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  • Johansson, Dan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    The Dynamics of Firm and Industry Growth: The Swedish Computing and Communications Industry2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of the Swedish Computing and Communicationsindustry is studied in this thesis. Growth is seen as a dynamicprocess moved by the entry, expansion, contraction and exit offirms.

    The analysis is founded on the theory of the ExperimentallyOrganised Economy, which views the economy as an experimentalprocess. The entire thesis is organised around the problem ofresource allocation and the issue of growth through theintroduction of new combinations into the economic system,using the terminology of Schumpeter (1911). Competence blocsdetermine the efficiency of the economic process, i.e., theextent to which it leads to sustained economic growth ratherthan stagnation. Change is a fundamental feature of theeconomic process, firms have to be flexible to survive and theeconomic system must promote flexibility to grow. Many trials,or experiments, are required to discover and select "winning"firms and technologies. Hence, the turnover (i.e., entry andexit) of firms is supposed to have positive effects on growth.Theory, furthermore, predicts that new and small firms are moreentrepreneurial and innovative and that they, therefore, willgrow faster than old and large firms.

    The empirical results show that firm growth decreases withfirm age, decreases with firm size, increases with firmindependence, decreases with government ownership and thatindustry growth increases with firm turnover. Moreover, thesmallest firms have been the major job contributors during the1993-1998 period investigated empirically. It is also shownthat employment growth is facilitated by a sustained high entryof firms.

    Lastly, many policies, several of which were introduced inthe late 1960s and early 1970s, have selectively supportedlarge firms in mature industries. Hence, they have exercised arelatively negative influence on exactly the types of firmsthat have been shown to contribute to growth. These policieshave also made the Swedish economy less flexible. It is arguedthat this partly explains the slow economic growth in Swedencompared to other OECD countries since the 1970s. Aninteresting question is where Sweden would have been today witha different policy orientation.

    Keywords:The Experimentally Organised Economy;Competence Blocs; Industrial dynamics; Industrialtransformation; Firm age, Small-firm growth; Turnover of firms;Computing and Communications industry; IT industry;Institutions.

  • Rasoal, Dara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, University College in Southeast Norway, Drammen, Norway.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Clinical Ethics Support for Healthcare Personnel: An Integrative Literature Review2017In: HEC Forum, ISSN 0956-2737, E-ISSN 1572-8498, Vol. 29, 313-346 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes which clinical ethics approaches are available to support healthcare personnel in clinical practice in terms of their construction, functions and goals. Healthcare personnel frequently face ethically difficult situations in the course of their work and these issues cover a wide range of areas from prenatal care to end-of-life care. Although various forms of clinical ethics support have been developed, to our knowledge there is a lack of review studies describing which ethics support approaches are available, how they are constructed and their goals in supporting healthcare personnel in clinical practice. This study engages in an integrative literature review. We searched for peer-reviewed academic articles written in English between 2000 and 2016 using specific Mesh terms and manual keywords in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Psych INFO databases. In total, 54 articles worldwide described clinical ethics support approaches that include clinical ethics consultation, clinical ethics committees, moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups, and ethics reflection groups. Clinical ethics consultation and clinical ethics committees have various roles and functions in different coun-tries. They can provide healthcare personnel with advice and recommendations regarding the best course of action. Moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups and ethics reflection groups support the idea that group reflection increases insight into ethical issues. Clinical ethics support in the form of a ‘‘bot-tom-up’’ perspective might give healthcare personnel opportunities to think and reflect more than a ‘‘top-down’’ perspective. A ‘‘bottom-up’’ approach leaves the healthcare personnel with the moral responsibility for their choice of action in clinical practice, while a ‘‘top-down’’ approach risks removing such moral responsibility.

  • Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    h-approximation: History-Based Approximation of Possible World Semantics as ASP2013In: 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a history-based approximation of the Possible Worlds Semantics (PWS) for reasoning about knowledge and action. A respective planning system is implemented by a transformation of the problem domain to an Answer-Set Program. The novelty of our approach is elaboration tolerant support for postdiction under the condition that the plan existence problem is still solvable in NP, as compared to ΣP2 for non-approximated PWS of Son and Baral [19]. We demonstrate our planner with standard problems and present its integration in a cognitive robotics framework for high-level control in a smart home.

  • Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Narrative based Postdictive Reasoning for Cognitive Robotics2013In: 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making sense of incomplete and conflicting narrative knowledge in the presence of abnormalities, unobservable processes, and other real world considerations is a challenge and crucial requirement for cognitive robotics systems. An added challenge, even when suitably specialised action languages and reasoning systems exist, is practical integration and application within large-scale robot control frameworks.

    In the backdrop of an autonomous wheelchair robot control task, we report on application-driven work to realise postdiction triggered abnormality detection and re-planning for real-time robot control: (a) Narrative-based knowledge about the environment is obtained via a larger smart environment framework; and (b) abnormalities are postdicted from stable-models of an answer-set program corresponding to the robot's epistemic model. The overall reasoning is performed in the context of an approximate epistemic action theory based planner implemented via a translation to answer-set programming.

