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  • Husu, Liisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Husu, Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Tainio, Liisa
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Representations of women researchers in Finnish print media: top researchers, multi-talents and experts: top researchers, multi-talents and experts [Representaciones de mujeres investigadoras En la prensa escrita finlandesa: investigadoras de élite, multi-talentos y expertas]2016In: Investigaciones Feministas, ISSN 2171-6080, Vol. 7, no 2, 203-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s underrepresentation in the scientific community is currently on the agenda of science policy, both in Europe and internationally. The significance of media as a provider of female role models, on the one hand, and in reproducing stereotypical images of scientists, on the other hand, is often mentioned in this context. However, there is relative lack of research on how women researchers are depicted in the media, especially outside US and UK contexts. Finland provides an interesting context to study media representations of women in research, as a relatively gender equal and research intensive setting seen from a global perspective.The media representations of women researchers in Finland were explored by analyzing person interviews in Finnish printed media: newspapers, women’s magazines and magazines aimed for general public. The data consists of 107 interviews of women researchers from all fields of research, published in 1997-2014. Overwhelming majority of the interviews was written by female journalists. The analysis focuses on both social and linguistic aspects of the interviews from a gender perspective. Women researchers were found to be represented by a variation of frames, the most common of which were the Expert and the Top Researcher. Their family context was frequently mentioned, and the interviews frequently commented their appearance(e.g. hair, physique, way of moving).The fact that the interviewees’ family context was often highlighted in the interviews may serve to convey a message that it is possible and common to combine a career in research and family.One main result of the study was the diversity of representations of female researchers,compared to US and UK studies. The diversity of the media images of female researchers suggests that the media may provide important role models for young women, encouraging women to choose research as a profession.

  • Biswas, Animesh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Animesh
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Halim, M.A.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Maternal complications in a geographically challenging and hard to reach district of Bangladesh: a qualitative study2016In: F1000 Research, ISSN 0106-3324, E-ISSN 2046-1402, Vol. 5, 2417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maternal complications contribute to maternal deaths in developing countries. Bangladesh still has a high prevalence of maternal mortality, which is often preventable. There are some geographically challenging and hard to reach rural districts in Bangladesh and it is difficult to get information about maternal complications in these areas. In this study, we examined the community lay knowledge of possible pregnancy complications. We also examined the common practices associated with complications and we discuss the challenges for the community.

    Methods: The study was conducted in Moulvibazar of north east Bangladesh, a geographically challenged, difficult to reach district. Qualitative methods were used to collect the information. Pregnant women, mothers who had recently delivered, their guardians and traditional birth attendants participated in focus group discussions. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with the family members. Thematic analyses were performed.

    Results: The study revealed that there is a lack of knowledge of maternal complications. In the majority of cases, the mothers did not receive proper treatment for maternal complications. There are significant challenges that these rural societies need to address: problems of ignorance, traditional myths and family restrictions on seeking better treatment. Moreover, traditional birth attendants and village doctors also have an important role in assuring appropriate, effective and timely treatment.

    Conclusions: The rural community lacks adequate knowledge on maternal complications. Reduction of the societal barriers including barriers within the family can improve overall practices. Moreover, dissemination of adequate information to the traditional birth attendant and village doctors may improve the overall situation, which would eventually help to reduce maternal deaths.

  • Biswas, Animesh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Animesh
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB) , Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB) , Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Economic Cost of Implementing Maternal and Neonatal Death Review in a District of Bangladesh2016In: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 5, no 3, 729Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Maternal and neonatal death review (MNDR) introduced in Bangladesh and initially piloted in a district during 2010. MNDR is able to capture each of the maternal, neonatal deaths and stillbirths from the community and government facilities (hospitals). This study aimed to estimate the cost required to implement MNDR in a district of Bangladesh during 2010-2012.

    Materials and Methods: MNDR was implemented in Thakurgaon district in 2010 and later gradually extended until 2015. MNDR implementation framework, guidelines, tools and manual were developed at the national level with national level stakeholders including government health and family planning staff at different cadre for piloting at Thakurgaon. Programme implementation costs were calculated by year of costing and costing as per component of MNDR in 2013. The purchasing power parity conversion rate was 1 $INT = 24.46 BDT, as of 31st Dec 2012.

    Results: Overall programme implementation costs required to run MNDR were 109,02,754 BDT (445,738 $INT $INT) in the first year (2010). In the following years cost reduced to 8,208,995 BDT (335,609 $INT, during 2011) and 6,622,166 BDT (270,735 $INT, during 2012). The average cost per activity required was 3070 BDT in 2010, 1887 BDT and 2207 BDT required in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Each death notification cost 4.09 $INT, verbal autopsy cost 8.18 $INT, and social autopsy cost 16.35 $INT. Facility death notification cost 2.04 $INT and facility death review meetings cost 20.44 $INT. One death saved by MNDR costs 53,654 BDT (2193 $INT).

    Conclusions: Programmatic implementation cost of conducting MPDR give an idea on how much cost will be required to run a death review system for a low income country settings using government health system.

  • Palmén, Rachel
    et al.
    Open University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Palmén, Rachel
    Open University of Catalonia, Spain.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Husu, Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Historical Perspectives and Future Scenarios2016Report (Other academic)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    From Masculinity to Masculinities and Back to Men … and Fame too …2016In: Discover Society, Vol. 30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Löfmarck, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Bumping against the boundary: IPBES and the knowledge divide2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 69, 22-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Founded in 2012, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is one of the most ambitious attempts to date to bridge the divide between scientific knowledge and indigenous and local knowledge. Doing so requires overcoming participatory, epistemological and ontological challenges, including different communicative forms, diverging criteria for knowledge validation, and conflicting views of nature. Central IPBES documents are analyzed to see how the platform deals with these challenges. While IPBES constitutes an unprecedented, innovative and ambitious institutional design for the cross-fertilization of knowledge, the results show that IPBES (i) struggles to reconcile an open, collaborative atmosphere with the demands for structure set by the scientific format, (ii) tends to shy away from potentially conflict-laden issues and disagreements, (iii) often treats scientific knowledge and indigenous or local knowledge as easily distinguishable entities, and (iv) has yet to solve the epistemological challenges of knowledge generation and validation when working across knowledge-systems. Taken together, these features seem to hinder the cross-fertilization of knowledge. The case of IPBES thus holds important lessons for future efforts to transform both knowledge production and the overall framing of challenges within global environmental governance.

  • Löfmarck, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Freedom with what?: Interpretations of “responsibility” in Swedish forestry practice2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 75, 34-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibility is a key aspect of all regulation, and forest regulation is no exception. Howshould responsibility be understood and used in a time characterized by complexity and uncertainty? This paper develops a typology that distinguishes six notions of responsibility and then employs it in analyzing interpretations of responsibility in Swedish forestry practice. The Swedish forest management system is a deregulated system structured by the governing principle of “freedom with responsibility.” By investigating how responsibility is understood and enacted by forest consultants and forest owners, we demonstrate the practical fluidity of the responsibility concept. We emphasize the need for an understanding of responsibility that fosters sensitivity and adaptiveness to external issues and actors in the face of uncertainty, and identify obstacles in current forestry policy and practice to enacting such an understanding.

  • Källstrand Eriksson, Jeanette
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Sweden, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Källstrand Eriksson, Jeanette
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Sweden, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Catherine
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Sweden, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Buer, Nina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Thulesius, Hans
    FoU Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden.
    Seniors´self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration: A grounded theroy2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, 30265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of ‘‘remaining themselves as who they used to be’’ by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  • Hsiung, Nai-Huan
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Hsiung, Nai-Huan
    Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Yang, Yen
    Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Lee, Ming Shinn
    Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Smith, Graeme D.
    School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan2016In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 9, 661-669 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was,0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments.

