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  • Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG, Switzerland, Business Innovation, Environmental Social Science Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    What service transition?: Rethinking established assumptions about manufacturers’ service-led growth strategies2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 45, 59-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both academics and practitioners emphasize the importance for product firms of implementing service-led growth strategies. The service transition concept is well established, namely a unidirectional repositioning along a product-service continuum—from basic, product-oriented services towards more customized, process-oriented ones—ultimately leading to the provision of solutions. We challenge this service transition assumption and develop alternative ones regarding how product firms should pursue service-led growth. Using ‘problematization methodology’, and drawing on findings from thirteen system suppliers, we identify three service-led growth trajectories: (1) becoming an availability provider, which is the focus of most transition literature; (2) becoming a performance provider, which resembles project-based sales and implies an even greater differentiation of what customers are offered; and, (3) becoming an ‘industrializer’, which is about standardizing previously customized solutions to promote repeatability and scalability. Based on our critical inquiry, we develop two alternative assumptions: (a) firms need to constantly balance business expansion and standardization activities; and (b) manage the co-existence of different system supplier roles. Finally, we consider the implications for implementing service-led growth strategies of the alternative assumptions.

  • Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Liu, Xing
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lunander, Anders
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Mandell, Svante
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Mellin, Anna
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Vierth, Inge
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. They address these questions from several different angles. For example, they discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, there is a discussion on how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road.

  • Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Institutionen för Nationalekonomi, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Does Gibrat’s Law hold for Swedish energy firms?2015In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 49, no 2, 659-674 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibrat's law predicts that firm growth is purely random and should be independent of firm size. We use a random effects-random coefficient model to test whether Gibrat's law holds on average in the studied sample as well as at the individual firm level in the Swedish energy market. No study has yet investigated whether Gibrat's law holds for individual firms, previous studies having instead estimated whether the law holds on average in the samples studied. The present results support the claim that Gibrat's law is more likely to be rejected ex ante when an entire firm population is considered, but more likely to be confirmed ex post after market selection has "cleaned" the original population of firms or when the analysis treats more disaggregated data. From a theoretical perspective, the results are consistent with models based on passive and active learning, indicating a steady state in the firm expansion process and that Gibrat's law is violated in the short term but holds in the long term once firms have reached a steady state. These results indicate that approximately 70 % of firms in the Swedish energy sector are in steady state, with only random fluctuations in size around that level over the 15 studied years.

  • Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carrington, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johed, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Professionalism och kommersialism bland revisorer2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Laitila, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lundgren, Marie
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Sweden.
    Olsson, Michael
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Sweden.
    Commuting and the Economic Milieu: An Investigation of the Choice to Commute Related to Labor Demand, Worker Competition and Wage2015In: Regional Development in an International Context: Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, 369-380 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate aggregate economic-milieu variables and use them as explanatory variables to study the Swedish commuting pattern. The variables are of accessibility type (i.e. spatially discounted) and are logarithmic ratios. We start from the assumption of utility maximizing individuals. The probability to commute using a link increases with expected utility. We apply two models: the quantity model and the wage model. The explanatory power is high and the results are as expected. Labor demand is positively related to utility. Worker competition is negatively related to utility. Wage is positively related to utility. A municipality, which isnot a regional center, can strive to increase the number of jobs within the municipality. The second best, for such a municipality, is that jobs are available in the municipality that is the regional center. Otherwise, the municipality and region will economically decline.

  • Jarl, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Tranberg, Roy
    Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An innovative sealed shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers - a feasibility study2017In: Diabetic Foot & Ankle, ISSN 2000-625X, Vol. 8, no 1, 1348178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-removable knee-high devices are the gold standard to treat diabetic foot ulcers located on the plantar forefoot, but they immobilize the ankle, which restricts daily life activities and has negative effects on joint functioning. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of sealing a therapeutic shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers. Design: A case series of seven men with type 2 diabetes and a metatarsal head ulcer were prescribed therapeutic shoes and custom-made insoles. The shoe was sealed with a plastic band. Off-loading was assessed with the F-scan pressure measurement system. Adherence to wearing the shoe was assessed with a temperature sensor and by documenting the status of the seal. Results: The off-loading was effective and all ulcers healed. Median time to healing was 56 days (range 8-160). Complications were secondary ulcer (n = 1) and plantar hematoma (n = 1). Five of seven participants did not disturb the seal. Conclusions: Sealing a therapeutic shoe is a feasible way to off-load and heal forefoot ulcers. A controlled trial is needed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a sealed shoe to other non-removable devices.

  • Arensmeier, Cecilia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lennqvist Lindén, Ann-Sofie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bemyndigande eller granskning: nationella prov som styrinstrument2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 26, no 2, 49-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authorizing or auditing – national tests as a governing tool

    NPM, particularly in the form of output evaluations, have had a large impact on Swedish educational reforms over the past decades. This article focuses on the governing of schools and the professional status of teachers by examining how teachers have experienced the new national tests, introduced in compulsory schools in 2014 in social study subjects. Two ideal types of governing, authorizing and auditing, provide the theoretical framework. The empirical material consists of focus group interviews. The results expose a tension in teacher experience. On the one hand, the teachers feel validated by the tests; on the other, they oppose the questioning of their profession that the tests imply. Trust is a key factor at play. The current way Swedish schools are governed signals a distrust in teachers. At the same time, the teachers display a significant level of trust in the state, combined with a limited professional confidence. This reinforces the status of teaching as a semi-profession. 

