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  • Petersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Elektroniska marknadsplatser: IT-stöd för små och medelstora leverantörer2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to identify what constitutes a desirable design for electronic marketplaces from the perspective of small and medium-sized suppliers. The specific marketplace category under study is business-oriented marketplaces, which are marketplaces that mediate commercial transactions between organizations (in a so-called business-to-business setting). An important justification for the study is the fact that research has shown a disproportionately small interest in studying the issue from this perspective, despite there being both scientific and practical needs for greater knowledge in this area. That is to say, there are a number of important and unanswered questions regarding marketplace suppliers in general and the situation of small suppliers in specific.

    The overarching research question is: “What kind of electronic marketplace design is preferable in order to support the needs of small suppliers” and this question has been answered through the development, presentation and application of a set of seven design criteria. The research project was comprised of several sub-studies and characterized by a qualitative approach. Practice theory has been used as the central theoretical perspective of the study. The object of study in the primary case was the Scandinavian marketplace Proceedo and the practical work undertaken involved collecting and analyzing data in the form of interviews, documents and system tests.

    The study’s contribution to knowledge is made up of four parts: a set of criteria for electronic marketplace design, a conceptualization of marketplace practices, a categorization of SME supplier needs and finally a suggested set of generic design principles for work practices. The design criteria are presented as seven prescriptive statements that may be used to aid practical marketplace design. The set of criteria therefore also directly answers the overarching research question. For the purposes of observing, analyzing and understanding the phenomenon of electronic marketplaces, this study also presents the two concepts of marketplace practice and sales practice.

    When it came to the resulting categorization of supplier needs, the study found that the primary need was for compliance with customer desires and demands. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed two main areas within electronic marketplace interaction in which SME suppliers have particular needs. The first concerns business information – suppliers need to be able to examine and change their own business information. The second relates to business harmonization – there is a need for marketplace activities to harmonize with the regular business activities of suppliers. The study has also resulted in a contribution on a more theoretical and abstract level. It has produced a presentation of a prescriptive extension of an existing work practice model. The extension is a set of generic design principles that stem from the information systems domain and socio-technical theory.

  • Andersson, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Geographies of Place Branding: Researching through small and medium sized cities2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Place branding is commonly conceptualized with a focus on big cities, such as London, New York and Singapore, building from concepts and models from mainstream branding theory. In contrast to such conceptualizations, this thesis focuses on place branding in small and medium-sized cities. The present thesis aims to study place branding from a geographical perspective. It starts with debates theoretical and empirical understandings of place branding; what it is and how it is affecting the places where it is introduced. The thesis develops and argues for a perspective of territoriality and relationality to place branding discussing concepts, methods and empirical approaches to carry out place branding research using geographical perspectives. Empirically, this thesis focuses on in-depth studies of place branding in small and medium-sized cities in Sweden. By analyzing the development of place branding over the course of time, nuances and aspects of both territorial and relational origin emerge, situating place branding practices within a wider spatial contextualization. Four individual papers are presented, which taken together contribute to the aim of the thesis. Paper 1 introduces the place branding research field in geography and how it has developed; Paper 2 investigates the phenomena of flagship buildings located in small cities and towns; Paper 3 discusses the relationship between policy tourism and place branding; and Paper 4 analyzes how local environmental policies are affected by green place branding. The thesis demonstrates the complex and continuously interchangeable spatial structures and place contexts that create and re-produce the geographies of place branding. Here, research models and methodological examples are presented to illustrate how place branding can be studied from a geographical perspective and thus improve theoretical understandings of place branding.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frid, Emma
    2Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using eye-tracking to study the effect of haptic feedback on visual focus during collaborative object managing in a multimodal virtual interface2017In: Proceedings of the 13th SweCog conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, p. 49-51Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Twizeyimana, Jean Damascene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    E-Government and Value Creation in the Context of a Least Developed Country: A perspective on public value and information infrastructure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is in the field of information systems (IS), more specifically about IS impact. This thesis uses literature review and interpretive case study methods to investigate the phenomenon of value creation through e-government.

    The research was carried out from 2014 to 2019. Data was collected through interviews, participant observations, and document review. The main research question is "How do we create value through e-government in the context of an LDC?” It embodies the sub-questions: what is the value of e-government? And how do we attain such value?

    This thesis comprises four studies.

    The thesis found that value creation of e-government is a process of understanding: the value that e-government creates; the context in which egovernment resides because a process involves a context; and strategic actions to create that value within the context surrounds e-government.

    From the findings, this thesis argues that the value of public affairs including e-government refers to public value. The latter would mean citizens' collective expectations about public policies and services. Also, the findings reveal research needs about the public value of e-government in the LDCs in Sub-Saharan Africa and on methods of measuring and creating the public value of e-government.

    As original contribution, this thesis suggests a framework of six overarching and overlapping areas of e-government for the public value. The anticipation-reality gaps and their inter-relationships are identified, and five inter-related critical success factors are suggested. Also, the information infrastructure (II) framework, particularly, the notion of the cultivation of the installed-base is suggested as a promising avenue in the management of the public value creation in general, and in an LDC in particular.

    List of papers
    1. The public value of E-Government: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The public value of E-Government: A literature review
    2019 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 167-178Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study organizes existing research on the public value of e-government in order to investigate the current state and what value e-government is supposed to yield. The two questions that guided the research were: (1) What is the current state of research on the public value of e-government? And (2) What value is e-government supposed to yield? Six, sometimes overlapping, values were found: Improved public services; improved administrative efficiency; Open Government (OG) capabilities; improved ethical behaviour and professionalism; improved trust and confidence in government; and improved social value and well-being. These six public value dimensions were thereafter generalized into three overarching, and also overlapping, public value dimensions of Improved Public Services, Improved Administration, and Improved Social Value. The improved public services dimension influences other dimensions. Hence, this literature study theorizes a descriptive and multidimensional framework that can improve our understanding of the public value of e-government from different viewpoints, and the overlap between them in actual e-government designs and implementations. Regarding the current state of research on the public value this study found a lack of research on the public value of e-government, especially, in the context of developing countries – and more importantly – a total absence of this kind of research in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). There is also a lack of comparative studies at national, regional, and project level; and a lack of research on the generative perspective.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    E-Government, Public value, IT value, Framework, Literature review
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73688 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2019.01.001 (DOI)000467194300001 ()2-s2.0-85061541488 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    2. The public value of e-Government: anticipations in the IREMBO project in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The public value of e-Government: anticipations in the IREMBO project in Rwanda
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77826 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    3. E-government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections
    2018 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    E‑government is currently high on the agenda in many developing countries (DCs). While e‑government is well‑established in many developed countries it is new to least developed countries. Countries that start implementing e‑government today can benefit from easy import of modern technologies, but adaptation to local conditions and the organizational change that is required cannot be imported, but must be developed at home. By using examples of an ongoing initiative by the Government of Rwanda to digitalize all G2C and G2B into a single window platform, the current study investigated the important challenges in the implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. An interpretive case study was followed. Data was collected through interviews and participatory observations during August to December 2015. Data analysis was inductive, the analysis method was content analysis, and the coding followed open‑coding. NVivo software has been used to handle data and facilitate the analysis. The study found six overarching categories of aspects that challenge a successful implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. They include information infrastructure for e‑government, social inclusion, governance, management, trust in the new system, and languages. However, challenges to e‑government implementation should not be taken as of the same extent, neither their degree of mitigation. Rather, they influence and are influenced by various contextual factors which include political support, nature of the e‑government project, implementation strategies, human and socio‑economic development, existing information infrastructure, and operational capabilities. Having said this, we also argue that countries should learn from one another of their experiences, success stories, and mistakes. Despite a number of associated challenges, the adopted public‑private partnership (PPP) approach to e‑Government implementation in Rwanda might indeed seem as a suitable catalyst for e‑government success in the country.