  • Wallroth, Veronika
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. Linköpings universitet, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande.
    Wallroth, Veronika
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. Linköpings universitet, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande.
    Men do care!: A gender-aware and masculinity-informed contribution to caregiving scholarship2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In caregiving literature, it is often the female gender that has been the focus of attention, and in particular women’s unpaid labor. Studies also tend to make comparisons between men’s and women’s caregiving, using men’s caregiving experiences to show not only that women face greater burdens, but also that men’s needs can be minimized. This means that while gender analysis is not uncommon in the caregiving literature, gender tends to be equated with womanhood. This is impeding us from moving the debates on care and caregiving forward. The dissertation argues – through a phenomenological analysis of men’s motives, experiences and perceptions of care and caregiving – that much could be gained if we were to rectify the gender bias by bringing attention to caregiving men in the gender-aware and masculinity-informed way that is lacking in the family caregiving literature at present. For this dissertation, 19 caregiving adult sons and sons-in-law were interviewed. The aim of the study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to contribute to the rectification of the gender bias found in the literature on family caregiving by focusing on men’s caregiving and answering the following research questions: What motivates men to provide care for their elderly parents? How do adult sons experience caregiving? What do adult sons think that care and caregiving are, i.e. what are their perspectives on care? Secondly, this dissertation also aims to explore whether a gender-aware and masculinity-informed perspective can be used to enhance our understanding of caregiving. This study discusses how motives, experiences and perspectives, which have so far been interpreted as unique to women, are also matters that men talk about and consider important in caregiving. Thus, this study shows that a gender-aware and masculinity-informed perspective on care can increase our understanding of family caregiving and contribute to rectify the gender bias that care research suffers from. The study suggests that caregiving men should not solely be regarded as empirically interesting. This is because they are an unexploited and theoretically profuse source of information about caregiving.

  • Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    A reflexive look at reflexivity in environmental sociology2017In: Environmental Sociology, ISSN 2325-1042, Vol. 3, no 1, 6-16 p., Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexivity is a central concept in environmental sociology, as in environmental social science in general. The concept is often connected to topics such as modernity, governance, expertise, and consumption. Reflexivity is presented as a means for taking constructive steps towards sustainability as it recognizes complexity, uncertainty, dilemmas, and ambivalence. Critical discussion of the conceptual meaning and usage of reflexivity is therefore needed. Is it a useful theoretical concept for understanding various sustainability issues? Is ‘more reflexivity’ relevant and useful advice that environmental sociologists can give in communicating with other disciplines, policymakers, and practitioners? This article explores the conceptual meaning of reflexivity and assesses its relevance for environmental sociology. In particular, it reviews its usages in three research fields; expertise, governance, and citizen-consumers. The paper furthermore discusses the spatial and temporal boundaries of reflexivity. It concludes by discussing how the concept can be a useful analytical concept in environmental sociology, at the same time as it warns against an exaggerated and unreflexive use of the concept.

  • Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Public Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; .
    Beckman, Linda
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Public Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; .
    Svensson, Mikael
    Health Metrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish schoolbased prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention.

    Methods: Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils) and three control schools (159 pupils) participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13). We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT) Difference-in-Difference (DD) model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9.

    Results: The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication.

    Conclusions: The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.

  • Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kneller, Richard
    GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring is an important aspect of firms’ internationalization. However, offshoring comes at a cost, especially where information or trust is lacking. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring costs through their knowledge of their former home countries and via access to foreign networks. We develop a framework of heterogeneous final-good firms to guide our empirical analysis and draw on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007. Our results support the hypothesis that immigrant employees spur offshoring activities by firms through lower offshoring costs. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can increase offshoring up to three percent on average, with skilled migrants having the strongest effects. 

  • Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kneller, Richard
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring is an important aspect of firms’ internationalization. However, offshoring comes at a cost, especially where information or trust is lacking. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring costs through their knowledge of their former home countries and via access to foreign networks. We develop a framework of heterogeneous final-good firms to guide our empirical analysis and draw on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007. Our results support the hypothesis that immigrant employees spur offshoring activities by firms through lower offshoring costs. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can increase offshoring up to three percent on average, with skilled migrants having the strongest effects. 

  • Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gidehag, Anton
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized (SME) enterprises. Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited leading personnel have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. Interestingly, our results suggest that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of leading personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs. 

  • Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gidehag, Anton
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized (SME) enterprises. Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited leading personnel have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. Interestingly, our results suggest that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of leading personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs. 

  • Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research.
    Gidehag, Anton
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden. HUI Research.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio.
    Kunskapsöverföring för tillväxt: Sambanden mellan produktivitet och rekrytering av nyckelkompetens hos små och medelstora företag2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brexflektioner: Vilka blir de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av att Storbritannien lämnar EU?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 6, 15-27 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kommande brexit kommer att få politiska och ekonomiska konsekvenser, inte minst genom minskad utrikeshandel och försämrat ekonomiskt samarbete i Europa. Vi diskuterar de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av en brexit, med fokus på handel och handelspolitik. Förmodligen har de negativa ekonomiska konsekvenserna underskattats eftersom den handelshämmande effekten av minskad migration inte beaktats. Vår slutsats är att brexit kommer att försämra den ekonomiska integrationen mellan EU och Storbritannien samt leda till en försvagad brittisk handelspolitik, vilket särskilt kan drabba Sverige. För att minimera kostnaderna av brexit bör Sverige eftersträva ett så ambitiöst och heltäckande ekonomiskt partnerskapsavtal mellan EU och Storbritannien som möjligt. 

  • Strand, Susanne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Violence risk assessment in male and female mentally disordered offenders: differences and similarities2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the risk of violence, increasing interest has been shown in bringing science and practice closer together. Moving from clinical intuition in the first generation of risk assessment via actuarial scales in the second generation to the structured professional judgments where risk assessments are today produces better, more valid results when assessing the risk of violence. One of the best predictors of violence is gender. Approximately 10% of the violent criminality can be attributed to women; even so, it is increasing, especially among young women. It is therefore important to examine risk assessments from a gender perspective. Another important factor when assessing the risk of violence is psychopathy and there are indications that there might be gender differences in this diagnosis. Thus, a special interest has been focused on psychopathy in this thesis. The purpose with this work is to explore the similarities and differences in assessing risk for violence in male and female mentally disordered offenders, while the overall aim is to validate the violence risk assessment instrument HCR-20 for Swedish offender populations. The risk assessments for all six studies in this thesis were made by trained personnel using the HCR-20 instrument, where psychopathy was diagnosed with the screening version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV). The study populations were both male and female mentally disordered offenders in either the correctional or the forensic setting.

    The findings show that both the validity and the reliability of the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were good and the clinical and risk management subscales were found to have better predictive validity than the historical scale. Another finding was that there were more similarities than differences between genders in the HCR-20, while the opposite applied to the PCL:SV, where the antisocial behavior was performed in a different manner. Moreover, it was found that the gender of the assessor might be a factor to take into account when assessing the risk of violence in women, where the recommendation was that at least one assessor should be female. The conclusions were that the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV can be used In Swedish offender populations with valid results. For female offenders, there are differences in the antisocial behavior that is assessed in order to diagnose psychopathy and these differences tend to underestimate psychopathy among female offenders. Furthermore, the gender of the assessor might be of greater importance than has previously been realized. The overall conclusion was that this thesis supports the structural professional judgment method of making risk assessments in order to prevent violence in the community.

    List of papers
    1. Clinical and risk management factors in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders: more important than historical data? A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical and risk management factors in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders: more important than historical data? A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme
    1999 (English)In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 4, no 1, 67-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The predictive validity of the risk prediction instrument HCR-20 was studied.

    Methods: Two matched groups of discharged forensic psychiatric patients, one who had recidivated into violent criminality and the other not, were assessed with the HCR-20. This was done retrospective and blind to the outcome.

    Results: The results show an overall high predictive validity (AUC =.80). However, historical data had none, or a low, validity while clinical and risk management data had a very high validity.