  • Yang, Haomin
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brand, Judith S
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Jingmei
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ugalde-Morales, Emilio
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hall, Per
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Czene, Kamila
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk and predictors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer: a Swedish population-based cohort study.2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, no 1, 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The risk of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer is largely unknown, as available evidence is limited to case findings. We systematically examined the incidence and risk factors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer.

    METHODS: A Swedish nationwide cohort of 56,235 breast cancer patients (2001-2012) was compared to 280,854 matched reference individuals from the general population to estimate the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset psoriasis. We also calculated HRs for psoriasis according to treatment, genetic, and lifestyle factors in a regional cohort of 8987 patients.

    RESULTS: In the nationwide cohort, 599 patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with psoriasis during a median follow-up of 5.1 years compared to 2795 cases in the matched reference individuals. This corresponded to an incidence rate of 1.9/1000 person-years in breast cancer patients vs. 1.7/1000 person-years in matched reference individuals. Breast cancer patients were at an increased risk of psoriasis (HR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.28), especially its most common subtype (psoriasis vulgaris; HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.17-1.52). The risk of psoriasis vulgaris was highest shortly after diagnosis but remained increased up to 12 years. Treatment-specific analyses indicated a higher risk of psoriasis in patients treated with radiotherapy (HR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.44-4.12) and mastectomy (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03-2.31). Apart from treatment-specific effects, we identified genetic predisposition, obesity, and smoking as independent risk factors for psoriasis in breast cancer patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psoriasis is slightly elevated among patients with breast cancer, with treatment, lifestyle, and genetic factors defining the individual risk profile.

  • Malmberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Interaktiva och kognitiva system, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Högskolan för design och konsthantverk, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Design in Public Sector: Exploring Antecedents of Sustained Design Capability2016In: The 20th dmi: Academic Design Management Conference proceedings, Boston: Design Management Institute , 2016, 1287-1307 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Experio Lab, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moritz, Stefan
    Veryday, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Empowering transformation through design inquiry in public healthcare2015In: Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Design4Health 2015, Sheffield,13 -16 July 2015, Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In health and care service processes the coordination between different caregivers is one of the crucial challenges. This paper presents The patient journey project  as a practical application of a pragmatist pattern of inquiry (Dewey, 1938) and as fruitful way to work with/achieve transformative design. Situations of lived experience and moments of reflections perform as a carrier of knowledge and development. The paper argues that the design tools and mindset used in this project are of great importance in the ongoing transformation towards the patients focus in a Swedish public health care organization. 

  • Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Längkvist, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An Ontology-Based Reasoning Framework for Querying Satellite Images for Disaster Monitoring2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 11, 2545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying. To illustrate the utility of SemCityMap in a disaster scenario, we use an urban environment—central Stockholm—in combination with a flood simulation. We show that the system provides useful answers to high-level queries also with respect to the current flood status. Examples of such queries concern path planning for vehicles or retrieval of safe regions such as “find all regions close to schools and far from the flooded area”. The particular advantage of our approach lies in the fact that ontological information and reasoning is explicitly integrated so that queries can be formulated in a natural way using concepts on appropriate level of abstraction, including additional constraints.

  • de Boise, Sam
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Gender Inequalities and Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden2017In: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 0, no 0, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education,especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher musiceducation (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK andSweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the numbers of menand women who applied to HME subjects, compared to those who were offered a place ontheir chosen program or course, in both nations. Through this it demonstrates that whilst aSwedish HME appears to show less institutional discrimination against women, there arestill similar transnational divisions in men’s and women’s HME subject choices. Howeverthe article uses these data to build on existing critiques around a need for intersectionalunderstandings of gender inequalities, before arguing that a critique of neoliberalism isessential to tackling gender inequalities in HME.

  • Arneback, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University, Sweden,.
    Doing interdisciplinary in teacher education: Resources for learning through writing in two educational programmes2017In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    In search for an innovation theory2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations are usually conceived as new technical products aimed for commercial markets. However, the interest for innovations in the public sector is increasing and accompanying this interest follows a need for deeper knowledge about public sector innovation. A co-learning program among public sector organisations has been carried out in order to enhance innovation knowledge among public administrators. One of the main ideas of this learning program is that members from one organisation study innovation work in another organisation and then share their learnings to all participants of the learning program. In order to conduct such an inquiry the participants have used different innovation concepts structured in an innovation model. This supportive knowledge has been framed as a practical theory (following pragmatist epistemology) in this paper. The paper presents how this practical theory on public sector innovation has been continually improved during the learning program. The practical theory consists of three parts: An innovation concept, a description of the innovation process and the innovation context (internal and external preconditions). The development of the practical theory has been done following principles of multi-grounding (theoretical grounding, empirical grounding and internal grounding).

  • Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Institutionen för datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Kliniska Beslutsstöd: En konceptualisering med IT-goverance implikationer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en konceptualisering av begreppet kliniska beslutsstöd. Fem centrala frågor diskuteras och besvaras; vilket är ursprunget för kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kliniska beslutsstöd?, var existerar kliniska beslutsstöd?, vilken funktion/syfte har kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kontexten för kliniska beslutsstöd?, hur pratar vi om kliniska beslutsstöd?. Resultatet används som avstam för vidare forskning kring IT-governance för kliniska beslutsstöd. 

