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  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    En effektivare skola ger mer kunskap2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan behöver ett effektivt kvalitetsarbete. Pisa-resultaten talar sitt tydliga språk, och det är högst angeläget att vidta åtgärder som kan förbättra skolresultaten. Rapporten fokuserar på skolors systematiska kvalitetsarbete och effektiviseringsarbete och hur dessa påverkar elevernas prestationer.

  • Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sveirge.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det blivit möjligt att driva äldreomsorg i privat regi. Förespråkarna för denna utveckling pekar på valfrihet och ökad effektivitet. Kritikerna talar om vanvård och menar att äldreomsorg inte lämpar sig för marknadslösningar. I rapporten analyserar forskarna förutsättningarna för att nå god kvalitet och effektivt resursutnyttjande vid marknadsliknande lösningar i äldreomsorgen. De frågor som diskuteras i rapporten är bl.a.:

    • Hur fungerar den svenska äldreomsorgsmarknaden?
    • Under vilka förutsättningar kan valfrihet och konkurrens förbättra omsorgen?
    • Vilka krav kan och bör ställas på äldreomsorgens utförare?
    • Vilken betydelse har brukarval för omsorgens kvalitet?
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring Digital Time Measurement in the Public Sector: Labor Productivity and Service Quality in Home Care2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure labor productivity in home care using new data from the recent introduction of digital time measurement in Swedish municipalities. By measuring worker utilization (delivered hours as a share of worked hours) we avoid several problems that have plagued previous studies of public sector productivity. The time use measure exposes substantial variation in productivity between home care units, suggesting room for improvement. More productive units deliver a larger share of the hours approved by care managers and have equally satisfied users.

  • Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional, Experimental and Environmental Economics (KIE), University of Economics in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Ifo Institute, Germany; CESifo, Munich, Germany; CReAM, London, UK; IZA, BOnn, Germany.
    The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Since good-looking politicians win more votes, a beauty advantage for politicians on the left or on the right is bound to have political consequences. We show that politicians on the right look more beautiful in Europe, the United States and Australia. Our explanation is that beautiful people earn more, which makes them less inclined to support redistribution. Accordingly, our model predicts that voters use beauty as a cue for conservatism when they do not know much about candidates and that politicians on the right benefit more from beauty in low-information elections. Evidence from real and experimental elections confirms both predictions.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Cesifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden, CESifo, Stockholm, Sweden, IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Choice and Competition in the Welfare State: Home Care as the Ideal Quasi-market2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We study a reform by which a standardized model of choice and competition was introduced in tax-financed home care in a majority of Swedish municipalities. The market for home care is of particular interest since it is close to the ideal quasi-market. For identification, we exploit the different timing of reform implementation across municipalities. We find that the introduction of free choice and free entry in home care increased perceived quality by about one quarter of a standard deviation without affecting costs. Since satisfaction is unrelated to the private market share, the underlying mechanism seems to be new choice opportunities rather than competition or an advantage of private providers.

  • Angelis, Jannis
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Häger Glenngård, Anna
    Lund University School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute), Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Management Practices and the Quality of Primary Care2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the World Management Survey method, we map and analyse management quality in Swedish primary care centres. On average, private providers have higher management quality than public ones. We also find that centres with a high overall social deprivation among enrolled patients tend to have higher management quality. Regarding quality of care, we find that management quality is positively associated with accessibility, but not with patient reported experience.

  • Hogarth, Claire Milne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Theme Introduction2019In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 5-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Hogarth, Claire Milne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Summary of the Round-Table Discussion2019In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 125-128Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Tran, Pham Tue Hung
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Department ofClinical Microbiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; NanoxisConsulting AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Department ofClinical Microbiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; NanoxisConsulting AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Melik, Wessam
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Identification and characterization of host proteins inducing the endoplasmic reticulum invagination during Flavivirus infection2019In: Positive-Strand RNA Viuses, 2019, p. 280-280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Flaviviruses infect host cells, they can induce invagination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to form vesicle-like compartments. These unique structures are hypothetical to facilitate the viral replication by reducing diffusion of virus replication machinery and viral RNA, providing a scaffold to anchor the replication complex, and protecting viral RNA from host cell intrinsic surveillance. 

    The rearrangements of ER membrane to form these replication compartments (RCs) require modifications in its lipid constituents or binding of proteins to the membrane. Flaviviruses, indeed, use their proteins to generate RCs. It has been implicated that both KUNV and DENV viral NS1, NS2A, NS4A, NS4B proteins could induce membrane remodelings. However, it is recondite whether host proteins can also participate in the formation and maintenance of RCs.

    In this project, we aimed to identify and characterize of host proteins inducing RC generation during Flavivirus infections. We used A549 as a cell model, and mosquito-borne Zika and Kunjin virus, and tick-borne Langat virus as virus models. After virus infections, ER membranes were harvested using ultracentrifuge with a sucrose gradient. Proteins from these ERs were identified using mass spectrometry. We compared the differences between the ER proteomes of infected cells and non-infected cells to identify host candidate proteins that can cause the RC formation.  We are attempting to enrich the RC-containing fractions and identifying proteins here, which narrows the list of true candidate proteins. The candidate proteins then will be characterized by using molecular techniques such as gene knock down, overexpression, and microscopy techniques.

