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  • Disputation: 2019-09-06 10:15 Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Schönlau, Christine
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Microplastics in the marine environment and the assessment of potential adverse effects of associated chemicals2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade plastics have gained interest by scientists as emerging pollutants particularly in the marine environment due to their ubiquity and persistence. While several studies report the occurrence of microplastics in surface waters globally, there are no harmonized methods to sample and measure microplastics, and the knowledge of toxicological effects in the marine ecosystem is scarce. One of the concerns is that microplastics could transfer hazardous chemicals into organism upon ingestion.

    In this thesis chemical and bioanalytical methods were combined to address the hypothesis that plastic pollution poses a risk for marine ecosystems by exposure to plastic associated chemicals such as sorbed environmental pollutants, additives, and monomers. Six different pristine plastic polymers were studied which have been deployed in the marine and freshwater system for up to 12 months. Potential adverse effects of plastic associated chemicals were investigated with in vitro reporter gene assays which can be activated by several chemical classes. The main focus was on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity for the assessment of dioxin-like chemicals. Different groups of persistent environmental pollutants, which are present in the aquatic environment, were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric methods. The contribution of the targeted chemicals to the measured biological activities was examined by conducting potency balance calculations. A better knowledge about the occurrence of microplastics in the waters surrounding Sweden was gained by sampling surface waters comparing two different sampling techniques, trawl and in-situ pump.

    The plastic pellets induced bioactivities in most tested reporter gene assays and the activities varied by type of polymer. In the majority of samples the contribution of the targeted environmental pollutants to the observed bioactivities was low. Concentrations of microplastics > 0.3 mm in surface waters around Sweden were observed to be low and the findings of this thesis suggest that the tested polymers with sizes 2-4 mm will not lead to an increased risk for marine ecosystems in terms of exposure to chemicals.

    Delarbeten
    1. Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75767 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-14 Skapad: 2019-08-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
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    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 9097-9088Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic is able to sorb environmental pollutants from ambient water and might act as a vector for these pollutants to marine organisms. The potential toxicological effects of plastic-sorbed pollutants in marine organisms have not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, organic extracts from four types of plastic deployed for 9 or 12 months in San Diego Bay, California, were examined for their potential to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway by use of the H4IIE-luc assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including the 16 priority PAHs, were quantified. The AhR-mediated potency in the deployed plastic samples, calculated as bio-TEQ values, ranged from 2.7 pg/g in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to 277 pg/g in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Concentrations of the sum of 24 PAHs in the deployed samples ranged from 4.6 to 1068 ng/g. By use of relative potency factors (REP), a potency balance between the biological effect (bio-TEQs) and the targeted PAHs (chem-TEQs) was calculated to 24-170%. The study reports, for the first time, in vitro AhR-mediated potencies for different deployed plastics, of which LDPE elicited the greatest concentration of bio-TEQs followed by polypropylene (PP), PET, and polyvinylchloride (PVC).

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Ah receptor, H4IIE-luc, In vitro bioassays, Microplastics, PAH
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72376 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-04281-4 (DOI)000464851100063 ()30715715 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061216163 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forskningsrådet Formas, 223-2014-1064KK-stiftelsen
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-11 Skapad: 2019-02-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
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    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, artikel-id 120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the study of potential harmful compounds sorbed to microplastics, an effect-directed analysis using the DR CALUX® assay as screening tool for Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds in extracts of marine deployed microplastics and chemical analysis of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) was conducted. Pellets of three plastic polymers [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)] were deployed at Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for up to 8 months. Detected AhR-mediated potencies (bio-TEQs) of extracted plastic pellets ranged from 15 to 100 pg/g. Contributions of target HOCs to the overall bioactivities were negligible. To identify the major contributors, remaining plastic pellets were used for fractionation with a gas chromatography (GC) fractionation platform featuring parallel mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The bioassay analysis showed two bioactive fractions of each polymer with bio-TEQs ranging from 5.7 to 14 pg/g. High resolution MS was used in order to identify bioactive compounds in the fractions. No AhR agonists could be identified in fractions of HDPE or LDPE. Via a multivariate statistical approach the polystyrene (PS) trimer 1e- Phenyl-4e-(1- phenylethyl)-tetralin was identified in fractions of HIPS and in fractions of the blank polymer of HIPS.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
    Nyckelord
    polyethylene, polystyrene, PCBs, reporter gene assay, fractionation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Analytisk kemi Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75769 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00120 (DOI)000478726600002 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forskningsrådet Formas, 223-2014-1064KK-stiftelsen, 20160019
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-14 Skapad: 2019-08-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-16Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Screening for bioactivities in three types of microplastics deployed in Swedish aquatic environments using a battery of reporter gene assays
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Screening for bioactivities in three types of microplastics deployed in Swedish aquatic environments using a battery of reporter gene assays
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75770 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-14 Skapad: 2019-08-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-14Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Disputation: 2019-09-06 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Sundin, Per-Ola
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    A life-course approach to chronic kidney disease: risks and consequences2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful primary prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) relies on understanding the pathways leading to established disease, including how they extend over the life-course. Projects in this thesis examine risk factors for CKD and consequences of impaired kidney function from a life-course perspective using routinely collected health-data in Swedish registers and research cohort data from the United Kingdom.