  • Magnusson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kucner, Tomasz Piotr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    IS lab, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Semi-Supervised 3D Place Categorisation by Descriptor Clustering2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2017, 620-625 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Place categorisation; i. e., learning to group perception data into categories based on appearance; typically uses supervised learning and either visual or 2D range data.

    This paper shows place categorisation from 3D data without any training phase. We show that, by leveraging the NDT histogram descriptor to compactly encode 3D point cloud appearance, in combination with standard clustering techniques, it is possible to classify public indoor data sets with accuracy comparable to, and sometimes better than, previous supervised training methods. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to outdoor data, with an added benefit of being able to hierarchically categorise places into sub-categories based on a user-selected threshold.

    This technique relieves users of providing relevant training data, and only requires them to adjust the sensitivity to the number of place categories, and provide a semantic label to each category after the process is completed.

  • Hadfield, James
    et al.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Simon R
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Seth-Smith, Helena M B
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Applied Microbiology Research, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Parmar, Surendra
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Andersson, Patiyan
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia.
    Giffard, Philip M.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia; School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Schachter, Julius
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Moncada, Jeanne
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Ellison, Louise
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Radebe, Frans
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mendoza, Suyapa
    Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, FM1100, Honduras, Honduras.
    Ouburg, Sander
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Morré, Servaas A
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Institute of Public Health Genomics, School for Oncology & Developmental Biology (GROW), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Sachse, Konrad
    Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Jena, Germany.
    Puolakkainen, Mirja
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korhonen, Suvi J
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sonnex, Chris
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Wiggins, Rebecca
    Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Jalal, Hamid
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Brunelli, Tamara
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Casprini, Patrizia
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Pitt, Rachel
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Ison, Cathy
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Savicheva, Alevtina
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Shipitsyna, Elena
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia; WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hadad, Ronza
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kari, Laszlo
    Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA.
    Burton, Matthew J
    Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Mabey, David
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Solomon, Anthony W
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Lewis, David
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa;Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Marsh, Peter
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Clarke, Ian N
    Molecular Microbiology Group, University Medical School, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Parkhill, Julian
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Thomson, Nicholas R.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Comprehensive global genome dynamics of Chlamydia trachomatis show ancient diversification followed by contemporary mixing and recent lineage expansion2017In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 27, no 7, 1220-1229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the world's most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and leading infectious cause of blindness, yet it is one of the least understood human pathogens, in part due to the difficulties of in vitro culturing and the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation. Genome sequencing has reinvigorated this field, shedding light on the contemporary history of this pathogen. Here, we analyze 563 full genomes, 455 of which are novel, to show that the history of the species comprises two phases, and conclude that the currently circulating lineages are the result of evolution in different genomic ecotypes. Temporal analysis indicates these lineages have recently expanded in the space of thousands of years, rather than the millions of years as previously thought, a finding that dramatically changes our understanding of this pathogen's history. Finally, at a time when almost every pathogen is becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we show that there is no evidence of circulating genomic resistance in C. trachomatis.

  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Projektledning i korta projekt: Observationer av projektledares arbete i multiprojektmiljö2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As most of the project management models were developed for larger projects, there is a lack of understanding of what project managers in short duration projects do. Short-duration projects are projects in multi-project environments lasting for a number of weeks rather than a number of months. Even if they are common today, short-duration projects have not yet attracted the interest of project researchers. The present study aims to analyze what the project managers in short duration projects do and to develop a method for studying the project managers at work.

    A theoretical framework is built on earlier studies of managers’ work, suggesting three areas having impact on the project manager’s work. The impacting areas are the project, the project manager’s experience, and the organizational context of the project. The project manager and the assisting project manager were studied while managing a sub-project in a greater telecom system project. The project managers were studied one week each using participant observation and interviews. The findings indicate that much of the time at work was spent in meetings of different kinds, to deal with change, and to guard the production teams from being disturbed by changes in the environment. It was also found that studying a multi-project environment from the sub-project’s perspective gives a different view on multi-project environments that have earlier been presented as the project managers in the short-duration project constantly have to adjust to changes, inputs and demands from the surrounding projects and functional organizations. In the end some proposals on directions for further studies of managers of short-duration projects are made. 

  • Kremel, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Heterogeneity in the level and handling of the Liability of Newness: Female and immigrant entrepreneurs’ need for and use of business advisory service2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the start-up entrepreneurs face the Liability of Newness when problems and challenges often threaten business survival. Business advisory service, provided by public and private supplier contacts, can offer important knowledge and information, accompanied by various forms of assistance, and thereby decrease the entrepreneurs’ risk of failure and reduce their Liability of Newness. However, it is difficult to match the entrepreneurs’ need for such advice with the available advice. The support must meet the need. Most nations in the European Union have programs and projects that provide such support for entrepreneurs and SMEs. Special programs often support female entrepreneurs and/or immigrant entrepreneurs.

    This thesis examines the level and handling of the Liability of Newness with special focus on female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden. The four papers of this thesis take the perspective of these entrepreneurs. The research is based on a sample of 2 832 entrepreneurs who were interviewed (in a telephone survey) on their impressions and recollections on their need for and use of business advisory service in the start-up processes of their companies. Fulfilment of need is achieved when the need for business advisory service is matched with the right use of business advisory service.