  • Ojala, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Integrating a sustainability perspective into psychology education: A review of the literature and some suggestions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, the importance of education for dealing with global sustainability problems such as climate change has been emphasized. This report focuses on education for sustainable development (ESD) in higher education. The aim is to discuss, based on research about ESD and a national evaluation of how sustainability issues are included in higher education, how a sustainability perspective can be incorporated in psychology education at the university level. Three questions are in focus: What is sustainable development and how can we best define this complex concept? What is ESD and which are the most important perspectives in the research field of higher education for sustainable development? How can sustainability issues be integrated into courses in psychology and the psychology program?

  • Tran, Pham Tue Hung
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Department ofClinical Microbiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; NanoxisConsulting AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Department ofClinical Microbiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; NanoxisConsulting AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Melik, Wessam
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Screening of host proteins interacting with Kunjin, Langat, Zika replication complex2019In: Positive-Strand Rna Viuses, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Flaviviruses infect host cells, they can induce invagination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to form vesicle-like compartments. These unique structures are hypothetical to facilitate the viral replication by reducing diffusion of virus replication machinery and viral RNA, providing a scaffold to anchor the replication complex, and protecting viral RNA from host cell intrinsic surveillance. 

    The rearrangements of ER membrane to form these replication compartments (RCs) require modifications in its lipid constituents or binding of proteins to the membrane. Flaviviruses, indeed, use their proteins to generate RCs. It has been implicated that both KUNV and DENV viral NS1, NS2A, NS4A, NS4B proteins could induce membrane remodelings. However, it is recondite whether host proteins can also participate in the formation and maintenance of RCs.

    In this project, we aimed to identify and characterize of host proteins inducing RC generation during Flavivirus infections. We used A549 as a cell model, and mosquito-borne Zika and Kunjin virus, and tick-borne Langat virus as virus models. After virus infections, ER membranes were harvested using ultracentrifuge with a sucrose gradient. Proteins from these ERs were identified using mass spectrometry. We compared the differences between the ER proteomes of infected cells and non-infected cells to identify host candidate proteins that can cause the RC formation.  We are attempting to enrich the RC-containing fractions and identifying proteins here, which narrows the list of true candidate proteins. The candidate proteins then will be characterized by using molecular techniques such as gene knock down, overexpression, and microscopy techniques.

  • Gustafsson, Karin M
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Salmonsson, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skrivutveckling i stora studentgrupper: Erfarenheter från ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a pedagogical project focusing students’ writing in higher education. Literature in this field conclude that student writing should be integrated in teaching of the subject with a plan for progression. Teachers’ and students’ experience indicate that students write a lot during their education, but only occasionally get concrete feedback on the writing as such. Focus groups with students showed that students found it difficult to write distinct and to differentiate between text genres. The teachers reported lack of ”tools” to help the students to improve their writing. The report suggest a model for the work with students writing based on goal setting; inventory; identifying problem areas; prioritizing; implementation; and follow-up and revision.

  • Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics, Dalarna University, Sweden; HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    HUI Research, Stockolm, Sweden.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics, Human Geography, Dalarna University, Sweden; HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High-growth firms: Not so vital after all?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms have received considerable interest recently since they create most of the new jobs in the economy. The purpose of our paper is to investigate the characteristics of high-growth firms prior to their growth period, and whether these characteristics differ across industries. Using data on a large sample of limited liability firms in Sweden for the period 2007-2010, we find that high-growth firms do not have the characteristics that we typically associate with successful firms. On the contrary, our results indicate that high-growth firms have low profits and a weak financial position. This might explain why studies have found that high-growth firms are seldom capable of sustaining their high growth rates in subsequent periods, and thus question policies that are targeted towards these companies.

  • Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Korpi, Martin
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Institute for Analytical Sociology (IAS), Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship and income inequality2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 145, p. 275-293Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research highlights entrepreneurship as a simultaneous source of enhanced income mobility for some but a potential source of poverty for others. Research on inequality has furthered new types of models to decompose and problematize various sources of income inequality, but attention to entrepreneurship as an increasingly prevalent occupational choice in these models remains scant. This paper seeks to bridge these two literatures using regression-based income decomposition among entrepreneurs and paid workers distinguishing between self-employed (SE) and incorporated self-employed (ISE) individuals in Sweden. We find that the proportion of self-employed in the workforce increases income dispersion by way of widening the bottom end of the distribution, whereas the proportion of incorporated self-employed contributes to income dispersion at the top end of the distribution. Implications for research are discussed. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Korpi, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Entreprenörskap och inkomstspridning: hur företagare påverkar ojämlikheten2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 53-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om inkomstojämlikhet har utvecklat modeller för att analysera inkomstspridning men har underlåtit att inkludera entreprenörskap – ett allt vanligare yrkesval. Vi undersöker hur antalet och typen av företagare påverkar inkomstskillnaderna i Sverige. Vi finner en tydlig polariseringseffekt av andelen företagare i arbetskraften: Egenföretagare ökar inkomstspridningen genom att flertalet har låga inkomster relativt löntagare, medan det omvända gäller för aktiebolagsföretagare. Påverkan sker således främst i svansarna av fördelningen, och den tycks vara som störst för egenföretagare.