  • Suchan, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; The DesignSpace Group.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; The DesignSpace Group.
    Jhavar, Harshita
    The DesignSpace Group; MANIT (Bhopal, India).
    Talking about the Moving Image: A Declarative Model for Image Schema Based Embodied Perception Grounding and Language Generation2015In: 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a general theory and corresponding declarative model for the embodied grounding and natural language based analytical summarisation of dynamic visuo-spatial imagery. The declarative model —ecompassing spatio-linguistic abstractions, image schemas, and a spatio-temporal feature based lan-guage generator— is modularly implemented within Constraint Logic Programming (CLP). The implemented model is such that primitives of the theory, e.g., pertaining to space and motion, image schemata, are available as first-class objects with deep semantics suited for inference and query. We demonstrate the model with select examples broadly motivated by areas such as film, design, geography, smart environments where analytical natural language based externalisations of the moving image are central from the viewpoint of human interaction, evidence-based qualitative analysis, and sensemaking.

  • Carlbäck, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    To Be or Not to Be . . .: Brand Affiliation in the Hotel Industry2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large proportion of any business’s value comprises intangible assets, and for many businesses a considerable part of these assets' value is attributable to brands with which businesses affiliate. In light of increasing affiliation of hotel properties with hotel chains and the increasing importance of branding in the hospitality industry, senior managers/owners should be aware of the importance of concepts such as brand equity and brand value and, better yet, incorporate them into their strategic decision-making processes. The extent to which hotel management scholars and industry practitioners understand or use the concept of brand value attributable to affiliation (BVAA) is, however, limited.

    The aim of this research project is to increase our understanding of the costs and benefits connected with operating a hotel independently or as part of an affiliation, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Such an understanding could be used to spur further research but should also be directly applicable by the practitioners.

    The results of this research indicate that affiliating with a brand matters to managers/owners in the hotel industry, but also that brand-related concepts are used only to a limited extent. One of the studies comprising this dissertation, which included 51,000 hotels in the U.S. during a full economic cycle, suggests that affiliated hotels produced better financial performance than unaffiliated hotels, especially during the global economic recession of 2007–2009. On the other hand, the results from a study of hotels and organisations in Sweden suggest that brand value–related information attributable to affiliation is not used to any large extent in the industry. In the third study, a method for financially evaluating BVAA is developed, making it possible not only to measure whether affiliating produces a positiveBVAA, but also to demonstrate a practical method for financially assessing a current affiliation and the various affiliation options. Consequently, these findings should contribute new ways of treating the strategic question of affiliation.