    2.5.0.0

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2018
    Keywords
    information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70165 (URN)
    Projects
    E-Government Implementation in Rwanda: the value and context
    Note

    2.5.0.0

    Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Towards Realization of the Public Value of e-Government: anticipation-reality gap and critical success factors in the context of Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Realization of the Public Value of e-Government: anticipation-reality gap and critical success factors in the context of Rwanda
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77827 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 13:00 Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Ullsten, Alexandra
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Singing, sharing, soothing: Family-centred music therapy during painful procedures in neonatal care2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To sing is to communicate. The soothing, comforting and emotional regulating properties of a lullaby are well-known cross-culturally and historically. This doctoral thesis addresses neonatal pain management from a novel and groundbreaking perspective, studying the efficacy of live music therapy on infants’ pain responses during venepuncture. New research is needed to advance the non-pharmacological interventions in neonatal pain care, and neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) offers active methods to involve the parents in pain management. The doctoral thesis includes two empirical and two theoretical articles. In paper I, preterm and term infants (n=38) were subjected to venepuncture with and without live lullaby singing, in a randomised order with a crossover design. Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live by a music therapy student and standard care was provided for all infants. The results did not show any significant pain-alleviating effects, however, the live singing was not stressful for the infants.

    In paper II, the microanalysis disclosed that live lullaby singing is a communicative reciprocal intervention that also applies to premature infants during painful procedures. Live lullaby singing is a tool suitable as a means to optimise the homeostatic mechanisms. The results from the theoretical papers III and IV are further developed and synthesised in the thesis into a theoretical strategy; The Nordic NICU MT pain management strategy, featuring the parents and their singing voices as mediators for pain relief. The role of the music therapist in neonatal pain management is as a facilitator and an educator for the parents. Coaching parents to better meet their infant’s attachment needs during a painful procedure may lead to more efficacious interventions. The biopsychosocial parental infant-directed singing is presumably an applicable parent-driven non-pharmacological intervention, which promotes pain relief and attachment formation during painful procedures. Neonatal music therapy is still in its infancy in the Nordic countries, but the societal and healthcare contexts afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach. This doctoral thesis will hopefully contribute to the important interdisciplinary endeavour worldwide of involving and integrating parents in neonatal pain management.

    List of papers
    1. Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Music and Medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 73-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This clinical trial tested the pain relieving effect of live lullaby singing on behavioral and physiological pain responses during venepuncture in 38 preterm and full term neonates. Acute and repeated pain, as well as the use of analgesic drugs, may have long-term negative impact on infants’ development and future behaviour. This emphasizes the need for complementary approaches to pain management such as music therapy.

    Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live and standard care was provided for all neonates. Behavioral responses with regard to pain were assessed with Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) and Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP). Heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were measured each tenth second.

    Although the live lullaby singing did not show a statistically significant effect on the infants’ pain score, there was a significantly calmer breathing pattern in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage, showing a non-significant trend towards higher oxygen saturation levels and calmer heart rate in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage. There were non-significant indications of fewer and shorter skin punctures with lullaby singing. More research is needed to explore such positive trends in the data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PKP Publishing Services, 2017
    Keywords
    newborn infant, preterm infant, pain, music therapy, lullaby
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68308 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-07-31 Created: 2018-07-31 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0809-8131, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 142-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During the most vulnerable period in a child’s life, preterm and sick infants are exposed to a high number of painful procedures, sometimes without the comfort and affection of their parents. Since repeated pain and frequent use of analgesic drugs may have consequences for the neurological and behaviour-oriented development of the infant, it is vital to identify effective non-pharmacological interventions with regard to procedural pain. This paper reviews the use of live lullaby singing as an adjuvant to the control of premature infant pain. The objectives of this case study were to analyse the live lullaby singing for two premature infants during venipuncture in comparison to standard care only, and the infants’ physiological and affective responses emerging before, during and after this procedure. The empirical data stem from a quantitative clinical study. From this larger study, two premature infants were selected. Through microanalysis, with in-depth analysis of video footage, and pain assessment with Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP), painful standard care procedures with and without live lullaby singing, were analysed. The results show that live lullaby singing with premature infants is a communicative interaction which may optimize the homeostatic mechanisms of the infant during painful procedures. This case study shows the importance of predictability of the affective support, right from the start of the live singing intervention. It is important in a painful context that vocal interactions provide regular and comforting intensity, shape and temporal structures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    Pain management, premature infants, music therapy, infant directed singing, lullaby
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Health and Medical Care Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49326 (URN)10.1080/08098131.2015.1131187 (DOI)000394440800004 ()2-s2.0-84988566335 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Värmland County Council, Sweden