  • Dissels, Rosita
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Lui Gallassi, Ada
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sue Westwood (ed.) (2019). Ageing, Diversity and Equality: Social Justice Perspectives. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 376 pp. ISBN: 978-0-415-78669-0 (hardback) [Book review]2012In: International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, ISSN 1652-8670, E-ISSN 1652-8670, Vol. 2, p. 153-157Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Grimbeek, Marinette
    Örebro University, University Library. Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013), Karlstads universitet, Karlstad.
    Margaret Atwood's Environmentalism: Apocalypse and Satire in the MaddAddam Trilogy2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers the way in which Margaret Atwood’s post-apocalyptic MaddAddam Trilogy functions as an environmental project. The main focus is on how the three novels, Oryx and Crake (2003), The Year of the Flood (2009), and MaddAddam (2013), simultaneously draw on and destabilise the apocalypticism inherent in so much environmental discourse, primarily through the use of satire. The trilogy is securely anchored in the concerns of contemporary readers, and transposition of the action to the near future is integral to Atwood’s environmental project: attention is focussed on the present causes of anticipated environmental catastrophe, which readers implicitly are implored to avoid. Atwood’s environmentalism is performed in the interplay between her literary stature, the equivocal content of her work, and the irreverence with which she metaleptically blurs distinctions between fact and fiction, art and commodity, and activism and aesthetics. Whereas the satiric mode serves as a way of avoiding some of the limitations of apocalyptic thinking by maintaining and even creating complexity, it also renders the entire project ambiguous. Uncertainty about the exact environmental injunction presented in the trilogy creates doubts about the degree to which Atwood’s extradiegetic environmental activism should be taken seriously, or conversely. Storytelling is foregrounded in all three novels, and through its concurrent critique of and reliance on market forces and the political potential of art, the MaddAddam Trilogy demonstrates that there is no external position from which the imagination can perform environmentalist miracles. As such, Atwood’s environmental project furthers a profoundly ecological understanding of the world.

  • Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Department of Language Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1-13, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • Kremel, Anna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Slutrapport: Följeforskning av MISTEL, Mötesplats för Innovation i Samverkan TEstbädd för Livskvalitet2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet MISTEL har byggt upp en väl fungerande struktur och metod för hur tester kan genomföras. Nu när projektet överförs till Västerås stad som en del i Sociala nämndernas förvaltning tar staden ett betydelsefullt utökat steg i utvecklingen för att profilera sig inom området innovationer, vård och omsorg och för att underlätta för äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning möjlighet till ett självständigt liv.

  • Wallentin, Jennie
    et al.
    Sundin, Sofi
    Hagerberg, Anna
    Andersson, Mari
    Dahlberg, Charlotta
    Enghag, Olof
    Jakowlew, Gwidon
    Waldner, Johan
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Översvämning!: Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektorn2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektornNaturolyckor såsom översvämning, torka och skogsbrand kan få allvarliga konsekvenser för jordbrukssektorn och trädgårdsnäringen. För fisket och vattenbruket kan till exempel stormar orsaka problem. I ett framtida förändrat klimat kommer de extrema väderhändelserna att bli mer omfattande och frekventa. Detta innebär att samhället behöver öka sin förmåga att bedöma konsekvenserna av översvämningar för jordbrukssektorn i ett brett perspektiv och hur konsekvenserna av extrema väderhändelser, som till exempel översvämningar, ska hanteras. Jordbruksverket har därför under åren 2013-2015 drivit ett projekt - ”Ökad förmåga att hantera konsekvenser av allvarliga väderhändelser - översvämningar som modell” - som finansierats av Jordbruksverket och Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB). Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat och slutsatser från projektet.

  • Lööv, Helena
    et al.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Sköld, Olof
    Livsmedelskonsumtionen i siffror: Hur har konsumtionen utvecklats de senaste femtio åren och varför?2015Report (Other academic)
  • Andersson, Mari
    et al.
    Ekman, Sonne
    Lannhard Öberg, Åsa
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Fungerar konkurrensen på marknaden för slaktdjur?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beror de minskade marknadsandelarna för svenskt gris-, kyckling- och nötkött till någon del på att den svenska marknaden för slaktdjur inte fungerar så bra som den kunde göra? I den här utredningen undersöker vi hur prisbildningen fungerar och hur affärsförhållandet mellan lantbrukare och slakteri ser ut. Vi kartlägger vi också strukturen i primärproduktionen och i slakterinäringen samt granskar slakteriföretagens lönsamhet. För att bättre kunna bedöma hur väl den svenska slaktdjursmarknaden fungerar görs även en internationell utblick.

  • Hansson, Anne
    et al.
    Karlsson, Arne
    Nilsson, Fabian
    Olsson, Magnus
    Widell, Lars M
    Trafikverket.
    Nya exportmarknader på livsmedelsområdet: Vilka länder utanför EU vill företagen satsa på och kan vi mäta hur det går?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har givit Jordbruksverket i uppdrag att kartlägga vilka länder utanför EU som kan anses ha stor potential för svensk export av livsmedel samt göra en analys av möjligheterna att utveckla en mer informativ handelsstatistik som bl.a. tar hänsyn till vidareexport.