    Conclusions: One of the most interesting findings in this study is that clinical and risk management factors came out as more predictive of future violence than historical factors, which is very much contrary to findings in past research. We think that one has to bear in mind that both clinical and risk management factors are heavily influenced by historical information. Thus, historical data are probably as important as is generally shown in follow-up studies of violence in various offender groups. However, using the HCR-20, which allows systematic and reliable coding or clinical and risk management factors, seems to make it possible to use these factors more successfully than has been hitherto possible.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 1999
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54046 (URN)10.1348/135532599167798 (DOI)2-s2.0-0033042516 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Prediction of violence using the HCR-20: a prospective study in two maximum-security correctional institutions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of violence using the HCR-20: a prospective study in two maximum-security correctional institutions
    2000 (English)In: Journal of forensic psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0958-5184, E-ISSN 1469-9478, Vol. 11, no 1, 167-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were used in a prospective study of 41 long-term sentenced offenders in two correctional, maximum-security institutions. The aim was to test the validity of these instruments in the prediction of institutional violence. All assessments were made by a comprehensive examination of the offenders' files, completed with clinical interviews ranging from 1 to 3 hours. The mean follow-up time was 8 months. Our results show high predictive validity for the HCR-20's clinical and risk management items, but for almost none of its historical items. The results suggest that violence inside correctional institutions can be predicted with a certain degree of validity by using the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV, even within a selective 'high-risk' group of offenders such as that under study here.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2000
    Keyword
    risk prediction; institutional violence; HCR-20; PCL : SV
    National Category
    Psychology Psychiatry
    Research subject
    Psychiatry; Criminology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54045 (URN)10.1080/095851800362445 (DOI)000086720600014 ()2-s2.0-0034081508 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Comparison of HCR-20 scores in violent mentally disordered men and women: Gender differences and similarities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of HCR-20 scores in violent mentally disordered men and women: Gender differences and similarities
    2001 (English)In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 7, no 1, 71-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Retrospective risk assessments based on the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme were performed on 63 female patients and 85 male patients at two special forensic psychiatric hospitals. The aim was to compare risk factors for violence in mentally disordered women with their male counterparts, and to study to what extent the HCR-20, which is mainly based on research on men, can be used in a female forensic psychiatric population. The results show that the HCR-20 displays very similar risk factors for violence in women as in men, but the nature of violence is somewhat different between the sexes. Implications of the findings are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Harwood Academic, 2001
    Keyword
    risk assessment; violence; female psychiatric patients; HCR-20
    National Category
    Psychology Law and Society
    Research subject
    Psychology; Criminology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54044 (URN)10.1080/10683160108401784 (DOI)000168448900006 ()2-s2.0-7044237585 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Gender differences in psychopathy in a Swedish offender sample
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in psychopathy in a Swedish offender sample
    2005 (English)In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 23, no 6, 837-850 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined gender differences in the PCL:SV employing a variety of statistical methods with two subsets of psychopathic individuals drawn from larger samples of 129 female and 499 male Swedish offenders. The larger samples included forensic psychiatric patients, forensic psychiatric evaluees and criminal offenders. We found gender differences in antisocial behavior, as defined in factor 2 of the PCL:SV, with female psychopaths (PCL:SV >= 18) displaying significantly more lying, deceitfulness and lack of control, while male psychopaths were more antisocial as measured by the PCL:SV. We conclude that it might be meaningful to use gender specific definitions in the assessment of psychopathy or, alternatively, slightly revise the diagnostic tools. Our results support the use of the three-factor model of the PCL-R and PCL:SV introduced by Cooke and Michie (2001) in female populations

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2005
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54040 (URN)10.1002/bsl.674 (DOI)000234574000007 ()16333809 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-30544444089 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
    5. Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL : SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL : SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 12, no 2, 145-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability was excellent for most indices. PCL:SV scores were higher for males than females for total and Part 1 scores (interpersonal/affective features) but not for Part 2 (behavioral features). With some exceptions, PCL:SV scores were meaningfully related to aggression to others, a measure of risk for violence, substance use problems, personality disorder (positive), and psychosis (negative). Correlations between PCL:SV and aggression were larger for females than males, although the difference was smaller when personality disorder was held constant. The structural reliability and pattern of validity coefficients were comparable in these Swedish samples to other non-North American samples. Implications for the cross-cultural manifestation and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2005
    Keyword
    psychopathy; assessment; PCL : SV; forensic assessment; aggression
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54042 (URN)10.1177/1073191105275455 (DOI)000229299200004 ()15914717 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-20744435451 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Towards analysing the rationale of information security non-compliance: Devising a Value-Based Compliance analysis method2016In: Journal of strategic information systems, ISSN 0963-8687, E-ISSN 1873-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees’ poor compliance with information security policies is a perennial problem. Current information security analysis methods do not allow information security managers to capture the rationalities behind employees’ compliance and non-compliance. To address this shortcoming, this design science research paper suggests: (a) a Value-Based Compliance analysis method and (b) a set of design principles for methods that analyse different rationalities for information security. Our empirical demonstration shows that the method supports a systematic analysis of why employees comply/do not comply with policies. Thus we provide managers with a tool to make them more knowledgeable about employees’ information security behaviours. 

  • Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Meckbach, Jane
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    How Wii Teach Physical Education and Health2016In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 4, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The use of educational computer games in physical education (PE) has become more popular in recent years and has attracted research interest. The aim of the article is to investigate how physical activities and images of the human body are offered by the game. The results show how the “teacher” constituted in the games is one who instructs and encourages the players to exercise and think about their bodies, but not a “teacher” who can help students to investigate, argue, or discuss images of health and the human body. We argue that the use of a wide range and variety of ways of teaching would make the teaching richer and offer a deeper understanding about the body and health.

  • Lakew, Nathan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lakew, Nathan
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    In Search for a Coherent Meta-Theoretical Structure: A Literature Review of Philosophy of Design2016In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First SIGPhil Workshop, Dublin, Ireland, December 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility of building a coherent knowledge base for philosophyof design in IS research. After identifying and categorizing what is considered as designissues in the IS field, we propose a taxonomy of design abstractions in the form of a meta-theoretical structure. Based on the proposed hierarchical taxonomy, we have conducteda concept-centric literature review on four leading IS research journals publishedbetween January 2011 and July 2016. Our result shows that the IS field struggles withmisalignment of philosophy of design issues, including constructing design theory,research positioning, and an inconsistent knowledge base in design subject areas such asethics and aesthetics. It is suggested that integrating philosophy of design into IS researchcould contribute to the development of a coherent body of design knowledge. We concludeby proposing a model both to study and integrate philosophy of design into the ISresearch field.

  • Blake, Vic
    et al.
    Nottingham, UK.
    Blake, Vic
    Nottingham, UK.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Sociology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
    Jackson, Barber
    Nottingham, UK.
    Johnson, Rickard
    Nottingham, UK.
    Luczynski, Zbyszek
    Nottingham, UK.
    Doing memory work with older men: the practicalities, the process, the potential2016In: Working With Older People, ISSN 1366-3666, Vol. 20, no 4, 209-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • König, Julia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Siebenhaar, A.
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Högenauer, C.
    Graz, Austria.
    Arkkila, P.
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Nieuwdorp, M.
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norén, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ponsioen, C. Y.
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rosien, U.
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Rossen, N. G.
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Satokari, R.
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Stallmach, A.
    Jena, Germany.
    de Vos, W.
    Helsinki, Finland; Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Keller, J.
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Consensus report: Faecal microbiota transfer - clinical applications and procedures2017In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-2813, E-ISSN 1365-2036, Vol. 45, no 2, 222-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication.

    Aim: To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT.

    Methods: Well-acknowledged experts from various countries in Europe have contributed to this article. After literature review, consensus has been achieved by repetitive circulation of the statements and the full manuscript among all authors with intermittent adaptation to comments (using a modified Delphi process). Levels of evidence and agreement were rated according to the GRADE system. Consensus was defined a priori as agreement by at least 75% of the authors.

    Results: Key recommendations include the use of FMT in recurrent C. difficile infection characterised by at least two previous standard treatments without persistent cure, as well as its consideration in severe and severe-complicated C. difficile infection as an alternative to total colectomy in case of early failure of antimicrobial therapy. FMT in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and metabolic syndrome should only be performed in research settings.

    Conclusions: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer is a promising treatment for a variety of diseases in which the intestinal microbiota is disturbed. For indications other than C. difficile infection, more evidence is needed before more concrete recommendations can be made.