    Queen Silvia's Jubilee Fund, Sweden

    Karin and Erik Gerdens Foundation, Sweden

    Berit and Carl-Johan Wettergrens Foundation, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-13 Created: 2016-03-13 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    2018 (English)In: Music & Science, ISSN 2059-2043, Vol. 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Infant-directed singing is a medium for parents and infants to communicate in a mutual relationship. Parental infant-directed singing is a multisensory, biopsychosocial communication that applies to ill and vulnerable hospitalised infants. The primary musical features of infant-directed singing are ideal for emotional coordination and sharing between parent and infant without the risk of over-stimulation. In this article, we suggest that parental infant-directed singing is regarded as a nonpharmacological emotion regulation intervention, which may modify the painful experience for both the infant and the parent before, during and after painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care context. Parents have the biopsychosocial resources to alleviate their infant’s pain through infant-directed singing, if they are empowered to do so and coached in this process. A music therapist specialised in neonatal music therapy methods can mentor parents in how to use entrained and attuned live lullaby singing in connection to painful procedures. Pain and the vast amount of painful procedures early in infancy, combined with early parent–infant separation and lack of parental participation in the care of the infant during neonatal intensive care, place arduous strain on the new family’s attachment process and on the infant’s and parents’ mental health, both from a short and long-term perspective. Therefore, we argue with biopsychosocial rationales, that live parental infant-directed singing should be promoted in neonatal pain care worldwide. Consequently, parents should be welcomed round the clock and invited as prescribed pain management for their infant.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Keywords
    Affect attunement, biopsychosocial, infant, infant-directed singing, music therapy, pain management, parent, vitality affects
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Health and Medical Care Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67535 (URN)10.1177/2059204318780841 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    2019 (English)In: Music in paediatric hospitals – Nordic perspectives / [ed] Lars Ole Bonde, Kjersti Johansson, Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music , 2019, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the concept of family-centred care, where the family and healthcare staff share responsibility for the infant’s hospital care, has been part of an ongoing paradigm shift in neonatal care globally. The public health care system with family-friendly parental leave policies might be one of the reasons that the Nordic countries today are at the forefront of welcoming and including parents and partners in the care of their infant round the clock. When implementing neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) in the context of Nordic health care, music therapy models of practice as well as research ought to be defined and shaped by the family-centred care model, which today is considered best practice. The Nordic context also offers favourable conditions for further developing NICU MT approaches in line with family-centred care. NICU MT was first developed in the USA in the 1980s and the interventions were infantfocused, emphasising the infant’s physical and medical needs, which was the existing care focus in neonatal care at that time. Neonatal music therapy and research in the Nordic countries is still in its infancy. Systematic implementation work was first initiated in Karlstad, Sweden in 2010 and in Akershus and Oslo, Norway in 2017. 

    This essay provides the international music therapy field as well as other professionals in paediatric and neonatal health care an insight into the evolving Nordic approach of NICU MT. The conclusion of this essay is that the familycentred care approach in the Nordic NICUs, combined with the progressive family politics in the Nordic countries with generous parental leave schemes and gender equality in childcare, afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music, 2019
    Series
    CREMAH Anthology ; 11
    Keywords
    neonatal music therapy, Nordic perspective, family-centred care, infants, pain management
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77701 (URN)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Centre for Clinical Research, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden

    Available from: 2019-11-03 Created: 2019-11-03 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
  • Zhang, Shiyu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Shuling
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Real-time kinematical optimal trajectory planning for haptic feedback manipulators2019In: Simulation, ISSN 0037-5497, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 621-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To obtain real-time haptic interactions in virtual cockpit systems (VCSs), a real-time trajectory planning method based on kinematical optimization for haptic feedback manipulators (HFMs) is presented in this paper. Firstly, the control panel area is extracted in the workspace of the HFM, in which the interacting point is located. Then a feasible interacting configuration is calculated as the objective configuration of the trajectory encoded by a parametric representation. The trajectory planning problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem based on kinematics, which is solved in real-time by finding a good initial solution with machine learning methods. Simulations show that trajectories with a compromise between safety and rapidity can be calculated in real-time by this method, which provides a basis for haptic interaction in VCSs.

  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center of Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Anxiety during magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in relation to scanner design and size2019In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging in closed-bore scanners sometimes provokes anxiety but closed-bore designs have gradually become wider and shorter. Open scanners may be easier to tolerate. The aim was to compare patient anxiety during MRI between bore diameters of 60 cm and 70 cm, and to determine the current level of patient anxiety and experience in open scanners in a clinical setrting.

    Methods: Consecutive patients referred for examination of the spine in 60 cm and 70 cm bores and one open scanner participated. Four established/validated questionnaires, answered before, directly after (N = 155) and one week after (N = 109) the MRI-examination were used, measuring anxiety, fear and depression.

    Results: No difference was found in the patient scores of anxiety between the 60 cm and the 70 cm scanners on the examination day. At follow-up, patients in the 70 cm bore rated their examination experience better (p < 0.025), compared to patients in the 60 cm bore. Patients in the open scanner rated higher levels of anxiety (p < 0.001) before, directly after and one week after the examination, compared to the closed bore scanners.

    Conclusion: Scanners with a 70 cm diameter bore seem more tolerable than those with a 60 cm bore. Patients referred to the open scanner had on average a higher tendency to express anxiety. Still, patient anxiety in MRI is challenging and further research required.

    Implications for practice: Patients prefer to be examined in 70 cm bore scanners compared with 60 cm. If open scanners aren't available extended support may be necessary for the most anxious patients.

  • Fang, Wei
    et al.
    Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China.
    Santosh, Lamichhane
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lipidomes in health and disease: Analytical strategies and considerations2019In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 120, article id 115664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipidomics is a rapidly-growing field which focuses on global characterization of lipids at molecular and systems levels. As small changes in the concentrations of lipids may have important physiological consequences, much attention in the field has recently been paid to more accurate quantitation and identification of lipids. Community-wide efforts have been initiated, aiming to develop best practices for lipidomic analyses and reporting of lipidomic data. Nevertheless, current approaches for comprehensive analysis of lipidomes have some inherent challenges and limitations. Additionally, there is, currently, limited knowledge concerning the impacts of various external and internal exposures on lipid levels. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in lipidomics analysis, with a primary focus on analytical approaches, as well as on the different sources of variation in quantifying lipid levels, both technical and biological.