    The main findings regarding risk factors for CKD are, that markers of health and development determined at conscription assessment in adolescence, independently predict diagnosis of end-stage renal disease in middle age. We also identified a persistent increased risk of CKD following hospital admission with pneumonia in adulthood with highest magnitude risks in years immediately following infection, but still statistically significantly raised more than 15 years after the pneumonia episode. Our main findings relevant to predicting the consequences of impaired kidney function are that creatinine and cystatin C used clinically to estimate kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) have associations with increased mortality risk independent of GFR measured with an exogenous filtration marker (mGFR). If cystatin C and creatinine are combined, adding mGFR does not improve mortality risk prediction. Another important finding is that moderately reduced eGFR is only associated with a statistically significant increased mortality risk among individuals in the lowest third of the distribution of grip strength in a general population sample followed for 4-5 years, after adjustment for potential confounding factors.

    These results highlight the importance of adopting a life-course perspective when studying risk factors for CKD, since these associations can extend over different stages in the life-course. When assessing increased mortality risk associated with measures of GFR, combining cystatin and creatinine improves risk prediction. Potential effect modification across subgroups, including by grip strength, should be considered.

    Delarbeten
    1. Predictors in Adolescence of ESRD in Middle-Aged Men
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predictors in Adolescence of ESRD in Middle-Aged Men
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, ISSN 0272-6386, E-ISSN 1523-6838, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 723-729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Identification of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adolescence could provide intervention targets and improve understanding of the cause.

    Study Design: Register-based nested case-control study.

    Setting & Participants: A cohort of all Swedish male residents born from 1952 through 1956 who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence was used to identify 534 cases and 5,127 controls matched by birth year, county, and vital status.

    Predictor: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence.

    Outcomes: ESRD (defined here as dialysis therapy, kidney transplantation, surgical procedures creating long-term access for dialysis therapy, or chronic kidney disease stage 5) from 1985 through 2009.

    Measurements: Physical working capacity and cognitive function score in late adolescence. Head of household's occupation and household crowding measured as person-per-room ratio from the 1960 census when participants were children.

    Results: Proteinuria is associated notably with future ESRD, with an adjusted OR of 7.72 (95% CI, 3.94-15.14; P < 0.001) for trace or positive dipstick findings. ESR has a dose-dependent association with ESRD with an adjusted OR of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.14-3.75; P = 0.02) for ESR > 15 mm/h. Hypertension is associated strongly with future ESRD with an OR of 3.97 (95% CI, 2.08-7.59; P < 0.001) for grade 2 hypertension and higher. Elevated BMI is associated statistically significantly with increased ESRD risk with an OR of 3.53 (95% CI, 2.04-6.11; P < 0.001) for BMI >= 30 compared with 18.5-<25kg/m(2).

    Limitations: The study was limited to men, with no initial estimation of glomerular filtration rate, and information on smoking was unavailable.

    Conclusions: ESR, proteinuria, BMI, and blood pressure in late adolescence are independent predictors of ESRD in middle-aged men. This highlights the long natural history and importance of adopting a life-course approach when considering the cause of chronic kidney disease. (C) 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Saunders Elsevier, 2014
    Nyckelord
    End-stage renal disease (ESRD), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, adolescence, inflammation, disease trajectory, risk factor, etiology, kidney disease progression
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Urologi och njurmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39453 (URN)10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.06.019 (DOI)000344237900012 ()25124945 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84908479380 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    UK Economic and Social Research Council RES-596-28-0001  ES/J019119/1

    Research Committee of Orebro County Council OLL-213581  OLL-333371

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-10 Skapad: 2014-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 663-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR. A secondary aim was to evaluate the utility of combining cystatin C and creatinine to predict mortality risk.