    Jordbruksverkets kartläggning och analys grundas bl.a. på en enkätundersökning, djupintervjuer av livsmedelsföretag, dialog med berörda myndigheter samt information i officiella databaser.

    Av enkätundersökningen framkom att 22 procent av företagen såg länder utanför EU som möjliga framtida exportmarknader. Inom Europa bedöms Norge vara en potentiell marknad. I övriga världen är det Kina, Ryssland och USA som ligger i topp. Flest potentiella exportmarknader ser företagen för alkoholfria/alkoholsvaga drycker. Kött- och charkföretag anger potentiella marknader i bortre Asien men även i Afrika och i vårt direkta närområde såsom Norge och Ryssland. Dessutom finns ett antal bearbetade livsmedel, ofta unika produkter, där företagen ser exportmöjligheter i en rad länder spridda i flera världsdelar.

    Utifrån gjord analys bedöms det finnas en stor potential att öka exporten av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter till framförallt USA, Kina, Japan och Ryssland. Länderna ifråga är mycket stora importörer av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter och har också identifierats av många svenska livsmedelsindustriföretag som intressanta marknader. Exporten försvåras dock i nuläget av bl.a. tillämpningen av regelverket på det sanitära och fytosanitära området. Även Kanada, Sydkorea, Saudiarabien, Indien och Malaysia, med vilka EU nyligen har eller är på gång att förhandla fram frihandelsavtal, bedöms vara kandidater för ökad svensk export. Norge bedöms även fortsättningsvis vara en viktig exportmarknad för Sverige.

    I och med att statistik över import och export ofta används som underlag för beslutsfattare inom olika områden är det önskvärt att handelsstatistiken speglar faktiska förhållanden. I nuläget blåser vidareexport av bl.a. norsk lax upp den svenska handelsstatistiken vilket ger oss en felaktig bild av den faktiska handeln. Hur Sverige redovisar handelsstatistik är reglerat i EU-lagstiftning. Det är därför inte möjligt att korrigera för vidareexport i den officiella statistiken. Däremot är det möjligt för Jordbruksverket att regelbundet publicera en bearbetad handelsstatistik.

    Då SCB i dagsläget samlar in en stor mängd registerbaserad data, bl.a. från Skatteverket, bedöms det finnas underlag för att från befintlig statistik kunna redovisa exportens betydelse för lönsamhet, sysselsättning och tillväxt utan att öka berörda företags administrativa börda.

    För att underlätta exporten till de potentiella marknaderna vill företagen ha en samlad information kring exportfrågor, en effektiv hantering av landgodkännanden och stöd i den internationella affärsutvecklingen. Utifrån dessa önskemål nämns i rapporten ett antal åtgärder kopplade till information, landgodkännande, marknadskännedom och kontaktnät, ekonomi samt handelsstatistik som kan främja svensk livsmedelsexport.

  • Hasund, Knut Per
    et al.
    Jordbruksverket.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Lantbruksekonomen.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordregio.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Vilka sysselsättnings-, miljö- och samhällsekonomiska effekter har jordbruksstöden?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social efficiency and employment effects of the Swedish agricultural policy payments. The investment grants for rural development have environmental effects and the agrienvironmental payments have employment effects. To be able to allocate the CAP budget and design the policy measures optimally, employment effects and social efficiency have to be considered together – including all environmental impacts as well as the costs and market products of agriculture. The study investigates how large these crosswise effects are, and what the overall outcome of the single farm payment and a choice of payments in the Swedish rural development programme is.

  • Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Helander, Anna
    Settergren, Benjamin
    När tilliten prövas: En studie av Studieförbundet Inn Rushds samhällsbidrag2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Seidouvy, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Authority in students’ peer collaboration in statistics: an empirical study based on inferentialism2019In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ peer collaboration efforts in mathematics and statistics is a topic that has increasingly gained attention in research. In any collaboration, authority relations play a role for how meaning is constituted: Whenever things are discussed and decision sare made, authority is involved in a sense that some arguments or persons may be more convincing and powerful than others. In this article, we investigate how authority changes dynamically in type and in distribution as groups of fifth grade students collaborate in data generation processes. We identify and categorize authority using an epistemological framework, which is based on the philosophical theory of inferentialism. The results show that the three different types of authority described in inferentialism are all identifiable in students’ collaborative work. We also find and categorize further types of authority connected to the statistics group work, some of which are hardly addressed in previous research.

  • Seidouvy, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Data generation in statistics – both procedural and conceptual: An inferentialist analysis2018In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11 / [ed] J. Häggström, Y. Liljekvist, J. Bergman Ärlebäck, M. Fahlgren, & O. Olande, Göteborg, Sweden: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2018, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data generation in statistics education is often conducted by the students them-selves; however, the question of what learning opportunities the data generation process offers has only been studied to a small extent. This paper investigates to what extent data generation is an observational and procedural vs. a conceptual activity. We inquire into this question based on an empirical study where eleven year old students measured the jump lengths of paper frogs. Our analysis draws on stu-dents’ discussions in group work, and it uses inferentialism as a background theory. Our results indicate that students’ discussions are conceptual to a certain extent and provide various learning opportunities for the students.