  • Ahonen, Linda
    et al.
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Jäntti, Sirkku
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suvitaival, Tommi
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Theilade, Simone
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Risz, Claudia
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rossing, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Targeted Clinical Metabolite Profiling Platform for the Stratification of Diabetic Patients2019In: Metabolites, ISSN 2218-1989, E-ISSN 2218-1989, Vol. 9, no 9, article id E184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several small molecule biomarkers have been reported in the literature for prediction and diagnosis of (pre)diabetes, its co-morbidities, and complications. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel, quantitative method for the determination of a selected panel of 34 metabolite biomarkers from human plasma. We selected a panel of metabolites indicative of various clinically-relevant pathogenic stages of diabetes. We combined these candidate biomarkers into a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and optimized it, prioritizing simplicity of sample preparation and time needed for analysis, enabling high-throughput analysis in clinical laboratory settings. We validated the method in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity (R2), and intra- and inter-day repeatability of each metabolite. The method's performance was demonstrated in the analysis of selected samples from a diabetes cohort study. Metabolite levels were associated with clinical measurements and kidney complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Specifically, both amino acids and amino acid-related analytes, as well as specific bile acids, were associated with macro-albuminuria. Additionally, specific bile acids were associated with glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medication, statin medication, and clinical lipid measurements. The developed analytical method is suitable for robust determination of selected plasma metabolites in the diabetes clinic.

  • Hysing, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Responsibilization: The case of road safety governance2019In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are increasingly turning to new modes of governance to induce nonstate actors to voluntarily take responsibility for societal problems. Using the concept of responsibilization as a theoretical lens, this article analyzes changes in road safety governance in Sweden. How, why, and to whom has the responsibility for road safety been attributed in Swedish policymaking, and how have state authorities engaged in processes of responsibilization during its implementation? The results show a shift in attribution of responsibility from individual road users to a broad set of so-called system designers, based on moral, causal, and preventive rationales. Responsibilization both occurs within the state apparatus and is imposed by state authorities on nonstate actors using soft governance measures. Responsibilization provides a fruitful theoretical lens for governance studies by identifying shifts in responsibility (including deresponsibilization), explicating normative/ethical underpinnings of new governance modes, and helping to open the “black box” of the state.

  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Building Institutional Trust Through Service Experiences: Private Versus Public Provision Matter2019In: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare service experiences are known to shape citizens' trust in public institutions and their sup-port of the welfare state. But, there is poor understanding of how this relationship is shaped in systems of mixed provision, that is, welfare states that use public in-house as well as contracted private providers for publically funded services. Drawing on the notion of system trust this article provides a theoretical account of how mixed-provision welfare systems condition the relationship between service experience and trust, affecting the legitimacy of the state. Utilizing a random-ized vignette experiment with participants in a general citizen survey in Sweden, we investigate whether it matters for the formation of institutional trust if the welfare service is provided by a public or third-party private provider. The main result show that the spillover of trust from positive service experiences with the provider to trust in public institutions is higher in cases of public ser-vice provision. Thus, the possibility of using welfare services to build trust in the welfare system seems to be greater when public provision is used.

  • Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Hooiveld, Guido J.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    de Vos, Willem
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre and Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Allogenic Faecal Microbiota Transfer Induces Immune-Related Gene Sets in the Colon Mucosa of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome2019In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe–host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-20 13:00 Örebro universitet, Konsertsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Larsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Att lära genom improvisation: en didaktisk studie i grundskolans musikundervisning2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the growing field of research on improvisation, it is argued that improvisation should be at the core of music education, and in many curricula improvisation is in fact emphasized. However, in general music education, as well as research, improvisation is still overlooked. There seem to be a discursive gap between ‘everyday’ and artistic perceptions of improvisation and the way it is perceived didactically. Improvisation is also a creative music activity form and as such it cannot have prescribed outcomes. Yet, the current goal- and result driven schooling system focuses on achieving prescribed knowledge requirements. This situation constitutes an educational paradox. Through a systematic literature review, interviews with teachers and a practice-based study, this thesis explores the conditions and the role of improvisation in general music education. The theoretical perspective is based on Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, and his concepts of aesthetic experience and transaction. Results show that improvisation is conceptualised in a continuum between structure and freedom and that teachers’ didactical approaches to improvisation can be oriented towards the process, the subject or Bildung. However, teachers’ perceptions of improvisation as related to jazz and blues sometimes present a hindrance. Combining a practical epistemology analysis with Dewey´s concept of the esthetic event (Dewey´s spelling) provides new insights into the process and content of aesthetic meaning-making. Improvising pupils who have an aesthetic experience can develop expressivity, agency and responsivity (EAR) as well as aspects of embodied, cognitive and ethical knowledge. The transactional perspective and 5 concepts developed here provide new insights in how to understand improvisation in education: as ethically co-creative action, co-learning action, explorative action, a space for imagination and emotional engagement and finally a room for subjectification. This implies a negotiated role for the teacher as co-player. A practical aesthetic analysis (PESA) is suggested which emphasises the specific nature of the aesthetic experience.

    List of papers
    1. Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    2019 (English)In: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-67Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to provide a convenient summary of empirical research on improvisation in general music education and thereby provide guidance to researchers and practitioners, using a systematic, narrative-review approach. By analysing 20 music education research articles, published from 2000–2015 in peer-reviewed journals,we firstly provide an overview of the key features and knowledge of existing research. Secondly we identify how improvisation has been characterized, conceptually before, thirdly, describing the implications of the literature for improvisation in practice. Our article reveals that improvisation tends to be an overlooked activity both in music education contexts and in music education research. Broadly speaking, music education research tends to characterise improvisation within two conceptual frameworks, which have different implications for implementation; ‘structured’, teacher-directed improvisation and ‘free’, child-directed improvisation. We conclude by arguing that music educational research on improvisation is an underdeveloped field and outline a number of questions to be addressed in future research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2019
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52882 (URN)10.1017/S026505171800013X (DOI)000466759900005 ()2-s2.0-85048884464 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-10-10 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78148 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    3. A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    2019 (English)In: Expanding the space for improvisation pedagogy in music: a transdisciplinary approach / [ed] G. G. Johansen, K. Holdhus, C. Larsson & U. MacGlone, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 61-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I argue that specific valuable educational qualities can be developed through free group improvisation in general music education. My claims are operationalised through a set of research questions to investigate students’ actions, and characteristics as well as implications of these actions in improvisation events. John Dewey’s theory of aesthetic experience, and more specifically an experience, is employed as analytical lens in analysis of children’s improvisations. I argue that an experience in improvisation occurs in and through a reciprocal interaction with the environment which means that when children improvise, they change due to their musical experiences but they also in turn change their musical environment. Crucially, I argue that having an experience in free group improvisation can cultivate Expressiveness, Agency and Responsiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2019
    Keywords
    improvisation, general music education, aesthetic experience, an experience
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78149 (URN)9780815392101 (ISBN)9781351199957 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 121-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improvisation in general music education is still a somewhat underdeveloped practice. Moreover, attempts to justify its place in the curriculum have often focused solely on its (measurable) outcomes. In this article, we claim that a deeper understanding of students' meaning-making processes in experiences of improvisation is necessary in order to develop improvisation practice and research. The purpose of this article is to offer a music education perspective on improvisation based on John Dewey's transactional perspective on aesthetic experience and meaning-making. Related to this, we suggest and illustrate a Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA) as a way of analysing meaning-making in music improvisation within general music education. The method of analysis is illustrated by vignettes from video analyses of music lessons in two Swedish schools with pupils aged 9-10 and their free improvisations. The vignettes show how PEA enables analyses of situated meaning-making in the progress of the pupils' improvisation activities. Further, the transactional perspective makes educational values of improvisation visible, such as musical and personal agency, and elucidates cognitive, embodied and ethical aspects of musical meaning-making.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut / Stockholm University College of Music Education, 2018
    National Category
    Social Sciences Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology esp. Musical Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70322 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-25 Created: 2018-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
  • Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Complexity in the 'Extended' Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an 'extended' business network is investigated. The ‘extended’ view refers to the inclusion of socio-political actors in the firm’s business network. Building on a business network perspective, the thesis’ purpose is to understand how interactions between business, social, and political actors influence the development of smart city solutions. Based on the findings from the four articles included in the thesis, a complexity lens for further understanding of interaction with socio-political actors is presented. It argues that reaching success in the relationship entails finding a balance between economic and social needs.