    Methods: Cox regression was used to assess the associations of cystatin C and creatinine with mortality in 1157 individuals referred for assessment of plasma clearance of iohexol.

    Results: Since cystatin C and creatinine are inversely related to mGFR, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 were used. After adjustment for mGFR, lower cystatin C - 1 (higher cystatin C concentration) and higher creatinine - 1 (lower creatinine concentration) were independently associated with increased mortality. When nested models were compared, avoiding the potential influence of multicollinearity, the independence of the associations was supported. Among models combining the markers of GFR, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 combined explained the largest proportion of variance in associations with mortality risk ( R 2  = 0.61). Addition of mGFR did not improve the model.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that both creatinine and cystatin C have independent associations with mortality not explained entirely by mGFR and that mGFR does not offer a more precise mortality risk assessment than these endogenous filtration markers combined.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxford University Press, 2017
    Nyckelord
    GFR, creatinine, cystatin C, epidemiology, prognosis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Urologi och njurmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57361 (URN)10.1093/ndt/gfx004 (DOI)000401057000013 ()28340079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019091905 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:

    Research Committee of the Örebro County Council (OLL-330601, OLL-408481 and OLL-506561)

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-21 Skapad: 2017-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, s. 971-979Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although acute onset kidney complications associated with severe infections including pneumonia are well characterized, little is known about possible subsequent delayed risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Patients and methods: Associations between hospital admission with pneumonia in adulthood and raised risks of subsequent CKD were evaluated in a cohort of all male residents in Sweden born from 1952 to 1956 (n=284,198) who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence (n=264,951) and were followed up through 2009. CKD and pneumonia were identified using Swedish national registers, and their associations were evaluated using Cox regression. Excluding the first year, the subsequent period was divided into <= 5, > 5-<= 15, and > 15 years after hospital admission with pneumonia. Follow-up ended on the date of first incident diagnosis of kidney disease, death, emigration, or December 31, 2009, whichever occurred first.

    Results: During a median follow-up of 36.7 (interquartile range 35.3-37.9) years from late adolescence, 5,822 men had an inpatient pneumonia diagnosis without contemporaneous kidney disease. Among exposed men, 136 (2.3%) were later diagnosed with CKD compared with 2,749 (1.2%) of the unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first year after the first episode of pneumonia was 14.55 (95% confidence interval, 10.41-20.32), identifying early onset kidney complications and possibly pre-existing undiagnosed CKD. Starting follow-up 1 year after pneumonia to reduce the potential influence of surveillance bias and the risk of reverse causation, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first 5 years of follow-up was 5.20 (95% confidence interval, 3.91-6.93) and then attenuated with increasing time.

    Conclusion: Pneumonia among inpatients is associated with a persistently increased risk for subsequent CKD, with the highest risk during the years immediately after pneumonia. Health care professionals should be aware of this period of heightened risk to facilitate early diagnosis and secondary preventive interventions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2018
    Nyckelord
    pneumonia, kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, inflammation, cohort study
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68653 (URN)10.2147/CLEP.S169039 (DOI)000441779100001 ()30147376 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057756705 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    UK Economic and Social Research Council  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-31 Skapad: 2018-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Grip strength modifies the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and all-cause mortality
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Grip strength modifies the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and all-cause mortality
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Allmänmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75760 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-13 Skapad: 2019-08-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Disputation: 2019-09-17 09:15 Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L1, Örebro
    Zekavat, Amir Reza
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Application of X-ray Computed Tomography for Assessment of Additively Manufactured Products2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2019-09-20 09:15 Örebro universitet, Campus Grythyttan, Gastronomiska teatern, Grythyttan
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Food and beverage combinations: Sommeliers' perspectives and consumer patterns in Sweden2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2019-09-20 13:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Cotal San Martin, Vladimir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The Mediated Representation of Working Conditions in the Global South: Discourse, Ideology and Responsibility2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2019-09-27 13:15 Örebro universitet, Teknikhuset, Hörsal T, Örebro
    Seidouvy, Abdel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Exploring student collaboration during data generation in the statistics classroom: an inferentialist perspective2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2019-10-11 13:15 Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, Hörsal P1, Örebro
    Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Om historieämnets politiska dimension: diskursiva logiker i didaktisk praktik2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2019-10-18 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Wennberg, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Pain management in older persons with hip fractures2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)