  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wykman, Niklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wykman, Niklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

  • Anyadike-Danes, Michael
    et al.
    Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, UK.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Dumont, Michel
    Federal Planning Bureau and Ghent University, Belgium.
    Gottschalk, Sandra
    ZEW, Germany.
    Hölzl, Werner
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO), Austria.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maliranta, Mika
    ETLA, Helsingfors, Finland; University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myrann, Anja
    Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway.
    Nielsen, Kristian
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Zheng, Guanyu
    Productivity Commission, New Zealand.
    An International Comparison of the Contribution to Job Creation by High-growth Firms2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses three simple questions: how should the contribution of HGFs to job creation be measured? how much does this contribution vary across countries? to what extent does the cross-country variation depend on variation in the proportion of HGFs in the business population? The first is a methodological question which we answer using a more highly articulated version of the standard job creation and destruction accounts. The other two are empirical questions which we answer using a purpose-built dataset assembled from national firm-level sources and covering nine countries, spanning the ten three year periods from 2000/03 to 2009/12. The basic principle governing the development of the accounting framework is the choice of appropriate comparators. Firstly, when measuring contributions to job creation, we should focus on just job creating firms, otherwise we are summing over contributions from firms with positive, zero, and negative job creation numbers. Secondly, because we know growth depends in part on size, the ’natural’ comparison for HGFs is with job creation by similar-sized firms which simply did not grow as fast as HGFs. However, we also show how the measurement framework can be further extended to include, for example, a consistent measure of the contribution of small job creating firms. On the empirical side, we find that the HGF share of job creation by large job creating firms varies across countries by a factor of two, from around one third to two thirds. A relatively small proportion of this cross-country variation is accounted for by variations in the influence of HGFs on job creation. On average HGFs generated between three or four times as many jobs as large non-HGF job creating firms, but this ratio is relatively similar across countries. The bulk of the cross-country variation in HGF contribution to job creation is accounted for by the relative abundance (or rarity) of HGFs. Moreover, we also show that the measurement of abundance depends upon the choice of measurement framework: the ’winner’ of a cross-national HGF ’beauty context’ on one measure will not necessarily be the winner on another.

  • Grimbeek, Marinette
    Örebro University, University Library. Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013), Karlstad.
    Wholesale Apocalypse: Brand Names in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake2016In: Names, ISSN 0027-7738, E-ISSN 1756-2279, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 88-98, article id 1159448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coinages pervade Margaret Atwood’s post-apocalyptic novel Oryx and Crake (2003). Most of the neologisms in the novel denote corporations and their products and form part of a thoroughgoing critique of consumerism. The coinages are jarringly hyperbolic and their orthography often evokes contrary connotations. However, in the thematic context of the novel, coining practices follow certain patterns and function as effective, if ambiguous, satirical tools. On one level, the practice of branding is thoroughly satirized. On another, however, the neologisms point to both the limitations and possibilities of satire when dealing with the themes addressed in the novel: commoditization, environmental damage on a planetary scale, and a vision of the imminent end of humanity itself.

  • Angelo, Elin
    et al.
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Varkøy, Øivind
    Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo, Norway.
    Georgii-Hemming, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Notions of Mandate, Knowledge and Research in Norwegian Classical Music Performance Studies2019In: Journal for Reserach in Arts and Sports Education, E-ISSN 2535-2857, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 78-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy changes and higher education reforms challenge performing musician programmes across Europe. The academisation of arts education means that classical performance programmes are now marked by strong expectations of research paths, publications, and the standardisation of courses, grades and positions. Drawing on interviews with ten teachers and leaders within the field of higher music education, this article discusses notions of mandate, knowledge and research in classical performance music education in Norway. Against the backdrop of academisation, the aim of this article is to illuminate central tensions and negotiations concerning mandate, knowledge and research within higher music education. The problem concerns issues of who should be judged as qualified and who should have the authority to speak on behalf of the performing music expertise community. The study is part of the larger study Discourses of Academisation and the Music Profession in Higher Music Education (DAPHME), conducted by a team of senior researchers in Sweden, Norway and Germany. Through an analytic-theoretical reading of the empirical data, informed by Foucault’s power/knowledge concept, two discourses on mandate are identified (the awakening discourse and the Bildung discourse) as well as three discourses on knowledge (the handicraft discourse, the entrepreneurship discourse and the discourse of critical reflection) and two discourses on research (the collaborative discourse and the ‘perforesearch’ discourse). The latter of the two research discourses pinpoints a subject position as a musician/researcher with knowledge, craft and skills in both music performing and research.

  • Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Annette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andersson, Lena
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Inflammatory and coagulatory markers and exposure to different size fractions of particle mass, number and surface area air concentrations in Swedish iron foundries, in particular respirable quartz2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and quartz in Swedish iron foundries and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood.

    METHODS: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Stationary measurements were used to study the concentrations of respirable dust and quartz, inhalable and total dust, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, namely interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12), C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in plasma or serum, together with markers of coagulation including fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor and D-dimer. Complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work-free weekend, and follow-up samples were collected 2 days later. A mixed model analysis was performed including sex, age, smoking, infections, blood group, sampling day and BMI as covariates.