    Heterogeneities as far as the level and handling of the Liability of Newness exist related to female entrepreneurs (vs. male entrepreneurs) and immigrant entrepreneurs (vs. non-immigrant entrepreneurs). Female entrepreneurs have a higher need for business advisory service than male entrepreneurs and also use more business advisory service than male entrepreneurs. As a result, female entrepreneurs can decrease the hazard rate for their companies and also reduce the Liability of Newness as their companies move toward the standard risk in their industry. Immigrant entrepreneurs also have a higher need for business advisory service than non-immigrant entrepreneurs. However, because immigrant entrepreneurs use business advisory service to the same extent that non-immigrant entrepreneurs do, immigrant entrepreneurs are unable to decrease the hazard rate for their companies or to reduce the Liability of Newness.The thesis makes both theoretical, methodological and practical contributions.

    The thesis may be of interest to government policy makers with its attention to the need and use of business advisory service by female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs.

  • Ledin, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Annan-orientering i masskommunicerande brevtexter: en tentativ modell2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to operationalise the concept of other-orientation. Based on an explorative approach, a tentative model for analysing the marks of other-orientation is developed. The model consists of four grammatical and pragmatic categories in language: deixis, speech acts, modality, and evaluative words. The process of finding out the significant marks in each category and develop a model has been an interplay between a thorough linguistic coding, an interpretative, evaluating reading, and abductive reasoning in a step-by-step process.

    Theoretically the study is based on dialogism. From this perspective, the very fact that human nature is social indicates that other-orientation is a constituent component in every communicative act. For that reason, the challenge has not been to prove that other-orientation exists in texts, but to explore how a text is made interactive, contextual, dynamic and other-oriented by means of grammatical and pragmatic selectives such as words, phrases, and clauses.

    The data consists of eight personally addressed mass communication letters about everyday matters. Each text has its model reader in a readers’ collective. Consequently the language in the texts is construed to form a dialogue between an in-text writer and reader that share the same context, although the distance between the real writer and reader is crucial.

    One result of the study is the model as such, another the analyses in which the functions of other-orientation related to the four categories are presented. Moreover, the linguistic analyses show differences between texts and readers’ collectives. Texts aimed at large anonymous collectives generally feature a direct address singular you, a high rate of positive evaluative words, more responsive speech acts, and some more potential modality. In texts aimed at a small familiar collective, there is an "I" or a "we" addressing a collective "you". There are not as many evaluative words but more assertions without any evaluation or modality.

    When it comes to other-orientation, the categories of deixis and speech acts tend to be of greater importance compared to modality and evaluative words. It makes a difference if you address a reader with a singular or collective "you" and if you choose to interact with responsive speech acts or informative statements. These contrast ways to address a reader are of importance for the construction of genre and say a great deal about other-orientation in texts.

  • Jansson, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pejryd, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Characterisation of additive manufacturing metal: carbon-fibre composite bond by dual-energy computed tomography2017In: EUSPEN, Conference Proceedings, Special Interest Group: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, Octrober 2017, KU Leuven, Belgium , 2017, 158-161 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joining of dissimilar materials is a topic of high interest for the industry. The ability to seamlessly join materials with significant differences in properties would advance the development of efficient designs and concepts within many fields. In this work, bonds between aluminium and carbon-fibre reinforced plastic have been studied. The aluminium side of the bonds were fabricated using classical methods (milling) and additive manufacturing. Two types of bonds were fabricated using additive manufacturing, one flat, relying on the rough surface for adhesion in the bond, and the other with surface features designed to hook into the carbon-fibre plies. All the bonds were fabricated using wet layup of carbon-fibre, the idea was that the aluminium parts would bond to the plastic composite in one step. The bonds were characterised using dual-energy computed tomography. The method used in this work was non-linear and based around fusing of projections acquired with different energy spectra. The mechanical strength of the bonds was also evaluated, both through tensile tests and four-point bending.It was found that the bonds including additive manufactured aluminium was stronger than the milled samples in general. In the computed tomography data, it could be seen that the adhesion in those bonds were better, most likely due to the rough surface. The strongest bonds were those with additive manufacturing surface features. However, the computed tomography data revealed that these bonds have difficulties with integration between the surface features and the carbon-fibre plies.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • Persson, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A policy problem that cannot escape its past: constraints on the reformation of safety policy2015In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 9, no 2, 158-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within many current policy theories there is a tendency to first identify change and then explainit. A retrospective analysis of policy changes risks missing continuous processes and struggles forchange as well as mechanisms of resistance to change. Taking this as a point of departure, thispaper develops an understanding of the policy process as a struggle over meaning, as a way toallow for a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of policy change and continuity. Thisapproach is illustrated by an analysis of the formation of public safety policy in Sweden.Alternative storylines giving ‘new’ meanings to the policy problem were strategicallyincorporated into the policy discourse. However, it is found that an ideational path-dependency ofthe policy constrains the possibility for problem reformulation and thereby also the possibility forpolicy change. The discourses that instantiated the policy problem not only affect the ways inwhich the problem is rendered thinkable for the purposes of its government, but also for policyanalysts as well as the public. The analysis shows that it is crucial to understand the interrelationsbetween different discourses (within policy, politics and research) to understand the mechanismsof policy change and continuity.