  • Bouvier, Gwen
    et al.
    University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Bouvier, Gwen
    University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Machin, David
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    How Advertisers Use Sound and Music to Communicate Ideas, Attitudes and Identities: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Approach2013In: The Multimodal Analysis of Television Commercials / [ed] Pennock-Spek, B. & Del Saz Rubio, M.M., Valencia, Spain: University of Valencia Press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Bouvier, Gwen
    University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
    Bouvier, Gwen
    University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
    “Breaking News”: The First Hours of BBC Coverage of 9/11 as a Media Event2007In: How the World's News Media Reacted to 9/11 / [ed] Tomasz Pludowski, Washington, USA: Marquette Books , 2007, 51-83 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Camauër, Leonor
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Camauër, Leonor
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Media & Citizenship: Transnational Television Cultures Reshaping Political Identities in the European Union2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes results from WP3 (the focus group study) and WP4 (the Identity and Citizenship-study) drawing on previous deliverables (mainly D. 11, 13, 15-16, 17 and 19) and further developing earlier analyses. It begins by presenting results as to Arabic-speakers’ media uses, especially foregrounding the various ways in which they combine channels from the countries of origin with transnational and Swedish channels, and the high level of media literacy shown in their assessments of the channels they watch. After that, senses of identity and civic belonging are discussed, as well as the ways in which participants experience these belongings. Participants’ civic literacy is also emphasized, i.e. their ability to reflect upon and compare legal regimes and forms of governance in different countries.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Piracy, musical work, and the monosexual concept of creativity: Time to do away with an obsolete metaphor and affirm the mothership connection?2016In: Music in an Intercultural Perspective / [ed] A. Ferreira Corrêa, Brasilia: Strong Edições , 2016, 41-48 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article highlights the interrelation of the notions of piracy, musical work and genius composer. It is shown how the metaphor of the pirate requires a treasured object to steal. This object is the immaterial musical work, composed by a musical genius. Although this genius is a myth of romanticism, it is also shown how it is founded on an ancient notion of “monosexuality.” This notion, it is argued, has negative consequences for composers, musicians and listeners alike. Together, the metaphors of the pirate, the genius and the work constitute a figure of thought that at the beginning of the 21st century fulfills a legitimizing function for a malfunctioning copyright. It is therefore suggested that the pirate metaphor be jettisoned along with that of the romantic genius and the immaterial musical work. In its stead the mothership connection may be a more constructive metaphor.

  • Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial Orientation: A reconceptualization and empirical investigationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation and Opportunity Identification to performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University College of Southeast Norway, Tonsberg, Norway.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University College of Southeast Norway, Tonsberg, Norway.
    Hagander, Anna
    University College, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mahjoubipour, Farzane
    University College, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    How Vaginal Infections Impact Women's Everyday Life: Women's Lived Experiences of Bacterial Vaginosis and Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis2017In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5205, Vol. 7, no 1, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reoccurring symptoms and persistent problems that continue post treatment can becharacteristic of the vaginal infections Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) and recurrent vulvovaginalcandidiasis (RVVC). The purpose of this study was to describe women’s lifeexperiences in managing the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis and Candida. Sixteenwomen were recruited and participated in an interview study when they contacted aSwedish gynecology clinic with vaginal complaints that ranged from and includedabnormal discharge, irritation itching along with serious malodor. An interpretivephenomenological approach was used with an individual interview to get a more intimateunderstanding of the women experiencing these problems. The finding of thisstudy shows that managing the recurrent symptoms of the infections remains to be achallenge for women as it has a clearly negative impact on the quality of their lives.Four themes developed: frustration and mood disorders, intimacy changes in the relationship,exposure, hope and relief. The women had high hopes of eliminating thesymptoms within the six-month study period. The treatment program, with itswell-developed guidelines and continuity of care within the context of the studygreatly improved the quality of life of these women. Women had feelings of frustrationand anxiety when nothing could cure their problem while they had also a greathope to get rid of the symptoms with a long striking treatment. Well-developedguidelines and continuity of care can help these women to have an improved qualityof life.

  • Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Art of Being Big, Strong and Full of Power: Swedish Combat Sports, Norms and Gender from the 1990s up until today2016In: 9th Meeting of the Transnational Working Group for the Study of Gender and Sport: 24th-26th November 2016, Bochum, Germany, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, men have dominated the field of modern sports. Consequently, many sports carry associations where traditional ‘male’ characteristics and qualities are valued and traditional ‘female’ characteristics and qualities are devalued (see eg Messner, 1992). More precisely, many sports ‘create’ men and ideals of masculinities. In this paper combat sports (MMA, boxing, karate, Japanese jujitsu etcetera) are studied as examples of sports that shape gender and body ideals. Combat sports express at least two typical ideals of masculinity: muscle strength and (sanctioned) control of violence (Brace-Govan , 2004; Gill, 2007). Women who have exercised these sports have thus been challenging men’s ‘monopoly’ of being strong, big, violent and powerful and other traditionally ‘male’ norms. The aim of this paper is to study, from a gender perspective, how Swedish combat sports have changed since the 1990s. The main question is: How is the increased number of women in combat sports to be understood? Is it a sign of a (feminist) emancipation or has the inclusion of women been on exclusive terms - that is, do men’s domination find new ways to exercise its powers? In the end, this paper also raises questions of the changing contents of violence and muscularity. In so far, the material consists of focus group interviews and individual interviews with combat sports women, from the elite to the recreational level. Magazines will be analysed during 2016-2017. Theoretically, the paper draws on theories of hegemony and gender (Connell, 1983, 2005, Hearn, 2015). The preliminary results show that women, on one hand, portray active subjects that challenge male (sporting) traditions and male norms. Combat sports, some women tell, are increasing ones self-esteem and self-confidence. On the other hand, the female versions of combat sports are not taken as seriously as the male version, which becomes obvious by lower compensation and less media attention. Women are also expected to act as feminine subjects and are thereby ‘forced’ to relate their bodies, clothes etcetera to social and more general understandings of feminine ideals (cf. Clasen, 2001).

  • Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Sofie
    SISU Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergvall Virtanen, Peter
    Örebro Läns Idrottsförbund, Örebro, Sweden.
    Managing Progression: Örebro Sports County´s Efforts to Reduce Gender Gap and Increase Gender Equality2016In: SVEBI 2016 / [ed] Håkan Larsson, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overall ambition with the gender equality objectives of Swedish sports is that gender mainstreaming should permeate every decision, in all activities, and at every level of the sports movement. Despite the fact that modern sports, to a large extent, have privileged (some) men and (some) masculinities, increasing female participation has, since the 1970s, also characterized Swedish modern sports. However, in the county of Örebro, male participation in associative sports, among 7- to 25-year-olds, is approximately 67 per cent according to LOK-statistics (Lokalt aktivitetsstöd – Local Activity Support). This unequal representation has initiated a work of that includes structural as well as individual factors.

    Aim and Theoretical Frames: This paper presents an ongoing gender equality project enacting a double-focus on, firstly, recruiting and empowering women/girls in sports and secondly, making visible privileges for men and masculinities in sports and educating participative clubs (i.e. coaches, leaders and board members) in issues concerning gender, norms and masculine domination.

    Theoretically the project is inspired from critical perspectives on gender, men and masculinities and the hegemonic masculinity thesis (HMT).

    Method: Methodologically this project draws on mixed governing methods which explores the dilemma of implementing a policy in a self-autonomous, voluntary culture. More precisely, participating clubs has applied for economical backing (from Idrottslyftet) for one-year, financing gender equality projects aiming to, on one hand, empower or recruit a disadvantaged social group or, on the other hand, to raise awareness of the existing norms in club’s culture (e.g. masculinity or heterosexual norms). The clubs’ specific projects vary greatly depending on sport genre, number of members/volunteers in the club and other conditions regarding work efforts and access to sport facilities etcetera. Diverse cooperation with local governments in the county of Örebro has also been employed involving financial support and other “structural” target areas. Since knowledge of gender equality and gender awareness is vital for a change management, the participating clubs must partake in educational meetings and, at the end of the year, also give a presentation for all participative clubs at joint forum about their project and its concrete results. Beside these strategical efforts, interviews and observations have also been utilized.

    Findings: Changing a rigid structure, such as sports, is a challenge and must, as a suggestion, involve several institutions as well as motivated agents. One central finding is the importance of raising awareness about budgets, facilities and investments from a gender perspective. In some cases, these kind of questions have not been raised before. In other words, the motivation among politicians and club members vary, which causes a reproductive potential of the gender gap. In the work, we have also found different techniques for reproducing men’s power advantage through, for example, the planning and placing of training sessions, the non-encouragement for girls to become “professional” athletes but also how women, themselves, support structures that discriminate themselves.