    List of papers
    1. Do brands matter?: A comparison of branded and independent hotels' performance during a full economic cycle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do brands matter?: A comparison of branded and independent hotels' performance during a full economic cycle
    2011 (English)In: International Journal of Hospitality Management, ISSN 0278-4319, E-ISSN 1873-4693, Vol. 30, no 3, 515-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By analyzing longitudinal data of more than 51,000 hotels operating in the United States during the previous economic cycle, it is possible to draw conclusions regarding the performance of branded hotels compared to independent operations under various economic conditions. The results of the study indicate that while branded properties experience significantly higher occupancy rate during the different phases of the economic cycle, independent hotels experience significantly higher average daily rate (ADR) and rooms revenues per available room (RevPAR) during the same time period. While branded hotels are faced with various payments attributable to the brand, such as royalty payments and other franchise fees, those fees do not have a deleterious effect on net operating income (NOI) compared to NOI for independent hotels, suggesting that independent hotels are unable to bring their ADR and RevPAR premiums to the bottom line despite their savings in franchise expenses. Instead, the results indicate similar NOI for branded hotels and independent hotels during economic expansion, but significantly higher NOI for branded hotels during economic recession. The results of this study suggest that the intangible asset value of hotel brands may not be a static construct, but may vary by time. Sources of such intangible value of brands may include shared resources, guest loyalty programs, and yield management systems. These results contribute insight into the complex hotel owner decision of choosing between a brand affiliation and independent operation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keyword
    Performance measurement, Intangible asset value, Branded hotels, Independent hotels
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64134 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.08.003 (DOI)000291338200005 ()2-s2.0-79955166491 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Strategic Entrepreneurship in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Chain Affiliation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic Entrepreneurship in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Chain Affiliation
    2012 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 12, no 4, 349-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to identify why independent hotels decide to affiliate and give up their highly valued independence. Based on interviews with 12 independently owned hotels and five affiliations active on the Swedish market, it became evident that independence is important, but factors such as development with technical solutions, internet, the use of smart phones, social media, sales and marketing, central purchasing and loyalty cards are difficult to pursue as an independent hotel. The results also showed that marketing organisations and referral chains are the preferred options, as their offerings are more in line with the view of strategic entrepreneurship that the hoteliers expressed. Even agency-related aspects such as control rights affected the entrepreneurs' aspiration to affiliate, at the same time as the respondents thought their way of running the business was the most efficient. The results from the research add to the knowledge associated with agency theory, strategic entrepreneurship and resource-based view of the firm. More practically, it gives the independent hoteliers a possibility to assess the current situation and decide what options could be valuable, while the affiliations would be able to better align their offerings to attract new hotels.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2012
    Keyword
    hospitality industry, strategic entrepreneurship, affiliations, growth, hotels, Sweden
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64135 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2012.748506 (DOI)000312482100004 ()2-s2.0-84876056577 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Brand Value Attributable to Affiliations in the Swedish Hospitality Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brand Value Attributable to Affiliations in the Swedish Hospitality Industry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64136 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Brand Value Attributable to Affiliation (BVAA): a Method for Measurement in a Consortium Context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brand Value Attributable to Affiliation (BVAA): a Method for Measurement in a Consortium Context
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64137 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Jones, Michelle
    Fiziksel bereler, duygusal yara izleri ve aşk isırıkları: Kadınların erkek şiddeti deneyimleri2017In: Masculinities: A Journal of Identity and Culture, ISSN 2148-3841, Vol. 7, no February, 95-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom; Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Neoliberal universities, patriarchies, masculinities, and myself: Transnational personal reflections on and from the global North2017In: Gender, rovné prílezitosti, vyzkum, ISSN 1213-0028, Vol. 18, no 1, 16-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Two challenges for Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities: The hegemony of men, and trans(national)patriarchies2017In: Časopis za kritiko znanosti, domišljijo in novo antropologijo, ISSN 0351-4285, Vol. 45, no 267, 23-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Borgström, Eric
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Westman, Maria
    Uppsala universitet Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skrivbegreppet i Lgr11: En studie av grundskolans ämnesplan i svenska2017In: Språk och Norm. Language and Norms: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016. Papers from the ASLA Symposium at Uppsala University 21-22 April, 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Arttala, Maria Westman, Uppsala, Sweden: ASLA: Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap , 2017, Vol. 26, 26-36 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Carlborg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    On Service Innovation and Realization in Manufacturing Firms2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is increasingly becoming a basis for manufacturing firms to reach and sustain competitive advantages. While traditional product innovation typically includes how new technology can be utilized in new products, service innovation spans a broader area that is not exclusively focused on new technology, but rather how resources can be developed into value propositions and then integrated in the customer’s process in order to support customer value creation through realization. However, manufacturing firms that infuse services struggle with service innovation; this becomes especially evident in the realization phase.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers discussing different aspects of service innovation realization and the inherited challenges. The study builds upon empirical data from four Swedish manufacturing firms that infuse services and develop new value propositions that include both products and services to support customer processes.

    The thesis illustrates realization as a phase in service innovation where the firm interacts with its customer in order to adjust, revise and further find new ways of improving the customer’s processes through for example customer training. Realization is characterized by a deployment phase and a post-deployment phase that represent the ongoing relationship between the customer and the firm.

    Depending on who has the competencies or ability to integrate the resources that are needed for service innovation, different interaction patterns are identified. Through indirect interaction, the firm facilitates the customer’s value creation through, for example, preventive maintenance, while through direct interaction the firm acts as a co-creator in the service innovation process and hence work jointly together with the customer in order to improve customer value creation.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by characterizing service innovation realization and by increasing the understanding for different interaction patterns in the service innovation process.

    List of papers
    1. The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    2014 (English)In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 5, 373-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2014
    Keyword
    service innovation, product innovation, review article, service development
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63746 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2013.780044 (DOI)000334060600001 ()2-s2.0-84897069333 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron?
    2013 (English)In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, no 4, 291-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings: This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications: These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
    Keyword
    Lean principles, Service productivity, Service process, Efficiency, Customer satisfaction, Lean production
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63745 (URN)10.1108/MSQ-04-2013-0052 (DOI)000321087100003 ()2-s2.0-84879329959 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    7th AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9, 2012
    Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Service process modularization and modular strategies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service process modularization and modular strategies
    2014 (English)In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 4, 313-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of service modularity in developing and deploying efficient services, while at the same time meeting diverse customer needs. The analysis distinguishes between different service types and sets forth key issues for service modularization, identifying supporting resources (both internal and customer) and associated modular strategies for the different types.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study design used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on three Swedish manufacturing firms that are moving toward an increased service focus (service infusion). Data were collected through interviews and focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed independently, before being merged and synthesized in a cross-case analysis. Themes and patterns were extracted and linked to the theoretical framework following a systematic combining process.

    Findings: This study contributes insights to the emerging field of service modularity by investigating process modularization and modular strategies. A framework is put forward outlining modular strategies for four different service types covering both a passive and an active role for a customer. From a theoretical point of view, the role of the customer is added to the discussion to advocate for the necessity of a co-creative perspective in service modularity.