    Through the analysis of two smart city projects developed in Brazil, this study investigates the influence of socio-political actors on firms’ cooperative and competitive behavior as well as their decisions relating to resource allocation. The findings illustrate that decisions to cooperate or compete are associated with centrality. The firm’s willingness to be a central actor, i.e., a project leader, places traditional buyer-supplier partners in competition. In addition to this, resource allocation is closely linked to customization. In cities demanding a high level of customization of the smart city solution, companies will be encouraged to allocate resources to exploitation, while in cities requiring a low level of customization, exploration will be chosen instead. But knowledge about how to allocate resources is closely linked to the centrality issue, since a central actor may enjoy better access to a large pool of resources and information. Consequently, the final outcome in relational terms can lead to win-lose rather than a win-win situation if rivalry for centrality between business partners intensifies over time.

    The study of such complex interaction contributes to the industrial marketing and business network literature by providing a practical perspective and showing how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantages for companies. In addition, this thesis suggests that managers need to cope with the complexity inherent in such type of relationships, primarily due the fact that interaction with socio-political actors has important competitive implications for firms. Ultimately, the thesis offers a framework for investigating complexity in actors’ interactions and resource heterogeneity that complements our understanding of intraorganizational relationships, opening opportunities for a new perspective and better comprehension of the influence of socio-political actors in firms’ business networks.

  • Klézl, Vojtech
    Department of Marketing and Business, Faculty of Economics, VŠB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Factors influencing savings from electronic auctions2014In: Central European Review of Economic Issuer (CEREI), ISSN 1212-3951, Vol. 17, p. 209-216Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ratio of public procurement undertaken through reverse electronic auctions is increasing rapidly. Czech and Slovak municipalities use this tool to save public funds through fostering direct competition between suppliers and to increase transparency. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the savings achieved through e-auctions and the factors influencing these. Five variables are tested to establish whether they influence the savings: num-ber of participants (potential suppliers) in the e-auction, total value of the e-auction, size and country of origin of the municipality, and category of the procured product or service. Several methods are used to test independence. All of these factors except the country of origin influence the savings gained, which is in accordance with the findings of existing research.

  • Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazil2019In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 171-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a business network perspective, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical view for studying service MNEs in ICT (information communication technology) projects centred on the improvement of public services. The four inter-related concepts of cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge are applied in the analysis of two projects. Defining the projects as object-based services, the study manifests how service MNEs manage three types of actors (business, politi-cal and social) having their legitimacy in different systems. The cases illustrate cross-border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join forces in Brazil with local business, social and political actors and cooperate to strengthen their competitive market position. The study concludes that successful cooperation is partially explained by the management’s ability to incorporate business resources into the needs of the socio-political actors. Furthermore, in object-based services, which are not similar to long-term business relationships, the three involved par-ties advance different types of relationships within a loose network structure. A key implication is that extensive public–private relationships are needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haptic communicative functions and their effects on communication in collaborative multimodal virtual environments2017In: Proceedings 13th SweCog Conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, p. 63-64Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Frid, Emma
    et al.
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bresin, Roberto
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moll, Jonas
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sonification of haptic interaction in a virtual scene2014In: SMC Sweden 2014 Sound and Music Computing: Bridging science, art, and industry / [ed] Roberto Bresin, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2014, p. 14-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a brief overview of work-in-progress for a study on correlations between visual and haptic spatial attention in a multimodal single-user application comparing different modalities. The aim is to gain insight into how auditory and haptic versus visual representations of temporal events may affect task performance and spatial attention. For this purpose, a 3D application involving one haptic model and two different sound models for interactive sonification are developed.

  • Kiss, Tamás
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predictability in Equity Markets: Estimation and Inference2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three chapters dealing with predictability in equity markets. The first chapter analyses predictive regressions in a predictive system framework, where the predictor is an imperfect proxy for the expected returns. I show that when there are differences between the dynamic structure of the expected return and the predictor, the predictive regression uses predictive information inefficiently. As a solution, I propose a persistence adjustment for the predictive regression. The resulting estimator is a two-stage method, where the expected return and predictor processes are modelled separately, allowing for each to have distinct dynamic properties. Simulations, as well as empirical results, show that the method leads to both better in-sample fit and real-time forecasting performance. In the second chapter we show that the dividend-growth based test of return predictability, proposed by Cochrane [2008, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1533-1575], is similar to a likelihood-based test of the standard return-predictability model, treating the autoregressive parameter of the dividend-price ratio as known. In comparison to standard OLS-based inference, both tests achieve power gains from a strong use of the exact value postulated for the autoregressive parameter. When compared to the likelihood-based test, there are no power advantages for the dividend-growth based test. In common implementations, with the autoregressive parameter set equal to the corresponding OLS estimate, Cochrane's test also suffers from severe size distortions. The third chapter provides an explanation for why predictive regressions may have lost power in recent samples. In a noisy predictor framework, where expected returns are stationary and a non-stationary component masks the information in the regressor, I show that the predictive power of the regression vanishes as the sample size increases. To address vanishing predictability, I propose an estimation method, subsample fixed effects. It involves estimating the predictive relationship locally in subsamples and then pooling the estimates via a fixed effects estimator. Empirically, important predictors of the stock returns exhibit vanishing predictability but applying subsample fixed effects indicates that the underlying predictive relationship between these predictors and returns remains significant.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Industrial policy: Political considerations, payoffs, and peculiar incentives2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent papers. They deal with some aspects of industrial policy, namely public supports to firms that are intended to support innovation and growth at the firm level, using Swedish data. Two papers study the efficiency of current Swedish policies by estimating the effects of subsidies and public loans to firms, respectively.