    Discussion: Tentatively, the discussion focuses on dilemmas and the complexities of measuring and managing sports’ gender equality. Several issues for discussion return throughout the project, such as: what should be measured and how and why? Identifying such essential factors leads to the issue of how to manage a change of these factors. What institutions should be involved? What demands could, on one hand, be placed on a local club (with a right of self-determination) and, on the other hand, the governing sports bodies (that should implement government policies)?

  • Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Youth & Society.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Youth & Society.
    Ekström, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. Youth & Society.
    Ungdomars politiska utveckling: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2016Book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-02-01 10:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Biografen, Örebro
    Yang, Yishen
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yang, Yishen
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    On Rank-invariant Methods for Ordinal Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from rating scale assessments have rank-invariant properties only, which means that the data represent an ordering, but lack of standardized magnitude, inter-categorical distances, and linearity. Even though the judgments often are coded by natural numbers they are not really metric. The aim of this thesis is to further develop the nonparametric rank-based Svensson methods for paired ordinal data that are based on the rank-invariant properties only.

    The thesis consists of five papers. In Paper I the asymptotic properties of the measure of systematic disagreement in paired ordinal data, the Relative Position (RP), and the difference in RP between groups were studied. Based on the findings of asymptotic normality, two tests for analyses of change within group and between groups were proposed. In Paper II the asymptotic properties of rank-based measures, e.g. the Svensson’s measures of systematic disagreement and of additional individual variability were discussed, and a numerical method for approximation was suggested. In Paper III the asymptotic properties of the measures for paired ordinal data, discussed in Paper II, were verified by simulations. Furthermore, the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (rs) and the Svensson’s augmented rank-order agreement coefficient (ra) were compared. By demonstrating how they differ and why they differ, it is emphasized that they measure different things. In Paper IV the proposed test in Paper I for comparing two groups of systematic changes in paired ordinal data was compared with other nonparametric tests for group changes, both regarding different approaches of categorising changes. The simulation reveals that the proposed test works better for small and unbalanced samples. Paper V demonstrates that rank invariant approaches can also be used in analysis of ordinal data from multi-item scales, which is an appealing and appropriate alternative to calculating sum scores.

    List of papers
    1. Non-parametric analyses of change within group and between two groups of paired assessments on rating scales
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-parametric analyses of change within group and between two groups of paired assessments on rating scales
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54444 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Asymptotic distribution of rank-based measures for paired ordinal data and their use in interval estimations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymptotic distribution of rank-based measures for paired ordinal data and their use in interval estimations
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54446 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysing inter-rater agreement: Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient vs. Svensson’s augmented rank order agreement correlation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing inter-rater agreement: Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient vs. Svensson’s augmented rank order agreement correlation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54448 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparison of methods for comparing two groups of paired ordinal data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of methods for comparing two groups of paired ordinal data
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54449 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. The use of rank-invariant method in analysis of change in multiitem scales
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of rank-invariant method in analysis of change in multiitem scales
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54450 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    A sociology of environmental representation2016In: Environmental Sociology, ISSN 2325-1042, Vol. 2, no 4, 355-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment cannot plead its own case but must be represented. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of representation and demonstrate its relevance for environmental sociology. Drawing on Pitkin’s classic work on representation, we discuss representation as both ‘acting for’ and ‘standing for’. We also make a distinction between actors (representatives) and devices used as representations (e.g. descriptions, graphs and images), while discussing the intertwinement of these two aspects in representative practices. This paper stresses the performativity dimension and social embeddedness of representative practices. It sheds light on different meanings and implications of environmental representation, examining issues of claimmaking and what it means to represent the environment in various instances. Given the complex, durable and transboundary character of many topical environmental problems, the paper argues that it is essential to recognize and understand environmental representation in all its variety. It is moreover argued that a sociological elaboration of the concept of representation provides a basis for understanding the conditions for environmental politics, governance, management and

  • Biswas, Animesh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Reproductive and Child Health Unit, Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Animesh
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Reproductive and Child Health Unit, Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Halim, M. A.
    Reproductive and Child Health Unit, Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Reproductive and Child Health Unit, Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Exploration of social factors associated to maternal deaths due to haemorrhage and convulsions: Analysis of 28 social autopsies in rural Bangladesh2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, no 1, 659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social autopsy is an innovative approach to explore social barriers and factors associated to a death in the community. The process also sensitize the community people to avert future deaths. Social autopsy has been introduced in maternal deaths in Bangladesh first time in 2010. This study is to identify the social factors in the rural community associated to maternal deaths. It also looks at how the community responses in social autopsy intervention to prevent future maternal deaths.

    Methods: The study was conducted in the Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh in 2010. We have purposively selected 28 social autopsy cases of which maternal deaths occurred due to either haemorrhage or due to convulsions. The autopsy was conducted by the Government health and family planning first line field supervisors in rural community. Family members and neighbours of the deceased participated in each autopsy and provided their comments and responses.

    Results: A number of social factors including delivery conducted by the untrained birth attendant or family members, delays in understanding about maternal complications, delays in decision making to transfer the mother, lack of proper knowledge, education and traditional myth influences the maternal deaths. The community identified their own problems, shared within them and decide upon rectify themselves for future death prevention.

    Conclusions: Social autopsy is a useful tools to identify social community within the community by discussing the factors that took place during a maternal death. The process supports villagers to think and change their behavioural patterns and commit towards preventing such deaths in the future.

  • Ingberg, Edvin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap.
    Ingberg, Edvin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap.
    Challenges in experimental stroke research: The 17β-estradiol example2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ischemic stroke causes millions of deaths around the world each year, and surviving patients often suffer from long-term disability. Hundreds of promising drug candidates have been identified in animal models, but the clinical trials have repeatedly failed. Lack of methodological quality in the animal studies, e.g. low statistical power as a result of small group sizes in combination with high outcome variability and high mortality, has been suggested to in part explain the lack of translational success. In the meta-analytical Papers II and Paper V, we therefore investigated how method parameters impact infarct size variation and mortality in rodent stroke studies. These findings can help researchers to optimize their animal models or to more exactly predict variability and mortality given a certain experimental setup.

    The relation between ischemic stroke and estrogens is complex. Premenopausal women have a lower risk of stroke than men of the same age, suggesting that female sex hormones provide protection against cerebrovascular events. The idea of a beneficial effect on the brain of estrogens was also supported by epidemiological studies showing that estrogens given as postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy decreased the risk of stroke. However, subsequent clinical trials reported the opposite, an increased risk. Interestingly, discrepancies exist also in the animal stroke literature. The majority of the rodent studies on the effects of estrogens have shown protection, but there are also several examples of increased damage. Based on experimental results and a meta-analysis, it was hypothesized that differences in hormone administration methods and their resulting plasma concentrations of estrogens might explain the previous discordant animal findings. Paper I investigated the commonly used methods for 17β-estradiol administration and found that the popular slow-release pellets produced high and unpredictable serum concentrations. A novel method with 17β-estradiol administered orally in Nutella® was also evaluated with promising results. Paper III extracted data regarding methodological choices from all previously published estrogen-stroke studies, and showed through metaanalysis that slow-release pellets are more prone to render estrogens damaging. Finally, Paper IV tested whether estrogens could both exert neuroprotection and promote detrimental effects merely depending on dose and irrespective of the administration route. Surprisingly, and in contrast to the hypothesis, a significant negative correlation was found between 17β-estradiol dose group and infarct size meaning that the higher the dose, the smaller the infarcts.

    In summary, this thesis does not confirm the hypothesis of dose-related neuroprotective vs neurodamaging effects of estrogens on ischemic stroke. If high estrogen doses/plasma concentrations per se can cause increased stroke damage, such a phenomenon is not very robust, and seems to depend on tight dose ranges and/or other experimental circumstances. Although not directly applicable to the clinical situation, hopefully in a long-term perspective these findings may contribute in elucidating when estrogens are beneficial and when they are harmful. Further, it adds to the growing literature on how the quality of experimental stroke research can be increased to try to overcome translational difficulties.