    Originality/value: This article contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how modularization and modular strategies can enable more efficient services. Depending on service type, different modular strategies are set forth. This study also highlights the need to recognize customer-specific activities, resources and competencies as pivotal parts of the modular service processes. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established view of service modules as functions of intra-firm activities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
    Keyword
    Service development, B2B services, Modular strategies, Modularization, Service deployment, Service modularity
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63752 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-08-2013-0170 (DOI)000341888300006 ()2-s2.0-84899030787 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Triadic Value Propositions: When It Takes More Than Two to Tango
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Triadic Value Propositions: When It Takes More Than Two to Tango
    2016 (English)In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, no 3, 282-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Value propositions are reciprocal resource-integration promises and value alignment mechanisms operating to and from actors seeking an equitable exchange. In a business triad, any change in the relationship between two actors also affects relationships with the third actor, influencing resource integration and value creation at the value constellation level. This study of the development of a triadic value proposition analyzes how the discontinuous effects of a new service initiative alter the relationships among actors in a manufacturer-dealer-user triad. A qualitative empirical inquiry examines a 10-year process, in which a leading industry incumbent enters the service business by crafting a triadic value proposition. As the value proposition evolves over time, the network ties-and thus the interdependence among manufacturer, dealer, and user-strengthen. The findings offer firms a better understanding of how to involve and collaborate with key actors to initiate discontinuous changes at the firm and network levels. These insights are particularly timely in light of the difficulties that product firms face when intermediaries are decisive for the success of their service-led growth initiatives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 2016
    Keyword
    value proposition, network ties, relationship development, service systems, case study application
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63753 (URN)10.1287/serv.2016.0145 (DOI)000390566500004 ()
    Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

    Keyword
    Service innovation, involvement, resource integration, co-creation, B2B, reciprocity.
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62335 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • Knudsen, Kati
    et al.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Högman, Marieann
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jan
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    How anaesthesiologists understand difficult airway guidelines: an interview study2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the practice of anaesthesia, clinical guidelines that aim to improve the safety of airway procedures have been developed. The aim of this study was to explore how anaesthesiologists understand or conceive of difficult airway management algorithms.

    Methods: A qualitative phenomenographic design was chosen to explore anaesthesiologists’ views on airway algorithms. Anaesthesiologists working in three hospitals were included. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted.

    Results: Four different ways of understanding were identified, describing airway algorithms as: (A) a law-like rule for how to act in difficult airway situations; (B) a cognitive aid, an action plan for difficult airway situations; (C) a basis for developing flexible, personal action plans for the difficult airway; and (D) the experts’ consensus, a set of scientifically based guidelines for handling the difficult airway.

    Conclusions: The interviewed anaesthesiologists understood difficult airway management guidelines/algorithms very differently.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Forestry and the environment: Tensions in a transforming modernity2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, 283-286 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often described as an environmental forerunner and one of the most ecologically modernized countries in the world, one where social welfare, economic growth and environmental protection mutually support each other. Examining the case of Swedish forestry, we discuss a number of tensions in this sector that mirror some general tensions in Swedish society and explore how these tensions can be understood as part of a transforming modernity.

  • Krzyzanowska, Natalia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Chair of Sociology and Philosophy, The Poznań University of Economics and Business, Poland.
    (Counter)Monuments and (Anti)Memory in the City. An Aesthetic and Socio-Theoretical Approach2017In: The Polish Journal of Aesthetics, ISSN 1643-1243, Vol. 47, no 4, 109-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects upon the possibility of the visualisation of different forms of collective memory in the city. It focuses on the evolution of the ways of commemorating in public spaces. It juxtaposes traditional monuments erected in commemoration of an event or an "important" person for a community with (counter)monuments as a modern, critical reaction geared towards what is either ignored in historical narratives or what remains on the fringe of collective memory. While following a theoretical exploration of the concepts of memory and their fruition in monuments as well as (counter)monuments, the eventual multimodal analysis central to the paper looks in-depth at Ruth Beckermann’s work The Missing Image (Vienna, 2015). The latter is treated as an example of the possible and manifold interpretations of the function and multiplicity of meanings that (counter)-monuments bring to contemporary urban spaces.

  • Schaffernicht, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mobile robots for learning spatio-temporal interpolation models in sensor networks - The Echo State map approach: The Echo State map approach2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 2659-2665 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor networks have limited capabilities to model complex phenomena occuring between sensing nodes. Mobile robots can be used to close this gap and learn local interpolation models. In this paper, we utilize Echo State Networks in order to learn the calibration and interpolation model between sensor nodes using measurements collected by a mobile robot. The use of Echo State Networks allows to deal with temporal dependencies implicitly, while the spatial mapping with a Gaussian Process estimator exploits the fact that Echo State Networks learn linear combinations of complex temporal dynamics. The resulting Echo State Map elegantly combines spatial and temporal cues into a single representation. We showcase the method in the exposure modeling task of building dust distribution maps for foundries, a challenge which is of great interest to occupational health researchers. Results from simulated data and real world experiments highlight the potential of Echo State Maps. While we focus on particulate matter measurements, the method can be applied for any other environmental variables like temperature or gas concentration.

  • Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Steinke, Elaine
    School of Nursing, Wichita State University, USA.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Decreased sexual function in partners after patients’ first-time myocardial infarction2018In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A myocardial infarction event affects not only patients but also partners, although how it affects the partners’ sexual function is not studied.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how partners experienced their sexual function one year before with one year after first-time myocardial infarction of their partner.

    Methods: A longitudinal and comparative design was used. Self-reported data on Watts Sexual Function Questionnaire was collected retrospectively at two occasions from 123 partners (87 women and 36 men), measuring the year prior to the first-time myocardial infarction and the year after. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

    Results: The total score for Watts Sexual Function Questionnaire showed a significant decrease over time. In all four subscales a decrease was found, which were statistically significant in three out of the four subscales (sexual desire, 19.39 vs 18.61; p<0.001, orgasm, 14.11 vs 13.64; p=0.027 and satisfaction, 12.61 vs 12.31; p=0.042). Twenty-six partners reported that their intercourse frequencies decreased over time, while six partners reported an increased intercourse frequency.

    Conclusions: Partners’ sexual function decreased after patients’ first-time myocardial infarction. It is important for health personnel to offer information and discussion about sexual function and concerns with both patients and partners after a first-time myocardial infarction.

  • Kelemen [Capannini-Kelemen], Katalin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Hungarian Constitutional Court and the concept of national constitutional identity2017In: Ianus - Diritto e finanza, ISSN 1974-9805, no 15-16, 23-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a long-awaited decision published in December (Decision no. 22/2016 (XII.5.) AB of 30 November 2016, the only one officially translated into English that year), the Hungarian Constitutional Court seems to have settled some of the questions related to the relationship between the EU legal order and Hungary’s constitutional order. In this decision, the Hungarian constitutional judges offer some guidance on two important concepts: state sovereignty and constitutional self-identity.

  • Mansouri, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagriffoul, Fabien
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multi Vehicle Routing with Nonholonomic Constraints and Dense Dynamic Obstacles2017In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Bruhn, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thunman, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekström, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Swedish social insurance officials struggling with the vagueness of the work ability concept: The case of sickness compensation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a research project – Practices of Frontline Interactions in the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA) – we are studying how goals and rules are shaped and handled in conversations between officials and clients. A central aim is to develop knowledge about what kind of room these officials have to develop policy in practice and how they make use of it. This is done by a multi-level research approach combining analyses on an institutional and interactional level (Bruhn & Ekström 2017). Data are collected via mixed methods: recorded interactions (official–client), qualitative interviews, and documents. In this paper, except for some minor changes identical with a paper originally presented at the 2nd Conference on Street-level Bureaucracy in Copenhagen 2017, we discuss officials’ room for and use of discretion when assessing work ability in investigations about sickness compensation (previously called sickness pension). To get sickness compensation the individual’s work ability must be permanently reduced (i.e. he/she shall not be able to take part in  working life anymore). Work (dis-)ability is a diffuse and contested concept. It is a core concept not only for officials here in focus, but for several other organisational actors in the field of labour market and health insurance issues as well. Many actors with different missions and interests are recurrently involved in negotiations about how to interpret and take actions on the basis of this concept. The diffuseness of the concept often puts the investigating official – the Street Level Bureaucrat – in a position of having quite lot of room to assess and affect the outcome of the investigations at hand. Internal SSIA statistics also point to quite wide variations in outcome of investigations between different units in the organisation. At the same time there is also internal pressure on the investigators to “keep figures down”. The magnitude of such pressure is related to changes in pressure upon the authorities on the political level. This leads to fluctuations between different fiscal years. Last year (2016), 70% of the applications for this benefit were rejected. This is an increase from earlier years, and a hint of a growing restrictiveness in assessments of what is seen as permanently reduced work ability. In this paper, we discuss the work ability concept in relation to the room for assessment – the discretion – of these sickness compensation investigating officials. It is based on earlier research, official documents, qualitative interviews and speech recordings.

  • Bodnar, Taras
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Podgorski, Krzysztof
    Department of Statistics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tyrcha, Joanna
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tangency portfolio weights for singular covariance matrix in small and large dimensions: estimation and test theory2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we derive the finite-sample distribution of the estimated weights of the tangency portfolio when both the population and the sample covariance matrices are singular. These results are used in the derivation of a statistical test on the weights of the tangency portfolio where the distribution of the test statistic is obtained under both the null and the alternative hypotheses. Moreover, we establish the high-dimensional asymptotic distribution of the estimated weights of the tangency portfolio when both the portfolio dimension and the sample size increase to infinity. The theoretical findings are implemented in an empirical application dealing with the returns on the stocks included into the S&P 500 index. 

  • Bauder, David
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Taras
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Department of Statistics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Okhrin, Yarema
    Department of Statistics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.
    Bayesian inference for the tangent portfolio2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the estimation of the weights of tangent portfolios from the Bayesian point of view assuming normal conditional distributions of the logarithmic returns. For diffuse and conjugate priors for the mean vector and the covariance matrix, we derive stochastic representations for the posterior distributions of the weights of tangent portfolio and their linear combinations. Separately we provide the mean and variance of the posterior distributions, which are of key importance for portfolio selection. The analytic results are evaluated within a simulation study, where the precision of coverage intervals is assessed. 

  • Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Böö, Richard
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    No name, no game: Challenges to use of collaborative digital textbooks2017In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative digital textbooks – comprehensive materials covering entire curriculums – are developing from being books in pdf format to becoming collaborative digital environments where teachers and students can communicate, engage in feedback and discussions, share and manipulate materials, test knowledge, and monitor results. This study investigates how these digital environments are used in school practice: How are the collaborative tools used to improve learning? Thirteen seventh- and eighth-grade classes, 370 students and 30 teachers in five Swedish secondary schools, were investigated over 1,5 years by means of questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students. Here, questionnaire results are presented, while observations and interviews serve to provide contextual insights. Collaborative tools were very little used; often teachers and students were not even aware of their existence. Most use was individual, students were left alone with the digital material. Students read or listened to the text and did not actively engage in learning by e.g. making notes or marking text. Most teachers did not use the material actively to help students understand and learn, most did not even check student results on automated tests. We conclude that the teachers have not incorporated the new, collaborative design of the digital textbook into their thinking regarding tools for teaching and learning and still regard it as a static book. This suggests that making full use of digital tools requires new ways of thinking of teaching, and that it takes more than providing digital tools to achieve this end.

  • Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Jens
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”2017In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 8, 197-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish upper secondary school and its physical education (PE) should, according to the Lgy11 (the 2011 curriculum of upper secondary school in Sweden), raise aware- ness about and challenge stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Previous research, however, has concluded that there is an upholding of traditional, hegemonic masculinity ideals through PE. The purpose of this article is to highlight how gender and power influence the outcome of a just education. Theoretical inspiration is taken from Irish Marion Young’s and Raewyn Connell’s work on gender and hegemonic masculinity, and the method involves interviews with PE teachers and observations of PE classes. Dance, ball games, competition, socializing violence, performance of heterosexual norms are identified as key points, which are discussed in terms of norms and power linked to men and masculinity ideals. The results show that the making of masculinity is constantly oc- curring in PE, both in active elements but also during “inactive” breaks. Although strong ideals linked to men and masculinity were identified, there were usually also alternative representations. In other words, the educational gender practices were not identified as unambiguous, but rather as ambiguous and contradictory. However, most respondents showed decided views on how boys and girls naturally “are” in certain ways, which con- ditions a counter-stereotypical approach to education. 

  • Nilsson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Swedish Web Version of the Quality of Recovery Scale Adapted for Use in a Mobile App: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study2017In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 5, no 12, e188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) questionnaire is well validated for measuring self-assessed postoperative recovery. The Swedish version of the 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) has been developed into a Web-based questionnaire, the Swedish Web version of the Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire, adapted for use in a mobile app, Recovery Assessment by Phone Points, or RAPP.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical acceptability and feasibility of SwQoR.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective psychometric evaluation study including 494 patients aged ≥18 years undergoing day surgery at 4 different day-surgery departments in Sweden. SwQoR was completed daily on postoperative days 1 to 14.

    Results: All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. There was excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range .91-.93), split-half reliability (coefficient range .87-.93), and stability (ri=.99, 95% CI .96-.99; P<.001). Cohen d effect size was 1.00, with a standardized response mean of 1.2 and a percentage change from baseline of 59.1%. An exploratory factor analysis found 5 components explaining 57.8% of the total variance. We noted a floor effect only on postoperative day 14; we found no ceiling effect.

    Conclusions: SwQoR is valid, has excellent reliability and high responsiveness, and is clinically feasible for the systematic follow-up of patients’ postoperative recovery.

  • Dahl, Izabela A.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The complexity of displacement: Polish Jews in Sweden after World War II2017In: Building from Ashes: Jews in Postwar Europe (1945-1950), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hällgren, Sebastian
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Some aspects on designing for metal Powder Bed Fusion2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) using the Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a relatively new manufacturing method that is capable of creating shapes that was previously practically impossible to manufacture. Many think it will revolutionize how manufacturing will be done in the future. This thesis is about some aspects of when and how to Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) when using the PBF method in metal materials. Designing complex shapes is neither easy nor always needed, so when to design for AM is a question with different answers depending on industry or product. The cost versus performance is an important metric in making that selection. How to design for AM can be divided into how to improve performance and how to improve additive manufacturability where how to improve performance once depends on product, company and customer needs. Using advanced part shaping techniques like using Lattices or Topology Optimization (TO) to lower part mass may increase customer value in addition to lowering part cost due to faster part builds and less powder and energy use. Improving PBF manufacturability is then warranted for parts that reach series production, where determining an optimal build direction is key as it affects many properties of PBF parts. Complex shapes which are designed for optimal performance are usually more sensitive to defects which might reduce the expected performance of the part. Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) might be needed to certify a part for dimensional accuracy and internal defects prior use. The licentiate thesis covers some aspects of both when to DfAM and how to DfAM of products destined for series production. It uses design by Lattices and Topology Optimization to reduce mass and looks at the effect on part cost and mass. It also shows effects on geometry translation accuracies from design to AM caused by differences in geometric definitions. Finally it shows the effect on how different NDE methods are capable of detecting defects in additively manufactured parts.

