Narrations of victimhood and support
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Young victims’ positioning: Narrations of victimhood and support
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 196-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to analyze how young people narratively negotiate their position as victims, how their social surroundings react to their victim positioning and what types of support they are offered. It is argued that those who position themselves as innocent victims receive support, while those who do not position themselves as such are left to fend for themselves. It is concluded that receiving support functions as a way for young victims to keep intact their narratives of who they are; while young people who did not receive support and acceptance for their positioning needed to re-negotiate their narrative to make sense of who they are after the victimization. Thereby, the victimizing event was incorporated into their narrative identity.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sage Publications, 2020
    Emneord
    Young people, youth, positioning, identity, support, victim
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Socialt arbete
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74716 (URN)10.1177/0269758019854950 (DOI)000532352500004 ()2-s2.0-85067964343 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Brottsofferstöd i Sverige - Matchningen mellan ungdomars behov av stöd efter att ha utsatts för brott och det stöd som finns tillgängligt för dem
    Forskningsfinansiär
    The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority, 08563/2016
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-19 Laget: 2019-06-19 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-29bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. To Need or Not to Need Support? Understanding Young Victims’ Expressions of the Meaning of Support
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>To Need or Not to Need Support? Understanding Young Victims’ Expressions of the Meaning of Support
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81941 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-19 Laget: 2020-05-19 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Victimization, Positioning, and Support: Young Victims' Experiences of Crime
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-12 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Djekic, Demir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to determine the association of novel and traditional risk factors with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in healthy individuals. In addition, we investigated the effects of a vegetarian, compared to a meat diet, on novel and traditional risk factors in patients with diagnosed CAD.

    Methods: Studies I-II evaluated the inter-laboratory reproducibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) lipid analysis and the association of serum lipidome with CAC in a cohort of 70 patients. Studies III and IV analysed data of 1067 participants in the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study to determine associations of psychosocial (residential area, education, housing, and social support) and traditional risk factors with CAC. Cardiac computed tomography was used to obtain a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) (Studies I–IV). Study V employed a crossover design in which 31 patients with CAD were randomly allocated to a four-week vegetarian diet alternating with four weeks of an isocaloric meat diet. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure oxidised LDL-cholesterol. Plasma metabolome, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, L-carnitine, and acetyl-carnitine, as well as plasma lipidome were determined with LC-MS. Gut microbiota and faecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids were analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-MS, respectively.

    Results: In Study I, two laboratories independently identified six lipids in common that differentiated serum of patients with CACS >250 from that of those with CACS=0. Study II, revealed higher levels of phosphatidylcholine(PC)(16:0/20:4) and lower levels of PC(18:2/18:2), PC(36:3) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(20:0/18:2) in patients with CACS >250 than found in those with CACS=0. Study III showed a CACS >0 prevalence of 46.3% and 36.6% in low and high socioeconomic residential areas, respectively, but the traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratio for CACS >0 was not significantly higher in subjects living in low socioeconomic areas. In Study III, the traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratio for CACS >100 relative to CACS=0 was significantly higher in women with low education level and living in a rented apartment. Studies III and IV showed traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratios for CACS >0 to be significantly higher in women with a family history of premature cardiovascular disease and low social support. No relationship of psychosocial factors with CAC was observed in men. The vegetarian diet implemented in Study V significantly lowered mean oxidized LDL-cholesterol (-2.73 U/L), total cholesterol (-0.13 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (-0.10 mmol/L), and body mass index (-0.21 kg/m2), as well as the relative abundance of PCs, PEs, and several microbial genera compared with the meat diet. The effect of the vegetarian diet on oxidized LDL-C was associated with higher relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae genera and of Barnesiella and reduced abundance of Flavonifractor. The vegetarian diet lowered the relative abundance of ceramide(d18:1/16:0) and triacylglycerols with saturated fatty acyl chains and raised the relative abundance of triacylglycerols with high carbon and polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains compared with the meat diet.