  • Persson, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The relative importance of institutional trust in countering feelings of unsafety in disadvantaged neighbourhoods2013In: European Spatial Research And Policy, Vol. 20, no 1, 73-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The segregated nature of urban areas reflects an uneven exposure to risk and unsafety. This article analyzes the relevance of place to people’s feelings of unsafety by comparing questionnaire responses from people living in a segregated, disadvantaged neighbourhood to a random sample of people living in the same city. The results suggest that the central factors explaining the individual’s feelings of unsafety differ in this particular neighbourhood compared to the broader population. The article shows that place has a moderating effect on feelings of unsafety. Trust in public institutions is argued to be particularly important in segregated, disadvantaged neighbourhoods because of its potential to prevent feelings of unsafety.

  • Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera totalhalten av PFASs samt andelen okända, hittills ännu ej identifierade PFAS-ämnen i vatten och slam från svenska reningsverk genom att analysera totalt organiskt fluor (TOF) och kvantifierbara PFAS-ämnen. Studien syftar till att kartlägga omfattningen av kända och okända PFAS-ämnen, både dem som är i omlopp och används i produkter i samhället, och dem som släpps ut i miljön. Avloppsvatten (ingående och utgående) och slam provtogs under 2015 och 2016 vid tre olika reningsverk; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) och Öhn (Umeå). I denna rapport redovisas halter av TOF och PFAS-ämnen i slam från 2016 och ingående och utgående avloppsvatten från 2015 och 2016. Flera olika PFAS-klasser detekterades i slam och avloppsvatten; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, diPAPs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. De neutrala och/eller katjoniska PFAS-ämnena i ingående och utgående vatten var ej identiferbara, medan 79-95% av de anjoniska PFAS-ämnen var okända, ej identiferbara ämnen. I slamproverna ´var en betydande del (42-82%) okända ämnen.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

  • Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

    Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

    Syftet med denna studie var 1) att studera geografiska variationer i utsläpp av PFASs genom att mäta PFAS i slamprover från fyra olika reningsverk (Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm och Gässlösa - Borås); 2) att utvärdera om slammet innehåller oidientifierade PFASs och i sådana fall kvantifiera mängden av dessa; 3) att studera hur profilen av PFAS-ämnen förändras över tid genom att mäta olika PFAS-ämnen i arkiverade slamprover från två reningsverk (Henriksdal och Gässlösa); och 4) att bestämma andelen oidentifierade PFAS genom att mäta totalhalten organiskt fluor (TOF) i de arkiverade proverna från Henriksdal och Gässlösa.

    I denna studie rapporteras halterna av TOF och PFAS i slamprover från de fyra ovan nämnda reningsverken insamlade under 2015; vidare rapporteras en tidstrendsstudie utförd för TOF och PFAS i slamprover från Henriksdal mellan 2004 och 2015. Ett flertal PFAS-klasser detekterades i proverna; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. Halterna av oidentifierade PFASs visade sig vara relaterade främst till typ av industriell verksamhet i anslutning till reningsverket, snarare än antalet personer anslutna till och storlek på reningsverken. Identifierade PFAS-halter utgjorde endast 5 - 11% av TOF i proverna insamlade under 2015, vilket indikerade att 89 - 95% av TOF var oidentifierade ämnen. Halten TOF i slamproverna från Gässlösa var uppskattningsvis 1.6 – 17.7 gånger högre än TOF i slamprover från Henriksdal motsvarande år. Andelen identifierade PFAS-halter i förhållande till TOF minskade från 21% under 2004 till 11% under 2015 i slamprover från Henriksdal, ökade halter av oidentiferade PFASs observerades också mellan 2012 och 2015.

  • König, Julia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Holster, Savanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Maaike, Bruins
    DSM Biotechnology Centre, Delft, Netherlands.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Randomized clinical trial: Effective gluten degradation by Aspergillus niger-derived enzyme in a complex meal setting2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 13100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aspergillus niger-derived prolyl endoprotease (AN-PEP) has previously been shown to degrade gluten in healthy subjects when added to an intragastrically infused meal. The current study investigated the efficacy of AN-PEP in a physiological meal setting. In this randomized placebo-controlled crossover study, 18 gluten-sensitive subjects consumed a porridge containing 0.5 g gluten together with two tablets either containing a high or low dose of AN-PEP, or placebo. Gastric and duodenal content was sampled over 180 minutes, and areas under the curve of gluten concentrations were calculated. The primary outcome, i.e. success rate of high dose AN-PEP defined as at least 50% gluten degradation compared to placebo in the duodenum, was achieved in 10 of 13 comparisons. In the stomach, gluten levels were reduced from 176.9 (median, interquartile range 73.5–357.8) to 22.0 (10.6–50.8, p = 0.001) in the high dose and to 25.4 μg × min/ml (16.4–43.7, p = 0.001) in the low dose. In the duodenum, gluten levels were reduced from 14.1 (8.3–124.7) in the placebo to 6.3 (3.5–19.8, p = 0.019) in the high dose and to 7.4 μg × min/ml in the low dose (3.8–12.0, p = 0.015). Thus even in a physiological meal setting, AN-PEP significantly degraded most gluten in the stomach before it entered the duodenum.