    The results on subsidized firms suggests that there are some positive effects on profits and productivity, but these diminish and disappear over time. The results of public loans are more positive with long lasting effects on productivity and sales but only for smaller firms. Public loans do not lead to an increase in the number of employees in the firms that receive them.

    The third paper studies the selection of firms for subsidies and the incentives firms have to seek them. By modeling the decision to seek subsidies as a trade off between producing in the market and seeking grants, the results suggest that firms with low market productivity might self-select into seeking grants. The empirical results are in line with the theoretical predictions.

    The final paper studies the incentives that politicians have to implement programs and policies that they know will be inefficient. Since a lack of political action can make the politicians look incompetent, incumbentens have incentives to implement policies even though they know that these will be ineffective, to signal competence towards the voters.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School; The Ratio Institute.
    Statens roll för företagsstöd och då särskilt innovationsstöd2015In: Tillväxt genom stöd: En bok om statligt stöd tillnäringslivet / [ed] Gustavsson Tingvall, P., Östersund: Tillväxtanalys , 2015, p. 13-21Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet diskuter argument för och emot statlig intervention och selektiva stödåtgärder. Under vilka förutsättningar är det motiverat att stötta företag och FoI-verksamhet, och vilka utmaningar möter en sådan politik? Argument för statligt stöd är att staten kan lösa marknadsproblem. Exempelvis kan staten behöva stötta innovativa företag som annars har svårt att få finansiering. Det är ofta svårt för banker och andra finansiärer att bedöma dessa företags lönsamhet, vilket gör dem mindre benägna att låna ut pengar. Riskkapitalbolag kan ta större risker, men stödjer sällan nya företag eftersom det blir för dyrt att utvärdera om de är värda att satsa på. Ett annat argument är att ny kunskap har positiva effekter på andra än de företag som får stöd. Därför bör staten stötta innovativa företag och projekt som ännu inte är lönsamma nog för marknaden. Dessutom kan staten ta en aktiv roll för att samordna och effektivisera innovationssystemet och samverkan mellan stat, näringsliv, akademi och finansiärer. Argument emot statligt stöd är att företag ägnar sig åt att söka stöd i stället för åt produktivt arbete. Stödet kan också gå till företag som är bra på att söka stöd och ägnar sig åt ”rätt” saker, snarare än de företag som bäst behöver det. Ett annat motargument är att det kan vara svårt att motivera varför staten skulle vara bättre på att hitta lönsamma företag än marknaden. Statliga selektiva stöd kan också leda till att ett mindre produktivt företag konkurrerar ut ett som är mer produktivt. Andra utmaningar som stödpolitiken har att brottas med är bland annat att det kan vara dyrt att administrera stöden, att stöden inte generar nya investeringar utan bara ses som en alternativ finansiering till en åtgärd som skulle gjorts i alla fall och att de kan hindra nödvändig strukturomvandling. Men statligt stöd kan också handla om att stötta företag i utsatta regioner och sektorer. Här handlar det om medmänsklighet och valfrihet för medborgarna. Vi menar dock att även om stöden är av denna karaktär bör de användas så effektivt som möjligt.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige; Ratio, stockholm, Sverige.
    Den borgerliga kulturen skapade den industriella revolutionen2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 83-85Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó.
    CKS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping Business School, Jönköping, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    IAS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Municipally Owned Enterprises as Danger Zones for Corruption?: How Politicians Having Feet in Two Camps May Undermine Conditions for Accountabilit2019In: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 320-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market-inspired reforms of New Public Management have been particularly pronounced in Swedish local government. Notably, municipally owned enterprises (MOEs) have rapidly grown in numbers. Principal-agent theory gives rise to the hypothesis that the massive introduction of MOEs has impacted negatively on the conditions for accountability in Swedish local government. To study this, social network analysis was employed in mapping networks for 223 MOEs in 11 strategically chosen municipalities, covering a total of 732 politicians. The analysis reveals substantial overlaps between principals (representatives of the ultimate stakeholders, citizens) and agents (the boards of the MOEs). Hence, corporatization of public services seems to imply worrisome entanglements between the politicians who are set to steer, govern, and oversee MOEs on the one hand, and the board members of MOEs on the other. The increasing numbers of MOEs may therefore have adverse effects on accountability in important and growing parts of Swedish local government.

  • Spinelli, L.
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Botwicz, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Zolek, N.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kacprzak, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Milej, D.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sawosz, P.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Liebert, A.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Weigel, U.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Durduran, T.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Foschum, F.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Kienle, A.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Baribeau, F.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Leclair, S.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Bouchard, J. -P
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Noiseux, I.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Gallant, P.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Mermut, O.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Farina, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Pifferi, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Torricelli, A.
    POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Cubeddu, R.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Ho, H. -C
    ITRI, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan; PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Mazurenka, M.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Wabnitz, H.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Klauenberg, K.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, C.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bénazech-Lavoué, M.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Lesage, F.
    Département de génieélectrique, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Khoptyar, D.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Subash, A. A.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson-Engels, S.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Di Ninni, P.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Martelli, F.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Zaccanti, G.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink2014In: Biomedical Optics Express, ISSN 2156-7085, E-ISSN 2156-7085, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 2037-2053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-center study has been set up to accurately characterize the optical properties of diffusive liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Nine research laboratories from six countries adopting different measurement techniques, instrumental set-ups, and data analysis methods determined at their best the optical properties and relative uncertainties of diffusive dilutions prepared with common samples of the two compounds. By exploiting a suitable statistical model, comprehensive reference values at three NIR wavelengths for the intrinsic absorption coefficient of India ink and the intrinsic reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid-20% were determined with an uncertainty of about 2% or better, depending on the wavelength considered, and 1%, respectively. Even if in this study we focused on particular batches of India ink and Intralipid, the reference values determined here represent a solid and useful starting point for preparing diffusive liquid phantoms with accurately defined optical properties. Furthermore, due to the ready availability, low cost, long-term stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of these compounds, they provide a unique fundamental tool for the calibration and performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopy instrumentation intended to be used in laboratory or clinical environment. Finally, the collaborative work presented here demonstrates that the accuracy level attained in this work for optical properties of diffusive phantoms is reliable.