    List of papers
    1. Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice
    2012 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 175, no 1, 188-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rodent models constitute a cornerstone in the elucidation of the effects and biological mechanisms of 17β-estradiol. However, a thorough assessment of the methods for long-term administration of 17β-estradiol to mice is lacking. The fact that 17β-estradiol has been demonstrated to exert different effects depending on dose emphasizes the need for validated administration regimens. Therefore, 169 female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and administered 17β-estradiol using one of the two commonly used subcutaneous methods; slow-release pellets (0.18 mg, 60-day release pellets; 0.72 mg, 90-day release pellets) and silastic capsules (with/without convalescence period, silastic laboratory tubing, inner/outer diameter: 1.575/3.175 mm, filled with a 14 mm column of 36 μg 17β-estradiol/mL sesame oil), or a novel peroral method (56 μg 17β-estradiol/day/kg body weight in the hazelnut cream Nutella). Forty animals were used as ovariectomized and intact controls. Serum samples were obtained weekly for five weeks and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. The peroral method resulted in steady concentrations within--except on one occasion--the physiological range and the silastic capsules produced predominantly physiological concentrations, although exceeding the range by maximum a factor three during the first three weeks. The 0.18 mg pellet yielded initial concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the physiological range, which then decreased drastically, and the 0.72 mg pellet produced between 18 and 40 times higher concentrations than the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method and silastic capsules described in this article constitute reliable modes of administration of 17β-estradiol, superior to the widely used commercial pellets.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maryland Heigths, USA: Elsevier, 2012
    Keyword
    Estradiol, mice, slow-release pellets, silastic capsule, Per os, uterine weight
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48106 (URN)10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.11.014 (DOI)000299065800022 ()22137913 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84855192470 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Method parameters' impact on mortality and variability in rat stroke experiments: a meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method parameters' impact on mortality and variability in rat stroke experiments: a meta-analysis
    2013 (English)In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 14, 41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though more than 600 stroke treatments have been shown effective in preclinical studies, clinically proven treatment alternatives for cerebral infarction remain scarce. Amongst the reasons for the discrepancy may be methodological shortcomings, such as high mortality and outcome variability, in the preclinical studies. A common approach in animal stroke experiments is that A) focal cerebral ischemia is inflicted, B) some type of treatment is administered and C) the infarct sizes are assessed. However, within this paradigm, the researcher has to make numerous methodological decisions, including choosing rat strain and type of surgical procedure. Even though a few studies have attempted to address the questions experimentally, a lack of consensus regarding the optimal methodology remains.

    Methods: We therefore meta-analyzed data from 502 control groups described in 346 articles to find out how rat strain, procedure for causing focal cerebral ischemia and the type of filament coating affected mortality and infarct size variability.

    Results: The Wistar strain and intraluminal filament procedure using a silicone coated filament was found optimal in lowering infarct size variability. The direct and endothelin methods rendered lower mortality rate, whereas the embolus method increased it compared to the filament method.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current article provides means for researchers to adjust their middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) protocols to minimize infarct size variability and mortality.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2013
    Keyword
    Brain infarction, middle cerebral artery occlusion, rats, methods, mortality, variability
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48100 (URN)10.1186/1471-2202-14-41 (DOI)000318616000001 ()23548160 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84875538383 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Impact of methodology on estrogens' effects on cerebral ischemia in rats: an updated meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of methodology on estrogens' effects on cerebral ischemia in rats: an updated meta-analysis
    2014 (English)In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 15, 22- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although most animal stroke studies have demonstrated potent neuroprotective effects of estrogens, there are a number of articles reporting the opposite. In 2009, we made the case that this dichotomy was related to administered estrogen dose. Several other suggestions for the discordant results have also been propagated, including the age of the experimental animals and the length of hypoestrogenicity prior to estrogen administration. These two suggestions have gained much popularity, probably because of their kinship with the window of opportunity hypothesis, which is commonly used to explain the analogous dichotomy among human studies. We were therefore encouraged to perform an updated meta-analysis, and to improve it by including all relevant variables in a large multiple regression model, where the impact of confounders could be controlled for.

    Results: The multiple regression model revealed an indisputable impact of estrogen administration mode on the effects of estrogens in ischemic stroke. Subcutaneous slow-release pellets differed from the injection and silastic capsule treatments in terms of impact of estrogens on ischemic stroke, showing that the first mentioned were more prone to render estrogens damaging. Neither the use of elderly animals nor the adoption of longer wash-out periods influenced estrogens' effects on experimental ischemic stroke in rats.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the discordant results regarding estrogens' effects in rat models of ischemic stroke are a consequence of differences in estrogen administration modes. These results are not only of importance for the ongoing debate regarding menopausal hormone therapy, but also have an important bearing on experimental stroke methodology and the apparent translational roadblock for suggested stroke interventions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: BioMed Central, 2014
    Keyword
    Cerebral ischemia, Estradiol, Estrogens, Meta-analysis, Rats, Stroke
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35219 (URN)10.1186/1471-2202-15-22 (DOI)000334885400001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    County Council of Örebro

    Linköping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2014-06-02 Created: 2014-06-02 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Effects of high and low 17β-estradiol doses on focal cerebral ischemia in rats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of high and low 17β-estradiol doses on focal cerebral ischemia in rats
    2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 20228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the numerous animal studies of the effects of estrogens on cerebral ischemia have reported neuroprotective results, but a few have shown increased damage. Differences in hormone administration methods, resulting in highly different 17β-estradiol levels, may explain the discrepancies in previously reported effects. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that it is the delivered dose per se, and not the route and method of administration, that determines the effect, and that high doses are damaging while lower doses are protective. One hundred and twenty ovariectomized female Wistar rats (n = 40 per group) were randomized into three groups, subcutaneously administered different doses of 17β-estradiol and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The modified sticky tape test was performed after 24 h and the rats were subsequently sacrificed for infarct size measurements. In contrast to our hypothesis, a significant negative correlation between 17β-estradiol dose and infarct size was found (p = 0.018). Thus, no support was found for the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol can be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic merely depending on dose. In fact, on the contrary, the findings indicate that the higher the dose of 17β-estradiol, the smaller the infarct.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, United Kingdom: Nature Publishing Group, 2016
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48094 (URN)10.1038/srep20228 (DOI)000369323500001 ()26839007 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957824658 (ScopusID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    County Council of Östergötland, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
    5. Method parameters' impact on mortality and variability in mouse stroke experiments: a meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method parameters' impact on mortality and variability in mouse stroke experiments: a meta-analysis
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 21086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although hundreds of promising substances have been tested in clinical trials, thrombolysis currently remains the only specific pharmacological treatment for ischemic stroke. Poor quality, e.g. low statistical power, in the preclinical studies has been suggested to play an important role in these failures. Therefore, it would be attractive to use animal models optimized to minimize unnecessary mortality and outcome variability, or at least to be able to power studies more exactly by predicting variability and mortality given a certain experimental setup. The possible combinations of methodological parameters are innumerous, and an experimental comparison of them all is therefore not feasible. As an alternative approach, we extracted data from 334 experimental mouse stroke articles and, using a hypothesis-driven meta-analysis, investigated the method parameters' impact on infarct size variability and mortality. The use of Swiss and C57BL6 mice as well as permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery rendered the lowest variability of the infarct size while the emboli methods increased variability. The use of Swiss mice increased mortality. Our study offers guidance for researchers striving to optimize mouse stroke models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2016
    National Category
    Neurology
    Research subject
    Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48937 (URN)10.1038/srep21086 (DOI)000370034300001 ()26876353 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84958259183 (ScopusID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    County Council of Östergötland, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy
    University of Bergen.
    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy
    University of Bergen.
    Frå folkeopplysning til omdømmehandtering?  : om institusjonalisering og profesjonalisering av informasjons- & kommunikasjonsarbeid i norske sjukehus2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Krzyzanowska, Natalia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Krzyzanowska, Natalia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Antypomniki jako przedstawienia (nie)pamięci w mieście [(Counter)monuments as presentations of (un) memory in the city]2016In: Znaki (nie) pamięci. Teoria i parktyka upamiętnienia w Polsce / [ed] Małgorzata Fabiszak, Anna W. Brzeźińska, Marcin Owsiński, Kraków, Poland: Universitas , 2016, 1, 57-71 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article aims to reflect upon the possibility to visualize the collective memory and (un)memory in the urban space. The author focuses on a kind of evolution of the ways of commemoration: from the traditional monuments raised in the public space of the city in order to commemorate an event or an eminent person important to the community, to the (counter)monuments as a contemporary, critical reaction of the artists to what is often deliberately (un)remembered, omitted in the historical narrations or  wanders verging on the collective memory. The analysis of the installation titled „The Missing Image” (2015) by Ruth Beckermann will serve as an example of possible, multiple interpretation of the function and multitude of meanings of the (counter)monuments in the urban space, in the context of visualizations of the (un)memory.