    Conclusions: Novel and traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with subclinical CAD. Psychosocial factors are associated with subclinical CAD in women, but not in men. Short-term intervention with a vegetarian diet in individuals with CAD can positively impact novel and traditional factors that have been associated with risk of future cardiovascular events.

    Delarbeid
    1. Replication of LC-MS untargeted lipidomics results in patients with calcific coronary disease: an interlaboratory reproducibility study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Replication of LC-MS untargeted lipidomics results in patients with calcific coronary disease: an interlaboratory reproducibility study
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 222, s. 1042-1048Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recently a lipidomics approach was able to identify perturbed fatty acyl chain (FAC) and sphingolipid moieties that could stratify patients according to the severity of coronary calcification, a form of subclinical atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, these findings have not yet been reproduced before generalising their application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of lipidomics approaches by replicating previous lipidomic findings in groups of patients with calcific coronary artery disease (CCAD).

    METHODS: Patients were separated into the following groups based on their calcium score (CS); no calcification (CS: 0; n=26), mild calcification (CS: 1-250; n=27) and severe calcification (CS: >250; n=17). Two serum samples were collected from each patient and used for comparative analyses by 2 different laboratories, in different countries and time points using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry untargeted lipidomics methods.

    RESULTS: Six identical metabolites differentiated patients with severe coronary artery calcification from those with no calcification were found by both laboratories independently. Additionally, relative intensities from the two analyses demonstrated high correlation coefficients. Phosphatidylcholine moieties with 18-carbon FAC were identified in lower intensities and 20:4 FAC in higher intensities in the serum of diseased group. Moreover, 3 common sphingomyelins were detected.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first interlaboratory reproducibility study utilising lipidomics applications in general and specifically in patients with CCAD. Lipid profiling applications in patients with CCAD are very reproducible in highly specialised and experienced laboratories and could be applied in clinical practice in order to spare patients diagnostic radiation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Lipidomics, Reproducibility, Coronary artery disease, Calcific coronary disease, Metabolomics
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    kardiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57882 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.214 (DOI)000384698300219 ()27543723 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84982192130 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-24 Laget: 2017-06-01 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Serum untargeted lipidomic profiling reveals dysfunction of phospholipid metabolism in subclinical coronary artery disease
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Serum untargeted lipidomic profiling reveals dysfunction of phospholipid metabolism in subclinical coronary artery disease
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 15, s. 123-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Disturbed metabolism of cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TGs) carries increased risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, the exact relationship between individual lipid species and CAC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify disturbances in lipid profiles involved in the calcification process, in an attempt to propose potential biomarker candidates.

    Patients and methods: We studied 70 patients at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease who had undergone coronary calcification assessment using computed tomography and Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS). Patients were divided into three groups: with no coronary calcification (NCC; CACS: 0; n=26), mild coronary calcification (MCC; CACS: 1-250; n=27), or severe coronary calcification (SCC; CACS: >250; n=17). Patients' serum samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in an untargeted lipidomics approach.

    Results: We identified 103 lipids within the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and sterol lipid classes. After false discovery rate correction, phosphatidylcholine (PC)(16:0/20:4) in higher levels and PC(18:2/18:2), PC(36:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine(20:0/18:2) in lower levels were identified as correlates with SCC compared to NCC. There were no significant differences in the levels of individual TGs between the three groups; however, clustering the lipid profiles showed a trend for higher levels of saturated and monounsaturated TGs in SCC compared to NCC. There was also a trend for lower TG (49:2), TG(51:1), TG(54:5), and TG(56:8) levels in SCC compared to MCC.