    RESULTS: The average 8-h time-weighted average air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 mg/m3 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. Participants in high-exposure groups with respect to some of the measured particle types exhibited significantly elevated levels of SAA, fibrinogen and FVIII.

    CONCLUSIONS: These observed relationships between particle exposure and inflammatory markers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among foundry workers with high particulate exposure.

  • Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Stockholms Handelskammare.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migration och företagens internationalisering: en kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Svenska affärsänglar: hur lyckas de med sina investeringar?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 29-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktiebolag som affärsänglar investerar i blir med högre sannolikhet snabbväxande företag, s k gasellföretag, jämfört med ett slumpmässigt valt aktiebolag. Resultatet håller även efter att affärsänglarnas företag jämförts med liknande ”tvillingföretags” tillväxt. Detta kan indikera att det är affärsänglarna som bidrar och hjälper till att utveckla företag i stället för att de enbart väljer ut ”vinnarföretag” att investera i, s k picking cherries-beteende.

  • Lind, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Salmonsson, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sortering av hushållsavfall: En förstudie om varför människor sorterar eller inte sorterar hushållsavfall som de gör samt om vilka insatser som kan få fler att sortera mer2019Report (Other academic)
  • Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nordic Education in a Democratically Troublesome time: Threats and Opportunities2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • Rostami, Elham
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tailoring policies and involving users in constructing security policies: A mapping study2019In: Proceeding of the Thirteen International Syposium on Human Aspect of Information Security & Assurance, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to survey existing information security policy (ISP) construction research to understand to what extent the concept of tailored ISP and user involvement have been considered by researchers. The results are based on a literature mapping study of ISP construction between 1990 and 2017 in Scopus and Web of Science databases. The findings show that researchers have not given tailoring of ISPs any attention and there are only a few researchers that paid attention to involving users in constructing ISPs. This research has implications for both researchers and practitioners and shows the way for the future researches by focusing on the concept of tailored policy and how it can be achieved as well as involving users in such tailoring.

  • Axelsson, Tobias
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att tolka och praktisera jämställdhet i förskola och grundskola: Slutrapport av projektet Forskningsbaserad samverkan – med målet att förbättra jämställdhetsarbetet i Askersunds kommuns förskolor och grundskolor2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva och problematisera hur jämställdhet uppfattas och hur jämställdhetsarbete bedrivs i förskola och grundskola. Rapporten har gjorts i och på uppdrag från Askersunds kommun och behandlar följande forskningsfrågor:

    1. Vilka förståelser och upplevelser av jämställdhet och ojämställdhet har elever?

    2. Hur uppfattar pedagoger sitt jämställdhetsuppdrag?

    3. Hur praktiserar pedagoger sitt jämställdhetsuppdrag?

    4. Vilka förståelser finns av jämställdhet i centrala dokument om förskola och grundskola på kommunal nivå?

    Utifrån 28 observationsdagar (i årskurs två, fem och nio), nitton intervjuer (med arbetslag i grundskola, pedagoger i förskola och grundskola samt elever i årskurs nio) och dokumentanalyser undersöks särskilt hur pedagoger tolkar och praktiserar jämställdhet. Rapportens resultat visar: 1) att elever är positivt inställda till jämställdhet och har erfarenheter av ojämställdhet, 2) att det finns stora skillnader mellan om och hur pedagoger tolkar jämställdhetsuppdraget, 3) att pedoger varierar mellan att använda sig att könsavkodade och reflexiva/synliggörande jämställdhetsstrategier, 4) att jämställdhet förstås dels som en administrativ rutinåtgärd och dels som ett problemorienterat arbete. Rapporten rekommenderar ett intersektionellt jämställdhetsarbete som pendlar mellan att betrakta utbildning som, om respektive för jämställdhet.

  • Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Inquiring into the political dimension of history classroom practices: Suggestions for epistemological criteria and analytical concepts2019In: Historical Encounters: A journal of historical consciousness, historical cultures and history education, E-ISSN 2203-7543, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, three epistemological criteria are suggested against which analytical frameworks for studying the political dimension of history classroom practices can be deemed viable. The suggested criteria - (I) the primacy of practice, (II) the primacy of empirical openness and (III) the primacy of the political - are articulated by conducting critical and affirmative readings of previously established concepts, primarily historical consciousness. To clarify their application, the criteria are positioned in relation to the premises and concepts of a potential framework; namely, the logics of critical explanation (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the viability of which is argued for theoretically and empirically.

  • González-Calvo, Gustavo
    et al.
    Department of Musical, Plastic and Body Expression, University of Valladolid, Palencia, Spain.
    Varea, Valeria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    A Turning Point as an Opportunity to (Re)Think and Give a Voice to One’s Own Body2019In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the intersectionalities of masculinity, fatherhood, and physical activity in relation to a Physical Education teacher who has been diagnosed with an illness. In so doing, we draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into how embodied subjectivities are constructed to advance knowledge on a new embodied way of being a man and a PE teacher that can be accepted and embraced. The results are organised into three main themes: (1) narratives of continuation: the “before” of chronic illness; (2) narratives of disruption: back pain and temporary physical disability; and (3) restitution narratives: damn it, now that I am a father. The results suggest that narratives such as those presented in this article contribute to the continuously changing process of life projects and that illness can assist in redefining and reconstituting the persona of a PE teacher.