    List of papers
    1. Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 384-389 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) using Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) allows part with abstract shapes, that otherwise would need costly tooling, to be manufactured with short lead time. In this study AM build time simulations are used to predict series part cost for eight parts that are possible to cut from rod blanks using High Speed Machining (HSM). Results indicate that when the part shape can be cut from rod blanks, AM is more expensive than HSM even for series of one. If post processing machining is added to the printed AM blank part, the cost difference increases further. Finally, the model is used to predict part-cost in series production if print speed increases, if machine cost is reduced or if part mass is reduced as a result of redesign for AM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, High speed machining, cost, series production, AISI MR
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53931 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.049 (DOI)000387666600064 ()2-s2.0-84986576762 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. (Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>(Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 246-251 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D-printing has been used to create prototypes during the development phase for more than 20 years. Now, functional parts can be printed directly in specific metal powders using similar layer-by-layer techniques. The additive method is unlike traditional mass production manufacturing methods in many ways, creating new possibilities for designers to realise new and different design ideas previously impossible to manufacture. When products are mass produced, there is a desire to improve manufacturability. This is traditionally done by a designer with knowledge about certain manufacturing methods altering design choices to make it cheaper to manufacture.

    This paper shows different design for AM (DfAM) methods where performance and part cost are both of interest. It adds to existing research by classifying design for additive manufacturing in two different classes; process-driven and designer-driven shaping of parts. A cost-prediction model for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) printed parts is suggested as an initial step to choose parts for redesign from an economical perspective. A case study of a missile launcher beam redesigned for additive manufacturing using three different approaches is presented. Differences and similarities in design methods are discussed and the redesigned parts are compared for mass and cost. It is shown that redesigning for AM can reduce mass but depending on part size and print speed, the part can become more expensive than the original design, creating a need to know the customer value of what the redesigned part provides, in this case, the value of reduced mass.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, design, topology optimisation, lattices, DfAM
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53930 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.04.150 (DOI)000387666600041 ()2-s2.0-84986631521 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. 3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 518-523 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D data exchange between different CAD systems and from design to manufacturing has largely moved to ISO STEP based formats. The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process today requires an approximate, planar triangle tessellated 3D model as an input. Improving accuracy in STL file exports is done differently in different CAD systems. Poor tessellation accuracy results in built parts with poor geometric accuracy because of errors in source data. In this study, results of tessellation from six different CAD systems are compared. Roundness accuracy for the different settings is calculated. Results show that tessellation effects may be visible even when roundness requirements are fulfilled. A method for 3D data exchange for AM using STEP and geometric requirements is proposed until better accuracy AM formats can be used.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, STL, STEP, tessellation, accuracy, roundness
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Research subject
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53932 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.046 (DOI)000387666600087 ()2-s2.0-84986558119 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
    2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Keyword
    additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, aluminium, computed tomography, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51003 (URN)
    Conference
    World PM 2016, Powder Metallurgy World Congress, Hamburg, Germany, October 9-13, 2016
    Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • Engman, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thomtén, Johanna
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Avoiding or enduring painful sex?: A longitudinal study of coping patterns and sexual function in women with vulvovaginal pain2017In: SSTAR (Society for Sex Therapy and Research) 42nd annual meeting, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Recurring pain in the vulvar- or vaginal region induced by touch or pressure is common, affecting between 10-28% of women in reproductive age (e.g., Harlow et al., 2014). In addition to evident negative effects on sexual aspects such as frequency of sexual activity, sexual satisfaction and sexual function (for a review see Bergeron et al., 2015), vulvovaginal pain has an impact on women’s overall quality of life (Arnold et al., 2006). Despite these extensive consequences little is known about how women with vulvovaginal pain actually cope with sexual activities and the subsequent pain, and how their coping may affect the pain experience and sexual function over time. While avoidance (of pain associated activities) seem to be a commonly used strategy (for a review see Thomtén and Linton, 2013) amongst women with vulvovaginal pain, there is also evidence of endurance (of sexual activity despite pain) as a prevalent strategy (Brauer et al., 2014; Elmerstig et al., 2013).

     

    Method: The study used questionnaire data from female university students between 18 and 35 years old, with two measurement points of five months apart. Women who reported experiencing recurring vulvovaginal pain during the last six months, and who responded at both measurement points constitute the sample of the study (N=117). First, multiple regression analysis was executed to test whether avoidance and endurance coping had a predictive value of sexual function beyond the pain experience in itself. Then, cluster analyses based on the respondent’s answers to the CHAMP Sexual Pain Coping Scale (CSPCS) were performed at both time points. Finally, common pathways over time was investigated to explore whether the same coping was used at baseline and follow-up.