    Conclusion: In this study we investigated the lipidome of patients with coronary calcification. Our results suggest that the calcification process may be associated with dysfunction in autophagy. The lipidomic biomarkers revealed in this study may aid in better assessment of patients with subclinical coronary artery disease.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2019
    Emneord
    coronary artery calcification, coronary artery calcium score, lipidomics, triacylglycerol, lipids, atherosclerosis, autophagy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74648 (URN)10.2147/VHRM.S202344 (DOI)000468547500001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-10 Laget: 2019-06-10 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Impact of socioeconomic status on coronary artery calcification
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Impact of socioeconomic status on coronary artery calcification
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 1756-1764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, but few studies have investigated the potential link between living in an area with a low versus a high socioeconomic status and coronary artery calcification, a marker of subclinical coronary artery disease. Design The design of this study was a cross-sectional study. Methods We evaluated 1067 participants with no history of coronary artery disease from the pilot phase of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Men and women aged 50-64 years were recruited from three high-socioeconomic status ( n = 541) and three low-socioeconomic status ( n = 526) areas in the city of Gothenburg (550,000 inhabitants). The coronary artery calcification score was assessed with the Agatston method using computed tomography, with individuals classified into either no coronary calcification ( n = 625; mean age, 57 years) or any coronary artery calcification ( n = 442; mean age, 59 years (men, 68.5%)). Results Coronary artery calcification was present in 244 (46.3%) and 198 (36.6%) individuals from the low- and high-socioeconomic status areas, respectively. Participants from the low-socioeconomic status areas had a significantly higher risk factor burden. In a multivariable logistic regression model with adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, the odds for coronary artery calcification were not significantly higher among persons living in low-socioeconomic status areas (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.60). Conclusion In this relatively small cross-sectional study, we observed an association between living in a low-socioeconomic status area and coronary artery calcification. However, this was mostly explained by higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors, indicating that the effect of socioeconomic status on the atherosclerotic process works through an increased burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Emneord
    Socioeconomic status, social classes, neighbourhood, coronary artery calcification, subclinical coronary artery disease, ethnic group, nationality
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68438 (URN)10.1177/2047487318792103 (DOI)000448077100012 ()30095278 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052572798 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Heart Lung FoundationKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVARegion Västra Götaland
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-08-13 Laget: 2018-08-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Social Support and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged Men and Women: Findings from the Pilot of Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Social Support and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged Men and Women: Findings from the Pilot of Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study
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    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 3, artikkel-id 778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Social support has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly in individuals who have sustained a cardiovascular event. This study investigated the relationship between social support and subclinical CAD among 1067 healthy middle-aged men and women. Social support was assessed with validated social integration and emotional attachment measures. Subclinical CAD was assessed as a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) using computed tomography. There was no association between social support and CACS in men. In women, low social support was strongly linked to cardiovascular risk factors, high levels of inflammatory markers, and CACS > 0. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for 12 cardiovascular risk factors, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for CACS > 0 in women with the lowest social integration, emotional attachment, and social support groups (reference: highest corresponding group) were 2.47 (1.23-5.12), 1.87 (0.93-3.59), and 4.28 (1.52-12.28), respectively. Using a machine learning approach (random forest), social integration was the fourth (out of 12) most important risk factor for CACS > 0 in women. Women with lower compared to higher or moderate social integration levels were about 14 years older in "vascular age". This study showed an association between lack of social support and subclinical CAD in middle-aged women, but not in men. Lack of social support may affect the atherosclerotic process and identify individuals vulnerable to CAD events.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    MDPI, 2020
    Emneord
    Social support, women, coronary artery calcium, coronary artery calcification, subclinical coronary artery disease, inflammation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80753 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17030778 (DOI)000517783300103 ()32012689 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078872171 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilVinnovaRegion Västra GötalandAFA InsuranceSwedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies:

    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg

    Region Örebro County through ALF research fund

    Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) is the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-20 Laget: 2020-03-20 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Effects of a vegetarian diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, gut microbiota, and plasma metabolome in subjects with ischemic heart disease - a randomized, cross-over study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of a vegetarian diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, gut microbiota, and plasma metabolome in subjects with ischemic heart disease - a randomized, cross-over study
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81939 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-19 Laget: 2020-05-19 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet
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