  • Flygare, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedlin, Dan
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Empirical Study on the Size of Nonresponse Bias2018In: JSM Proceedings, Survey Research Methods Section, Alexandria, VA, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are expressions for nonresponse bias, all of which require population quantities. In one expression for nonresponse bias, due to Bethlehem (1988, 2009), the bias is approximately equal to a function of the population covariance between the study variable and the response propensity (probability) and the population mean of the propensities. The covariance is hard to estimate (due to nonresponse). To empirically examine the covariance and the nonresponse bias, we have done two studies where the sample values of survey variables are known and the response propensities are estimated.The first study is a mail survey of a population of residents in the city of Solna in Sweden,20-74 years of age. The questionnaire consists of items on marital status and income; we have obtained the true values of those from the Swedish Tax Agency. We also know birth country, the type of area of residents, specific age and gender of each sampled individual.The second study is a web survey at Stockholm University, the population is faculty employees at the department of psychology. This survey is a census and the variables that we regard as our study variables are income from university and total income. The true values of income from university are given by the HR-department and total income from the Tax Agency.

  • Hemberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ethical sensitivity and perceptivness in palliative home care through co-creation2019In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In research on co-creation in nursing, a caring manner can be used to create opportunities whereby the patient’s quality of life can be increased in palliative home care. This can be described as an ethical cornerstone and the goal of palliative care. To promote quality of life, nurses must be sensitive to patients’ and their relatives’ needs in care encounters. Co-creation can be defined as the joint creation of vital goals for patients through the process of shared knowledge between nurses, patients and their relatives.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of caring encounters and co-creation in palliative home care from an ethical perspective.

    Research design, participants, and research context: A hermeneutical approach was used. The material consisted of texts from interviews with 12 nurses in a home care context. The method was inspired by thematic analysis.

    Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought from the participants regarding study participation and the storage and handling of data for research purposes.

    Findings: An overall theme, a main theme and four sub-themes emerged. Through ethical sensitivity and perceptivity, nurses can balance their actions in the moment and change their nursing care actions accordingto the patient’s wishes through co-creation in encounters. Here the time is crucial, as the time needed is unique to each patient.

    Discussion: The themes together can be considered prerequisites for good palliative home care. If nurses fail to be sensitive and perceptive in encounters with dying patients, good palliative home care cannot be achieved. Ethical sensitivity and perceptiveness can also be considered a part of nurses’ ethical competence.

    Conclusion: Patients’ dignity can be preserved through ethical sensitivity and perceptiveness, which is fundamental for good palliative care. Co-creation from patients’ perspectives should be the focus of future research.

  • Mansouri, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lacerda, Bruno
    Oxford Robotics Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Hawes, Nick
    Oxford Robotics Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multi-Robot Planning Under Uncertain Travel Times and Safety Constraints2019In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-19), 2019, p. 478-484Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel modelling and planning approach for multi-robot systems under uncertain travel times. The approach uses generalised stochastic Petri nets (GSPNs) to model desired team behaviour, and allows to specify safety constraints and rewards. The GSPN is interpreted as a Markov decision process (MDP) for which we can generate policies that optimise the requirements. This representation is more compact than the equivalent multi-agent MDP, allowing us to scale better. Furthermore, it naturally allows for asynchronous execution of the generated policies across the robots, yielding smoother team behaviour. We also describe how the integration of the GSPN with a lower-level team controller allows for accurate expectations on team performance. We evaluate our approach on an industrial scenario, showing that it outperforms hand-crafted policies used in current practice.

  • Stenlund, Jörgen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Travelling through time: Students’ interpretation of evolutionary time in dynamic visualizations2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary knowledge is important to understand and address contemporary challenges such as loss of biodiversity, climate change and antibiotic resistance. An important aspect that is considered to be a threshold concept in teaching and learning about evolution is the time it involves. The history of evolution comprises several scales of magnitude, some of which are far from direct human experience and therefore difficult to understand. One way of addressing this issue is to use dynamic visualizations that represent time, for example, to facilitate teaching and learning about evolution.

    This thesis investigates how students’ comprehension of evolution and evolutionary time can be facilitated by visualizations in educational settings. Two different dynamic visualizations were investigated. In paper I different temporal versions of a spatio-temporal animation depicting hominin evolution were explored. The temporal information was expressed as one or several timelines along which an animated cursor moved, indicating the rate of time. Two variables, the number of timelines with different scales, and the mode of the default animated time rate (either constant throughout the animation or decreasing as the animation progressed), were combined to give four different time representations. The temporal aspects investigated were undergraduate students' ability to find events at specific times, comprehend order, comprehend concurrent events, comprehend the length of time intervals, and their ability to compare the lengths of time intervals.

    In paper II, perceptions and comprehension of temporal aspects in an interactive, multi-touch tabletop application, DeepTree, were investigated. This application depicts the tree of life. The focus was on the interactive aspects, especially how the zooming feature was perceived, but also on any misinterpretations associated with the interaction. The same temporal aspects listed for paper I were also implicitly investigated.