  • Fan, Isaac
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Jens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Kilian, Wolfgang
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Burghoff, Martin
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Stollfuss, Detlef
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Schnabel, Allard
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Wübbeler, Gerd
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Seifert, Frank
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Trahms, Lutz
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Direct measurement of the γHe / γXe ratio at ultralow magnetic field2016In: 8TH SYMPOSIUM ON FREQUENCY STANDARDS AND METROLOGY 2015 / [ed] Riehle, F., IOP Publishing Ltd , 2016, Vol. 723, p. 1-7, article id 012045Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A co-located 3He and 129Xe nuclear spin free precession measurement at sub-μT magnetic field was carried out in a magnetically shielded environment. The uncorrected quotient of the gyromagnetic ratios between neutral 3He and 129Xe atoms is determined to be 2.754 082 81(07), accounting for only statistical error. Our measurement shows that this ratio has a stability of 1.4×10-5/ √τ, demonstrating the ability to reach the current precision limit of the quotient in a 10000 s of averaging time τ. This precision is enough for the next-generation EDM search in neutral 129Xe atoms based on a similar comagnetometer scheme.

  • Bodnar, Olha
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Gremany.
    Link, Alfred
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model2016In: Bayesian Analysis, ISSN 1936-0975, E-ISSN 1931-6690, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective Bayesian inference is proposed for the generalized marginal random effects model p(x|μ, σλ) = f((x − μ1) T (V + σ2 λI) −1 (x − μ1))/ det(V + σ2 λI). The matrix V is assumed to be known, and the goal is to infer μ given the observations x = (x1,...,xn) T , while σλ is a nuisance parameter. In metrology this model has been applied for the adjustment of inconsistent data x1,...,xn, where the matrix V contains the uncertainties quoted for x1,...,xn. √ We show that the reference prior for grouping {μ, σλ} is given by π(μ, σλ) ∝ F22, where F22 denotes the lower right element of the Fisher information matrix F. We give an explicit expression for the reference prior, and we also prove propriety of the resulting posterior as well as the existence of mean and variance of the marginal posterior for μ. Under the additional assumption of normality, we relate the resulting reference analysis to that known for the conventional balanced random effects model in the asymptotic case when the number of repeated within-class observations for that model tends to infinity. We investigate the frequentist properties of the proposed inference for the generalized marginal random effects model through simulations, and we also study its robustness when the underlying distributional assumptions are violated. Finally, we apply the model to the adjustment of current measurements of the Planck constant.

  • Larsson, Karl
    Department of Economics, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Reserve Lifetime and Depletion in Exhaustible Resource Extraction Under Uncertainty2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the implications for reserve lifetime and related quantities in a continuous time model of resource extraction under uncertainty. Both the resource price and the extracted amount are assumed to follow stochastic processes. Reserve lifetime is determined by the profit-maximizing firms optimal decision of when to close down production. We derive closed form expressions for the expected value and the probability distribution of reserve lifetime, the expected level of depletion, and the expected streams of discounted revenues and costs until closing.

  • Larsson, Karl
    Department of Economics, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund Sweden.
    An Equilibrium Model for Commodity Prices with Regime Switching Reserve Dynamics2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the implications for asset prices and implied volatilities in an equilibrium model of commodity production. Production of the commodity can be carried out in one of two regimes. In the first regime the reserves are set in constant decline while in the second regime new additions to the reserve base are made. The optimal production rule is to switch regime when the stochastic revenue process of the producer hits certain barrier values. As a consequence of the optimal production rule equilibrium spot prices also become regime switching. The shapes of forward curves and implied volatilities are strongly dependent on the level of the stochastic revenue process.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden; Department of Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; CESifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Granskning av ESO-rapporten Dags för omprövning av Per Molander2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ESO-rapporten Dags för omprövning av Per Molander behandlar privatiseringar av välfärdstjänster och näringslivsinspirerade styrmetoder inom offentlig verksamhet. Tyvärr lider ESO-rapporten av flera brister som är så allvarliga att den inte bör ligga till grund för politiskt beslutsfattande. Detta Policy Paper redogör för åtta sådana allvarliga brister.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cherry picking i välfärdsföretag2018In: I stället för vinstförbud: Bättre reglering av välfärdsföretag, Fores , 2018, p. 22-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    London School of Economics, London, UK; Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (iFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Lönsamma kunskaper: Sambandet mellan vinst och kvalitet i svenska grundskolor2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten undersöker forskarna Gabriel Heller-Sahlgren, London School of Economics och Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, och Henrik Jordahl, Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, sambandet mellan skolors lönsamhet och utbildningskvalitet. Analysen är gjord på aktiebolag, som är den dominerande organisationsformen för friskolor. Resultaten tyder på att lönsamhet och kvalitet går hand i hand på svenska grundskolor. Det gäller både akademiska kvalitetsmått som baseras på elevernas studieresultat och mjukare mått som baseras på elevernas attityder. För att undersöka om sambanden kan bero på betygsinflation jämförs elevernas slutbetyg med deras betyg på nationella prov. Härvid framkommer ingenting som tyder på att sambandet mellan friskolornas lönsamhet och deras elevers studieresultat skulle bero på betygsinflation. Författarna finner heller inget stöd för att lönsamma friskolor har en mer fördelaktig elevsammansättning. Tvärt emot sådana farhågor verkar elevsammansättningen nästan inte skilja sig alls mellan friskolor med olika lönsamhetsnivåer. Enligt författarna förefaller alltså hög utbildningskvalitet vara lönsam för skolföretagen, precis som kan förväntas på andra marknader.

  • Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel
    et al.
    London School of Economics, London, UK; Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning ((IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    En kunskapsskola för tillväxt2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan har länge uppmärksammats i svensk debatt. En växande andel elever går ut grundskolan utan godkänt i kärnämnen och resultaten har över tid varit fallande i internationella kunskapsmätningar (även om den senaste PISA-mätningen visade på en en förbättring). Utöver att en bra utbildning är viktig för den enskilde vet vi att humankapital är viktigt för tillväxten i ett land. En bra fungerande grundutbildning är också en förutsättning för en fungerande kompetensförsörjning.Rapporten går igenom modern forskning om vilken effekt humankapital, mätt med kunskapsresultat i internationella mätningar, har på tillväxt. Det visar sig att resultaten i internationella kunskapsmätningar har mycket stor betydelse för länders tillväxt.Studien går sedan också igenom vilka faktorer som i sin tur påverkar resultaten i internationella kunskapsmätningar.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, IFN, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Vad kännetecknar vår tid?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 91-92Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nyttig introduktion till mänsklighetens främsta ekonomiska fråga2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 66-67Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Sundén, David
    Lakeville Economic Cunsulting, Sverige.
    Vinstbegränsning i välfärden2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka är de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av att begränsa välfärdsföretagens vinster? Svenskt Näringsliv har gett docent Henrik Jordahl och ek. doktor David Sundén i uppdrag att söka besvara denna fråga.