  • Kremel, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Yazdanfar, D.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Business advisory services and risk among start-ups and young companies: A gender perspective2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 2, 168-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the demand for business advisory services by owners of start-ups and young companies by taking a gender perspective. The study also examines whether risk-taking is more characteristic of masculine than feminine behaviour in this context. Design/methodology/approach – Aliterature review examines business advisory services and risk aversion from a gender perspective. The empirical data are derived from interviews with owners of more than 2,700 start-ups and young companies in Sweden.Anumber of key variables compare how the company owners (women and men) view business advisory services as a way to overcome risk and to gain access to information in networks. Several statistical tests are used to analyse these data. Findings – Women owners of start-ups and young companies use more and different business advisory services than men owners. There are differences among the men owners and women owners with regard to the amount of start-up capital, company size and industry sector. Given the risks associated with start-up, business advisory services are important to women in helping them reduce their risk in the start-up and early stages of their companies. Research limitations/implications – Companies in Sweden’s largest city, Stockholm, were not included in the sample. Financial data were not used as variables. Practical implications – Policymakers should address women owners’ greater demand for business advisory services in their companies’ early stages. Originality/value – This study’s originality is its gender perspective on the demand for business advisory services by start-ups and young companies and its challenge to previous findings about entrepreneurial behaviour and risk-taking. 

  • Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Olika versioner av "bedömning för lärande" i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hay, Simon I.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle WA, USA; Oxford Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford University, Oxford, England.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle WA, USA.
    GBD 2016 DALYs, Group author
    HALE Collaborators, Group author
    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, 1260-1344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI).

    Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate.

    Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75.2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71.9-78.6) for females and 72.0 years (68.8-75.1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45.6 years [42.0-49.5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41.5 years [39.0-44.0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6.24 years (5.97-6.48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6.04 years (5.74-6.27) for males and 6.49 years (6.08-6.77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1.78 years (1.61-1.93) for males and 1.96 years (1.69-2.13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2.3% [-5.9 to 0.9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the five lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16.1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally.

    Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs offset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention efforts, and development assistance for health, including financial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

  • Vos, Theo
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle WA, USA.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle WA, USA.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, 1211-1259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.

    Methods: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    Findings: Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57.6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40.8-75.9 million [7.2%, 6.0-8.3]), 45.1 million (29.0-62.8 million [5.6%, 4.0-7.2]), 36.3 million (25.3-50.9 million [4.5%, 3.8-5.3]), 34.7 million (23.0-49.6 million [4.3%, 3.5-5.2]), and 34.1 million (23.5-46.0 million [4.2%, 3.2-5.3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2.7% (95% UI 2.3-3.1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10.4% (95% UI 9.0-11.8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228).

    Interpretation: The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-todate information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.

  • Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Doctoral theses within the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, 2000-2012: A Review of Content and Interdisciplinarity2017In: International Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Statistics.
    Corrigendum to “Bayesian reduced rank regression in econometrics” [J. Econometrics 75 (1996) 121–146]2017In: Journal of Econometrics, ISSN 0304-4076, E-ISSN 1872-6895, Vol. 201, no 1, 170-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Asadi, Sahar
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards Dense Air Quality Monitoring: Time-Dependent Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling and Sensor Planning2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the problem of gas distribution modelling for gas monitoring and gas detection. The presented research is particularly focused on the methods that are suitable for uncontrolled environments. In such environments, gas source locations and the physical properties of the environment, such as humidity and temperature may be unknown or only sparse noisy local measurements are available. Example applications include air pollution monitoring, leakage detection, and search and rescue operations.

    This thesis addresses how to efficiently obtain and compute predictive models that accurately represent spatio-temporal gas distribution.

    Most statistical gas distribution modelling methods assume that gas dispersion can be modelled as a time-constant random process. While this assumption may hold in some situations, it is necessary to model variations over time in order to enable applications of gas distribution modelling for a wider range of realistic scenarios.

    This thesis proposes two time-dependent gas distribution modelling methods. In the first method, a temporal (sub-)sampling strategy is introduced. In the second method, a time-dependent gas distribution modelling approach is presented, which introduces a recency weight that relates measurement to prediction time. These contributions are presented and evaluated as an extension of a previously proposed method called Kernel DM+V using several simulation and real-world experiments. The results of comparing the proposed time-dependent gas distribution modelling approaches to the time-independent version Kernel DM+V indicate a consistent improvement in the prediction of unseen measurements, particularly in dynamic scenarios under the condition that there is a sufficient spatial coverage. Dynamic scenarios are often defined as environments where strong fluctuations and gas plume development are present.

    For mobile robot olfaction, we are interested in sampling strategies that provide accurate gas distribution models given a small number of samples in a limited time span. Correspondingly, this thesis addresses the problem of selecting the most informative locations to acquire the next samples.

    As a further contribution, this thesis proposes a novel adaptive sensor planning method. This method is based on a modified artificial potential field, which selects the next sampling location based on the currently predicted gas distribution and the spatial distribution of previously collected samples. In particular, three objectives are used that direct the sensor towards areas of (1) high predictive mean and (2) high predictive variance, while (3) maximising the coverage area. The relative weight of these objectives corresponds to a trade-off between exploration and exploitation in the sampling strategy. This thesis discusses the weights or importance factors and evaluates the performance of the proposed sampling strategy. The results of the simulation experiments indicate an improved quality of the gas distribution models when using the proposed sensor planning method compared to commonly used methods, such as random sampling and sampling along a predefined sweeping trajectory. In this thesis, we show that applying a locality constraint on the proposed sampling method decreases the travelling distance, which makes the proposed sensor planning approach suitable for real-world applications where limited resources and time are available. As a real-world use-case, we applied the proposed sensor planning approach on a micro-drone in outdoor experiments.