  • Public defence: 2017-01-27 09:00 Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Paramel Varghese, Geena
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Paramel Varghese, Geena
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Innate immunity in human atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: Role of CARD8 and NLRP32017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis is complex inflammatory disease of the arterial wall with progressive accumulation of lipids and narrowing of the vessel. Increasing evidence suggest that inflammation plays an important role in plaque stability and often accelerate cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction (MI). Among the vast number of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β is known to be a key modulator in vessel wall inflammation and acceleration of the atherosclerotic process. The biologically active IL-1β is regulated by a multiprotein complex known as the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. In this thesis, we have focused on polymorphisms in the NLRP3 and CARD8 genes and their possible association to atherosclerosis and/or MI. We have also investigated the expression of inflammasome components NLRP3 and CARD8 in atherosclerosis and the role of genetic variants for the expression of these genes. The expression of NLRP3, CARD8, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were found significantly upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions compared to normal arteries. Human carotid plaques not only express the NLRP3 inflammasome, but also release IL-1β upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cholesterol crystals, which suggest NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human atherosclerotic lesions. Also, CARD8 was found to be important in the regulation of several inflammatory markers in endothelial cells, like RANTES, IP10 and ICAM-1. We further assessed the potential association of a CARD8 polymorphism and polymorphisms located downstream of the NLRP3 gene to the risk of MI in two independent Swedish cohorts. The CARD8 variant exhibited no association to risk of MI in either of the two cohorts. Some of the minor alleles of NLRP3 variants were associated with increased IL-1β levels and to NLRP3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood monocytic cells (PBMC). Taken together, the present thesis shows that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and increased expression of CARD8 in the atherosclerotic plaque might be possible contributors to the enhanced inflammatory response and leukocyte infiltration in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

    List of papers
    1. NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Activation in Human Atherosclerosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Activation in Human Atherosclerosis
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 5, no 5, e003031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokine processing complex that is activated in inflammatory conditions. The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction is not fully understood.

    Methods and Results: Atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed for transcripts of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and for IL-1β release. The Swedish First-ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac-county (FIA) cohort consisting of DNA from 555 myocardial infarction patients and 1016 healthy individuals was used to determine the frequency of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the downstream regulatory region of NLRP3. Expression of NLRP3, Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1 (CASP1), IL1B, and IL18 mRNA was significantly increased in atherosclerotic plaques compared to normal arteries. The expression of NLRP3 mRNA was significantly higher in plaques of symptomatic patients when compared to asymptomatic ones. CD68-positive macrophages were observed in the same areas of atherosclerotic lesions as NLRP3 and ASC expression. Occasionally, expression of NLRP3 and ASC was also present in smooth muscle cells. Cholesterol crystals and ATP induced IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide-primed human atherosclerotic lesion plaques. The minor alleles of the variants rs4266924, rs6672995, and rs10733113 were associated with NLRP3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not with the risk of myocardial infarction.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate a possible role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its genetic variants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2016
    Keyword
    Inflammasome, interleukin-1b, myocardial infarction, NLRP3, polymorphism
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Research subject
    Cardiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50441 (URN)10.1161/JAHA.115.003031 (DOI)000386711200020 ()27207962 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 6816 K2012-64X-12233-13-3Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20110359Magnus Bergvall Foundation
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Center of Excellence for Research on Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease (CERIC) Linnaeus Center8703

    Foundation for Strategic Research, Uppdrag Besegra Stroke P581/2011-123

    Strategic Cardiovascular Programs of Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm County Council ALF 20110279

    Örebro University

    Sigurd and Elsa Goljes Foundation

    Available from: 2016-05-26 Created: 2016-05-26 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Q705Kvariant in NLRP3 gene confers protection against myocardial infarction infemale individuals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Q705Kvariant in NLRP3 gene confers protection against myocardial infarction infemale individuals
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Biomedical Reports, ISSN 2049-9434, Vol. 1, no 6, 879-882 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is a multifaceted process that underlies the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Variations in the inflammasome‑related NLRP3 gene have been associated with risk for a number of different inflammatory diseases. Therefore, Q705K polymorphism in NLRP3 gene likely confers susceptibility to risk for MI. A First‑ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac‑county (FIA) cohort comprising 555 MI patients and 1,016 controls was used to genotype rs35829419 in the NLRP3 gene by TaqMan single‑nucleotide polymorphism assay. C‑reactive protein (CRP) was measured in the study participants by ELISA. The results showed no significant association between the variant rs35829419 and MI. However, the minor A allele of the rs35829419 polymorphism conferred a protective effect against the risk of developing MI in females. The minor A allele of rs35829419 polymorphism was also associated with increased CRP levels in males. Results of the study suggested a gender‑specific deregulation of NLRP3 gene mediated by rs35829419 polymorphism that confers protection against MI in females but has no effect on MI susceptibility in males. However, the rs35829419 polymorphism was associated with increased CRP levels among the male subjects, thereby demonstrating the possible effect of the Q705K polymorphism in elevating the basal active state of innate immune response.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35448 (URN)10.3892/br.2013.155 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-19 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
    3. CARD8 gene encoding a protein of innate immunity is expressed in human atherosclerosis and associated with markers of inflammation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>CARD8 gene encoding a protein of innate immunity is expressed in human atherosclerosis and associated with markers of inflammation
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Clinical Science, ISSN 0143-5221, E-ISSN 1470-8736, Vol. 125, no 8, 401-407 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is a key factor in the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is promoted through the inflammasome, a molecular machine that produces IL (interleukin)-1 beta in response to cholesterol crystal accumulation in macrophages. The CARD8 (caspase recruitment domain 8) protein modulates this process by suppressing caspase 1 and the transcription factor NF-kappa B (nuclear factor kappa B). The expression of CARD8 mRNA was examined in atherosclerotic vascular tissue and the impact on MI (myocardial infarction) of a polymorphism in the CARD8 gene determined. CARD8 mRNA was analysed by microarray of human atherosclerotic tissue and compared with transplant donor arterial tissue. Microarray analysis was performed for proximal genes associated with the rs2043211 locus in plaque. The CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphism was analysed by genotyping of two Swedish MI cohorts, FIA (First Myocardial Infarction in Northern Sweden) and SCARF (Stockholm Coronary Atherosclerosis Risk Factor). The CRP (C-reactive protein) level was measured in both cohorts, but the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-18, TNF (tumour necrosis factor) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein) were measured in sera available from the SCARF cohort. CARD8 mRNA was highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques compared with the expression in transplant donor vessel (P < 0.00001). The minor allele was associated with lower expression of CARD8 in the plaques, suggesting that CARD8 may promote inflammation. Carriers of the minor allele of the rs2043211 polymorphism also displayed lower circulating CRP and lower levels of the pro-atherosclerotic chemokine MCP-1. However, no significant association could be detected between this polymorphism and MI in the two cohorts. Genetic alterations in the CARD8 gene therefore seem to be of limited importance for the development of MI.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, United Kingdom: Portland Press, 2013
    Keyword
    Caspase activation and recruitment domain 8 (CARD8), cytokines, gene polymorphism, inflammasome, myocardial infarction, rs2043211
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Genetics
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30985 (URN)10.1042/CS20120572 (DOI)000323852600009 ()23611467 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84880141884 (ScopusID)
    Funder
    Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Research Council, 521-2009-4203 349-2007-8703
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Magnus Bergvalls Foundation

    Örebro University

    Available from: 2013-09-27 Created: 2013-09-27 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
    4. CARD8, a protein of innate immunity regulates the release of inflammatory cytokines in human endothelial cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>CARD8, a protein of innate immunity regulates the release of inflammatory cytokines in human endothelial cells
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54142 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
  • Krug, Robert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Krug, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tincani, Vinicio
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mosberger, Rafael
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fantoni, Gualtiero
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The Next Step in Robot Commissioning: Autonomous Picking and Palletizing2016In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, Vol. 1, no 1, 546-553 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    So far, autonomous order picking (commissioning) systems have not been able to meet the stringent demands regarding speed, safety, and accuracy of real-world warehouse automation, resulting in reliance on human workers. In this letter, we target the next step in autonomous robot commissioning: automatizing the currently manual order picking procedure. To this end, we investigate the use case of autonomous picking and palletizing with a dedicated research platform and discuss lessons learned during testing in simplified warehouse settings. The main theoretical contribution is a novel grasp representation scheme which allows for redundancy in the gripper pose placement. This redundancy is exploited by a local, prioritized kinematic controller which generates reactive manipulator motions on-the-fly. We validated our grasping approach by means of a large set of experiments, which yielded an average grasp acquisition time of 23.5 s at a success rate of 94.7%. Our system is able to autonomously carry out simple order picking tasks in a humansafe manner, and as such serves as an initial step toward future commercial-scale in-house logistics automation solutions.