    The findings indicate that handling the problem of large differences in scale by altering the rate of time in the visualization can facilitate perception of certain temporal aspects while, at the same time, can hinder a correct comprehension of other temporal aspects. Findings concerning DeepTree indicate that the level of interactions varies among users, and that the zooming feature is perceived in two ways, either as a movement in time or as a movement in the metaphorical tree. Several misinterpretations were observed, for example the assumption that the zooming time in the tree corresponds to real time, that there is an implicit coherent timeline along the y-axis of the tree, and that more nodes along a branch corresponds to a longer time.

    The research reported in this thesis supports the claim that careful choice, and informed use of visualizations matters, and that different visualizations are best suited for different educational purposes

  • Lindblad, Katarina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musical engagement and subjective wellbeing amongst men in the third age2019In: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0803-9828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This article explores the wellbeing benefits of musical engagement for men in the third age. Older men face specific health challenges such as loneliness, isolation and a heightened risk for suicide, tied to gendered norms around emotional control, and a reluctance to seek professional help. There is substantial evidence of the positive health and wellbeing outcomes from older people’s engagement in music, but no studies on older men, music and wellbeing.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish men aged 66–76, with different demographic backgrounds and engagement with music. Interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.

    Results: Analysis resulted in four themes: “emotions and embodiment”, “adjusting to growing older”, “developing and maintaining friendships” and “maintaining contact as a caregiver”. Regardless of musical genre or whether singing, playing, dancing or listening to music, the men used music to come into contact with their bodies and emotions, as well as improving relationships and social contacts. In particular, men as caregivers to sick partners benefited from sharing music with their partner, thus improving the quality of the relationship.

    Discussion: This study shows that engagement with music fills deep psychological and social/emotional needs for the participants, in both “being” with the music and “doing” musical activities, where also talking about music is highlighted as an important part of the musical engagement. The results have implications for the field of music therapy, in that it foregrounds music therapists’ potentially important role in developing opportunities for older men to engage with music.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Pontara, Tobias
    Musikalisering och medialisering2019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 263-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel undersöks det fenomen som vi valt att kalla musikalisering. Som en ständigt ökande närvaro av musik i kultur och vardagsliv innefattar musikaliseringen både en diskursivoch en dramaturgiskdimension. Med musikens diskursiva dimension avser vi medierepresentationer och medierade diskurser ”om” musik och musikrelaterade frågor. När musik framförs åtföljs den så gott som alltid av kommentarer, personliga reflektioner, recensioner, åsikter, analyser, tolkningar, förklaringar, kontextualiseringar och mer eller mindre metaforiska beskrivningar. På samma sätt – i visuellt baserade medier som film, tv och internet – åtföljs musik av fotografiska bilder, målningar eller andra visuella gestaltningar, för att inte tala om film och rörliga bilder. Således är det inte bara "själva musiken" (dess klingande dimension, om än en sådan knappast kan särskiljas annat än analytiskt) som avses, utan också dess verbala och visuella bestämningar, vilka utgör icke-reducerbara aspekter av det vi kallar musik.

    Med musikens dramaturgiska dimension avses (till skillnad från dess diskursiva dimension) ett ökande inflytande av vad som bäst kan beskrivas som ett slags musikaliskt soundtracking av kultur och vardagsliv. Det är en process som är oupplösligt kopplad till musikens ökande närvaro i olika slags medierade berättelser, fiktiva såväl som icke-fiktiva – från fictionfilmer till dataspel, dokumentärer, nyhetssändningar, barnprogram, naturprogram, tv-sportevenemang, politiska tal på internet, hemsidor och annonser – en process där tillvaron blir alltmer strukturerad och organiserad i enlighet med en musikaliskt medierad medvetenhet. Resultatet är en tillvaro där musik inte bara ingår som en naturlig komponent utan också bidrar med att strukturera och organisera uppfattningar om, erfarenheter av och förväntningar på den levda verkligheten.

  • Pontara, Tobias
    et al.
    Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Allmänna teknologier och privata rum: förutsättningar för den digitala tidsålderns  solipsistiska ljudkultur2019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 187-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lyssna på musik i avskildhet, solitärt lyssnande, är en av de mest utbredda formerna av musiklyssnande i vår digitala tidsålder. Men i nästan ett halvt sekel av ljudåtergivningstekniken var olika former av socialt lyssnande normen. I den här artikeln diskuterar vi vad vi ser som de viktigaste förutsättningarna för solitärt lyssnande som det utvecklades under det tjugonde århundradet. Mer specifikt argumenterar vi för att solitärt lyssnande blev den dominerande formen att lyssna vid mitten av seklet som ett resultat av tre olika men sammanhängande faktorer i det moderna samhället: (1) uppkomsten av det moderna vardagsrummet; (2) ankomsten av nya och alltmer sofistikerade teknologier för ljudåtergivning och (3) en ständigt växande individualism i samhället som helhet, vilken främjade en estetisk individualism där solitärt lyssnande fann en naturlig plats. Med internet, digital teknik och moderna ljudavskiljande hörlurar har utvecklingen lett till vad som kan beskrivas som en solipsistisk ljudkultur. Men samtidigt, genom att t.ex. dela musik och musikaliska spellistor på sociala medier, verkar äldre tiders sociala aspekter av musikaliskt lyssnande åter ha kommit till heders.