    Finally, this thesis discusses the potential of using gas distribution modelling and sensor planning in large-scale outdoor real-world applications. We integrated the proposed methods in a framework for decision-making in hazardous inncidents where gas leakage is involved and applied the gas distribution modelling in two real-world use-cases. Our investigation indicates that the proposed sensor planning and gas distribution modelling approaches can be used to inform experts both about the gas plume and the distribution of gas in order to improve the assessment of an incident.

  • Karlsson, Patrik
    Karlstad universitet.
    The influence of tool steel microstructure on galling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a sort of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, the overall aim was to gain knowledge of the influence of tool steel microstructure on galling initiation under sliding conditions. It was discovered that material transfer and tool steel damage caused by sheet material flow creating wear-induced galling initiation sites occurred in the early stage of galling. The galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher matrix hardness due to better resistance to tool steel damage. Initial friction and critical contact pressure to galling was influenced by the strength of the sheet material. Material transfer happened at low pressures and the friction value was high in a case of sheet materials with lower proof strength, possibly due to the sheet contact against the tool steel matrix resulting in high adhesion and quicker tool damage. It was demonstrated that, in addition to hardness of the tool steel matrix and sheet material proof strength, tool steel microstructural features like size, shape, distribution and height of hard phases are important parameters influencing galling. Tool steels comprising homogeneously distributed, small and high hard phases better prevented the contact between sheet material and the tool steel matrix. Thus, a metal to metal contact with high friction was more efficiently avoided, which resulted in better tool performance.

     

  • Janemalm, Lucas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    What is complex in complex movement – A study of Swedish curriculum concepts of moving2017In: Paper presented in the symposium: Teachers as researchers investigating their PE practice!, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Segolsson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skilled teachers’ strategies in the classroom (or gym): A comparative study of teachers in pe, maths and english in sweden2017In: Paper presented in the symposium: Teachers as researchers investigating their PE practice!, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Caldeborg, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Touching the didactic contract: a student perspective on intergenerational touch in PE2017In: Paper presented in the symposium: Teachers as researchers investigating their PE practice!, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Caldeborg, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Janemalm, Lucas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ridderlund, Sara
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Segolsson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Vesterlund, Sabina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Gothenburgh university, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Teachers as researchers investigating their PE practice!2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Koski, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Matarma, Tanja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pedisic, Zeljko
    Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kokko, Sami
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lane, Aoife
    Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland .
    Hartmann, Herbert
    German gymnastic federation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hämäläinen, Timo
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Sports Confederation, Helsinki, Finland;.
    Nykänen, Ulla
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rakovac, Marija
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Livson, Matleena
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Savola, Jorma
    Finnish Sport for All Association, , Finland.
    Sports Club for Health (SCforH): uppdaterade riktlinjer för hälsofrämjande idrottsaktiviteter i föreningsmiljö2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SCforH är ett expertbaserat koncept som hjälper såväl föreningar som nationella och regionala idrottsorganisationer att inse de potentiella hälsofördelarna i sina idrottsdiscipliner och att organisera hälsofrämjande idrottsaktiviteter inom ramen för sin verksamhet.

  • Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV).
    The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate the impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments and without speech. The objectives were to develop and pilot a gaze-based assistive technology intervention (GAT intervention) at home and in school for these children and to understand its impact on daily activities as experienced by their parents.

    Methods: Study I was a pilot study in which the basic components that were developed for the intervention were evaluated for students with physical impairments. The study aimed at improving the use of computers as assistive technology (AT) in school. Based on the findings in Study I, the GAT intervention was developed. The GAT intervention aimed at implementing gaze-based AT in daily activities. It consisted of two parts; having access to gaze-based AT and having access to services from a multi professional communication team during nine to ten months. Studies II-IV concerned gazebased AT for children with severe physical impairments without speech who participated in the GAT intervention. The participants were ten children (ages 1-15) (Studies II, III), and their parents (Study IV). Studies II and III had longitudinal designs and children were followed during 15-20 months with repeated measurements before, after and at follow-up. In Study II children’s repertoire of computer activities, extent of use, and goal attainment with gaze-based AT was evaluated, as well as parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services. In Study III children’s eye gaze performance when using gaze-based AT was examined. In Study IV, parents were interviewed twice with the aim of  exploring their experiences of children’s gaze-based AT use in daily life. In Study IV a hermeneutical approach was used.

    Results: The findings of Study I showed that the basic components of intervention improved the use of computers in school. Study II showed an increased repertoire of computer activities with the gazebased AT, maintained use in daily activities for all at follow up, and that all children attained goals for gaze-based AT use in daily activities. Parents were satisfied with the gaze-based AT, and with the services in the GAT intervention. In study III, nine children improved in eye gaze performance over time when using the gaze-based AT in daily activities. Study IV revealed that children’s gaze-based AT usage in daily activities made a difference to parents since the children demonstrated agency, and showed their personality and competencies by using gaze-based AT, and for the parents this opened up infinite possibilities for the child to do and learn things. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT usage provided parents with hope of a future in which their children could develop and have influence in life.