  • Canelhas, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Canelhas, Daniel R.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    From Feature Detection in Truncated Signed Distance Fields to Sparse Stable Scene Graphs2016In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, Vol. 1, no 2, 1148-1155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased availability of GPUs and multicore CPUs, volumetric map representations are an increasingly viable option for robotic applications. A particularly important representation is the truncated signed distance field (TSDF) that is at the core of recent advances in dense 3D mapping. However, there is relatively little literature exploring the characteristics of 3D feature detection in volumetric representations. In this paper we evaluate the performance of features extracted directly from a 3D TSDF representation. We compare the repeatability of Integral invariant features, specifically designed for volumetric images, to the 3D extensions of Harris and Shi & Tomasi corners. We also study the impact of different methods for obtaining gradients for their computation. We motivate our study with an example application for building sparse stable scene graphs, and present an efficient GPU-parallel algorithm to obtain the graphs, made possible by the combination of TSDF and 3D feature points. Our findings show that while the 3D extensions of 2D corner-detection perform as expected, integral invariants have shortcomings when applied to discrete TSDFs. We conclude with a discussion of the cause for these points of failure that sheds light on possible mitigation strategies.

  • Stoyanov, Todor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Krug, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Muthusamy, Rajkumar
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Grasp Envelopes: Extracting Constraints on Gripper Postures from Online Reconstructed 3D Models2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Piscataway, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 885-892 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grasping systems that build upon meticulously planned hand postures rely on precise knowledge of object geometry, mass and frictional properties - assumptions which are often violated in practice. In this work, we propose an alternative solution to the problem of grasp acquisition in simple autonomous pick and place scenarios, by utilizing the concept of grasp envelopes: sets of constraints on gripper postures. We propose a fast method for extracting grasp envelopes for objects that fit within a known shape category, placed in an unknown environment. Our approach is based on grasp envelope primitives, which encode knowledge of human grasping strategies. We use environment models, reconstructed from noisy sensor observations, to refine the grasp envelope primitives and extract bounded envelopes of collision-free gripper postures. Also, we evaluate the envelope extraction procedure both in a stand alone fashion, as well as an integrated component of an autonomous picking system.

  • Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Madelene
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Systerskap för att främja tjejers hälsa: En studie av Tjejzonens storasysterverksamhet 2011-20152016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Att sjösätta ett kommunalt servicecenter: En studie av etableringen av Örebro kommuns servicecenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • Lockby, Andreas
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Lockby, Andreas
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Sandin, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ögren, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Gulliksson, Mårten
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Finding Stationary Solutions of PDEs with Constraints using Damped Dynamical Systems2016In: Comsol Conference 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamical functional particle method(DFPM) is a method for solving equations, e.g. PDEs, using a second order damped dynamical system. We show how the method can be extended to include constraints both explicitly as global constraints and adding the constraints as additional damped dynamical equations. These methods are implemented in Comsol and we show numerical tests for finding the stationary solution of a nonlinear heat equation with and without constraints (global and dynamical). The results show that DFPM is a very general and robust way of solving PDEs and it should be of interest to implement the approach more generally in Comsol.

  • Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The Development of Conduct Problems in Early Childhood: The Role of Psychopathic Traits and Psychopathic Personality2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that children displaying conduct problems (CP) early in life are at greater risk for severe CP and other negative outcomes later in life. However, not all children with early-onset CP will develop severe CP over the life-course. Thus, it is important to identify those at greater risk, preferably as early as possible, in order to adequately prevent a negative development. Psychopathic traits have received much attention in research on risk for severe CP, involving attempts to extend these traits, and their association to CP to childhood. However, research has thus far mainly focused on one dimension of psychopathic traits, that is callousunemotional (CU) traits, to some extent neglecting two other dimensions of traits commonly included in a psychopathic personality: an interpersonal, and a behavioural dimension. Hence, we still do not know if a full psychopathic personality is identifiable in early childhood, and if and how it is related to the development of severe and persistent CP. The aim of this dissertation was to examine if a psychopathic personality could be identified in early childhood, if psychopathic traits are stable over time, and if and how the psychopathic personality is related to childhood CP. Overall, the results show that psychopathic traits, as well as the display of a psychopathic personality, could be identified in early childhood. These traits were stable over time, and they were clearly and strongly related to childhood CP. Additionally, the combination of early-onset CP and a full psychopathic personality seems to be the most precarious for severe and persistent CP, even more so than the combination of CP and CU traits. With careful consideration to ethical aspects, these results are discussed both in relation to a developmental psychopathology perspective on CP, as well as in relation to diagnostic practice as it is framed today.

    List of papers
    1. A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory
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    2014 (English)In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 36, no 1, 4-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2014
    Keyword
    Assessment, Child problematic traits inventory (CPTI), Children, Conduct problems, Psychopathic personality
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34505 (URN)10.1007/s10862-013-9385-y (DOI)000331971900002 ()24610971 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84900376759 (ScopusID)
    Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Psychopathic Traits During Early Childhood: Stable Over Time or Rapidly Changing?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic Traits During Early Childhood: Stable Over Time or Rapidly Changing?
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53549 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Childhood Psychopathic Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the Prediction of Conduct Problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood Psychopathic Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the Prediction of Conduct Problems
    2016 (English)In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ISSN 0002-9432, E-ISSN 1939-0025Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality. Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that psychopathic traits alone (without co-occurring CP) did not consistently predict continuing childhood CP, but did so, among both boys and girls, in combination with concurrent conduct problems. It is important to note that, the combination of concurrent CP and the entire psychopathic personality, that is, a 3-dimensional psychopathic construct, was a stronger predictor of continuing childhood CP than the combination of concurrent CP and Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits among boys but not among girls.

    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53547 (URN)10.1037/ort0000205 (DOI)27786502 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Psychopathic Personality Works Better than CU Traits for Predicting Fearlessness and ADHD Symptoms among Children with Conduct Problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic Personality Works Better than CU Traits for Predicting Fearlessness and ADHD Symptoms among Children with Conduct Problems
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53548 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • Eksvärd, Karin
    et al.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Eksvärd, Jan
    Hansdotter, Emma
    Holmdahl, Joel
    Jansson, Arne
    Kjellberg, Oscar
    Klintberg, Per
    Korhonen, Annika
    Schaffer, Christina
    Sjelin, Kjell
    Stjerndahl, Thomas
    Thernsjö, Martha
    Tibell, Anders
    Velander Vredare, Susanne
    von Bothmer, Helena
    Mångfunktionella, lokala odlingssystem: Etablering av modern agroforestry i Sverige 2012-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Engelholm, Anders
    Kommunförbundet, Västernorrland.
    Engelholm, Anders
    Kommunförbundet, Västernorrland.
    Andersson, Gunnel (Contributor)
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    FOU, Västernorrland.
    Lauritzen, Märta (Contributor)
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Sandberg, Agneta (Contributor)
    Landstinget Blekinge.
    Malmsten, Kristina
    Blåsdysfunktion hos äldre personer: Indikatorer vid urininkontinens och andra symtom vid vård av äldre personer i särskilt boende eller hemsjukvård2016Report (Other academic)