    I rapporten granskas först de motiv som regeringen angett för Välfärdsutredningens uppdrag att föreslå vinstregleringar för företagen inom välfärdssektorn. Regeringen har angett tre huvudmotiv. - vinstutdelning innebär ett betydande läckage av skattemedel, - välfärdsföretagen gör mycket höga vinster, - vinstsyfte hämmar kvaliteten hos vinstdrivande företag. En slutsats i rapporten är att det så kallade läckaget av skattemedel är försumbart. En vinstreglering kan återföra resurser som högt räknat motsvarar 6 promille av de totala kostnaderna för välfärden, vilket inte kan ha någon betydande påverkan på de tjänster som kommer brukarna till del.

    En ytterligare slutsats är att företagen inte gör några övervinster. I rapporten anges att rörelsemarginalen är ett lämpligt mått på detta eftersom det anger välfärdsföretagens överskott i förhållande till vad de tilldelas i skattemedel, det vill säga det mäter hur mycket som kan tänkas läcka ut ur välfärden. Den genomsnittliga rörelsemarginalen ligger på cirka 6 procent, vilket är i paritet med jämförbara branscher. I rapporten görs också bedömningen att företagens vinst inte går ut över tjänsternas kvalitet. Det finns inga empiriska belägg för att så skulle ske på ett systematiskt sätt. I rapporten visas också att de mest lönsamma företagen inom äldreomsorgen levererar minst lika hög kvalitet som mindre lönsamma företag.

    Välfärdsutredningens utgångspunkter avfärdas därför som falska. I rapporten görs också en bedömning av de samhällsekonomiska effekterna av en vinstreglering. En trolig följd av en vinstreglering är att företagens kostnader av engångskaraktär kan bedömas öka. En annan konsekvens är att kostnadseffektiviteten minskar. Dessutom kan investeringar och nyföretagande bedömas minska genom ett politiskt satt vinsttak.

    Mot bakgrund av att antalet äldre som ska dela på de offentliga välfärdsresurserna blir allt fler är det enligt rapporten angeläget att öka produktiviteten i välfärdssektorn. Försämrade drivkrafter för nyföretagande, investeringar, produktivitet och kostnadseffektivitet är därmed fel väg att gå.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Vad jag skrev2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 63-67Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Bred analys av tjänstesektorn med Sverige i fokus2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 95-96Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Promise voters to pad their wallets, and they will listen2015In: News from IFN, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    En effektivare skola ger mer kunskap2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan behöver ett effektivt kvalitetsarbete. Pisa-resultaten talar sitt tydliga språk, och det är högst angeläget att vidta åtgärder som kan förbättra skolresultaten. Rapporten fokuserar på skolors systematiska kvalitetsarbete och effektiviseringsarbete och hur dessa påverkar elevernas prestationer.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    IFN - Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Omprövning av en djärv ESO-rapport2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 6p. 68-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sveirge.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det blivit möjligt att driva äldreomsorg i privat regi. Förespråkarna för denna utveckling pekar på valfrihet och ökad effektivitet. Kritikerna talar om vanvård och menar att äldreomsorg inte lämpar sig för marknadslösningar. I rapporten analyserar forskarna förutsättningarna för att nå god kvalitet och effektivt resursutnyttjande vid marknadsliknande lösningar i äldreomsorgen. De frågor som diskuteras i rapporten är bl.a.:

    • Hur fungerar den svenska äldreomsorgsmarknaden?
    • Under vilka förutsättningar kan valfrihet och konkurrens förbättra omsorgen?
    • Vilka krav kan och bör ställas på äldreomsorgens utförare?
    • Vilken betydelse har brukarval för omsorgens kvalitet?
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring Digital Time Measurement in the Public Sector: Labor Productivity and Service Quality in Home Care2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure labor productivity in home care using new data from the recent introduction of digital time measurement in Swedish municipalities. By measuring worker utilization (delivered hours as a share of worked hours) we avoid several problems that have plagued previous studies of public sector productivity. The time use measure exposes substantial variation in productivity between home care units, suggesting room for improvement. More productive units deliver a larger share of the hours approved by care managers and have equally satisfied users.

  • Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional, Experimental and Environmental Economics (KIE), University of Economics in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Ifo Institute, Germany; CESifo, Munich, Germany; CReAM, London, UK; IZA, BOnn, Germany.
    The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Since good-looking politicians win more votes, a beauty advantage for politicians on the left or on the right is bound to have political consequences. We show that politicians on the right look more beautiful in Europe, the United States and Australia. Our explanation is that beautiful people earn more, which makes them less inclined to support redistribution. Accordingly, our model predicts that voters use beauty as a cue for conservatism when they do not know much about candidates and that politicians on the right benefit more from beauty in low-information elections. Evidence from real and experimental elections confirms both predictions.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Cesifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden, CESifo, Stockholm, Sweden, IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Choice and Competition in the Welfare State: Home Care as the Ideal Quasi-market2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We study a reform by which a standardized model of choice and competition was introduced in tax-financed home care in a majority of Swedish municipalities. The market for home care is of particular interest since it is close to the ideal quasi-market. For identification, we exploit the different timing of reform implementation across municipalities. We find that the introduction of free choice and free entry in home care increased perceived quality by about one quarter of a standard deviation without affecting costs. Since satisfaction is unrelated to the private market share, the underlying mechanism seems to be new choice opportunities rather than competition or an advantage of private providers.

  • Angelis, Jannis
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Häger Glenngård, Anna
    Lund University School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute), Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Management Practices and the Quality of Primary Care2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the World Management Survey method, we map and analyse management quality in Swedish primary care centres. On average, private providers have higher management quality than public ones. We also find that centres with a high overall social deprivation among enrolled patients tend to have higher management quality. Regarding quality of care, we find that management quality is positively associated with accessibility, but not with patient reported experience.

  • Hogarth, Claire Milne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Theme Introduction2019In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 5-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Hogarth, Claire Milne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Summary of the Round-Table Discussion2019In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 125-128Article in journal (Other academic)