    Conclusions: This thesis shows that these children with severe physical impairments and without speech acquired sufficient gaze control skills to use gaze-based AT for daily activities in the home and at school. The gaze-based AT had a positive impact on performing activities, for example, play activities and communication- and interaction-related activities. For the parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage made a difference since it shaped a hope of a better future for their children, where they can develop and gain influence in their future life. Furthermore, the children continued to perform daily activities with gaze-based AT over time. This finding suggests that key persons were provided with sufficient knowledge and skills to support children in maintained use of gaze-based AT after withdrawal of the services provided in the GAT intervention.

  • Dahl, Viktor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Banaji, Shakuntala
    London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    Landberg, Monique
    Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany.
    Šerek, Jan
    Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Ribeiro, Norberto
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Bellman, Mai
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Pavlopoulus, Vassilis
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Zani, Bruna
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Spain.
    Apathy or Alienation?: Political passivity among youths across eight European Union CountriesIn: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political participation is one of the most studied aspects of the contemporary development of western democracies (Ekman & Amnå, 2012; van Deth, 2014).  A recent trend focuses the lack of political participation among younger generations (e.g., Henn, Weinstein & Forrest, 2005; Kimberlee, 2002).  At the same time, the last decades have also witnessed a growth in the share of young European Union (EU) citizens who express alienation, and distrust toward social and political institutions at the national as well as the European level (Dalton, 1998; Henn et al., 2005; Mierina, 2014).  By studying young people across different countries of the EU, the current study aims to examine if youths’ political passivity is better explained by political apathy or alienation.  Our analyses are based on a comparative survey data collected by the Catch-EyoU project comprising approximately 4,454 late adolescents assembled from eight member countries of the EU.  Results from logistic regressions predicting non-voting from apathy and alienation support the idea that political passivity is best understood as the result of political apathy.  Moreover, it seems that the underlying separator of apathetic and alienated youths is cognitive awareness of political life.  These results are discussed in relation to potentially built-in paradoxes of apathy present in efficient and well-functional welfare-state democracies.

  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Convergence in Financial Reporting: From a Student Perspective2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Insights into IFRS Accounting: From a Student Perspective2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Past, Present and Future of the IASB: From a Student Perspective2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    IFRSs Address New Market and Institutional Development: From a Student Perspective2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Företagsekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    IFRS accounting in progress: from a student perspective2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Students in the course International Accounting at the master level are encouraged to partake not just in class discussions but also in giving classes. This partaking pedagoical orientation helps the students develop analytical and integrative capabilities for dealing with international financial reporting and international accounting policy issues. As a result of this pedagogical direction the students have written, from a student pespective, a text book on different aspects on IFRS accounting.

  • Rytterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Avdelningen för arbetsterapi, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Avdelningen för arbetsterapi, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers for pupils with severe motor impairments and without speech2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 31, no 4, 506-519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers with pupils with severe disabilities. Technology to control a computer with eye gaze is a fast growing field and has promising implications for people with severe disabilities. This is a new assistive technology and a new learning situation for teachers. Using a reflective lifeworld approach, 11 teachers were interviewed twice. The essence of the phenomenon of teaching pupils who use an eye gaze-controlled computer is to understand what the pupil does with the computer and relate this to what the pupil wants to express through the computer. The pupils have emotions, wishes and knowledge that are trapped in their own bodies. The eye gaze computer creates opportunities to get a glimpse of these thoughts to others, and creates hope concerning the pupil’s future possibilities. The teacher’s responsibility to try to understand what is inside the pupil’s trapped body is a motivating factor to integrate the computer in everyday classroom activities. The results give directions for teaching and for implementation of eye gaze computers in the school system, and also suggest improvements that could be made to computers.

  • Karlsson, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    The early stage of galling2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a kind of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, galling observed in contacts between tool steels and stainless steel sheets under lubricated sliding conditions was studied, focusing on the early stage of galling. It was found that changes in friction cannot be used as galling indicator in the early stage of galling because transfer and accumulation of sheet material happens even though friction is low and stable. The progression of galling is influenced by tool steel damage occurring around the tool steel hard phases caused by sheet material flow, which results in formation of wear-induced galling initiation sites. A correlation between the critical contact pressure to galling and sheet material proof stress was found. Galling happened at lower pressures for sheet material with lower proof stress possibly due to easier sheet material flow, resulting in quicker tool damage. Material transfer and tool steel damage were delayed for tool steels comprising homogenously distributed, small and high hard phases. Additionally, the galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher hardness due to decreased tool steel damage. In a comparison between observations of the worn tool surfaces after wear tests and calculations in FEM it was found that material transfer did not take place at regions with highest contact pressures but at regions with highest plastic strains. The results obtained in this thesis indicate that tool steel damage and sheet material flow occurring in the contact during sliding are important factors influencing galling.

  • Grosinger, Jasmin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Proactivity Through Equilibrium Maintenance with Fuzzy Desirability2017In: IEEE SMC 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive cognitive agents need to be capable ofboth generating their own goals and enacting them. In thispaper, we cast this problem as that ofmaintaining equilibrium,that is, seeking opportunities to act that keep the system indesirable states while avoiding undesirable ones. We characterizedesirability of states as graded preferences, using mechanismsfrom the field of fuzzy logic. As a result, opportunities for anagent to act can also be graded, and their relative preferencecan be used to infer when and how to act. This paper providesa formal description of our computational framework, andillustrates how the use of degrees of desirability leads to well-informed choices of action.