     

    Results: The multiple regression model exploring if pain, avoidance and endurance at baseline predicted sexual function at follow-up was significant, explaining 25% of the variance (F(2, 90) = 10.22, p < .001). Avoidance at baseline was the only significant predictor in the model, explaining unique variance of sexual function over time. The cluster analyses at baseline and follow up resulted in four distinct clusters respectively; Low scores, Avoidance, Endurance and High scores. The common pathways analyses, exploring typical pathways of change, revealed high stability within the clusters over time meaning that it was common for individuals in all clusters to use the same patterns of coping at both measurement points.

     

    Discussion: The results of the study further manifests findings from earlier research while also making an important attribution in quantifying coping strategies in relation to vulvovaginal pain. The study reveals a strong association between vulvovaginal pain and how women cope with sexual activities, the stability of the use of coping over time, as well as the connection between coping and sexual function.

     

    Utility/Limitations/Risks: Further knowledge about the relationship between coping and vulvovaginal pain will provide important theoretical and clinical implications regarding the development of the pain as well as potential clinical interventions.

     

    Behavioral learning objectives:

    After attending this poster presentation, the participants will be able to:

    1. Recognize the importance of avoidance coping in relation to sexual function

    2. Discuss the use of avoidance and endurance coping as a combined pattern

    3. Identify the stability of the use of coping patterns over time

     

    References:

    Arnold, L. D., Bachmann, G. A., Kelly, S., Rosen, R., & Rhoads, G. G. (2006). Vulvodynia: characteristics and associations with co-morbidities and quality of life. Obstetrics and gynecology, 107(3), 617.

     

    Bergeron, S., Corsini-Munt, S., Aerts, L., Rancourt, K., & Rosen, N. O. (2015). Female sexual pain disorders: a review of the literature on etiology and treatment. Current Sexual Health Reports, 7(3), 159-169.

     

    Brauer, M., Lakeman, M., Lunsen, R., & Laan, E. (2014). Predictors of task‐persistent and fear‐avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders. The journal of sexual medicine, 11(12), 3051-3063.

     

    Elmerstig, E., Wijma, B., & Swahnberg, K. (2013). Prioritizing the partner’s enjoyment: a population-based study on young Swedish women with experience of pain during vaginal intercourse. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 34(2), 82-89.

     

    Harlow, B. L., Kunitz, C. G., Nguyen, R. H., Rydell, S. A., Turner, R. M., & MacLehose, R. F. (2014). Prevalence of symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of vulvodynia: population-based estimates from 2 geographic regions. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 210(1), 40-e1.

     

    Thomtén, J., & Linton, S. J. (2013). A psychological view of sexual pain among women: applying the fear-avoidance model. Women’s Health, 9(3), 251-263.

     

  • Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flygare, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Godkänd eller icke godkänd? : En studie om hur erfarenheter av mobbning, skolk och socialt umgänge inverkar på elevers skolprestationer2017Report (Other academic)
  • Vermesan, Ovidiu
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bröring, Arne
    SIEMENS AG, Germany.
    Tragos, Elias
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Serrano, Martin
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Bacciu, Davide
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Chessa, Stefano
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Gallicchio, Claudio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Micheli, Alessio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Dragone, Mauro
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Simoens, Pieter
    Ghent University – imec, Belgium.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy.
    Bahr, Roy
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Internet of robotic things: converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms2017In: Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation: Internet of Things Intelligence Evolution / [ed] Ovidiu Vermesan,‎ Joel Bacquet, River Publishers, 2017, 97-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing newdevelopments in various application domains, such as the Internet of MobileThings (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous Systemof Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internetof Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc.that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influencerepresents new development and deployment challenges in different areassuch as seamless platform integration, context based cognitive network integration,new mobile sensor/actuator network paradigms, things identification(addressing, naming in IoT) and dynamic things discoverability and manyothers. The IoRT represents new convergence challenges and their need to be addressed, in one side the programmability and the communication ofmultiple heterogeneous mobile/autonomous/robotic things for cooperating,their coordination, configuration, exchange of information, security, safetyand protection. Developments in IoT heterogeneous parallel processing/communication and dynamic systems based on parallelism and concurrencyrequire new ideas for integrating the intelligent “devices”, collaborativerobots (COBOTS), into IoT applications. Dynamic maintainability, selfhealing,self-repair of resources, changing resource state, (re-) configurationand context based IoT systems for service implementation and integrationwith IoT network service composition are of paramount importance whennew “cognitive devices” are becoming active participants in IoT applications.This chapter aims to be an overview of the IoRT concept, technologies,architectures and applications and to provide a comprehensive coverage offuture challenges, developments and applications.

  • Potenza, Andre
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards Sliding Autonomy in Mobile Robotic Telepresence: A Position Paper2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sliding autonomy is used in teleoperation to adjusting a robot's level of local autonomy to match the user's needs. We claim that sliding autonomy can also improve mobile robotic telepresence, but we argue that existing approaches cannot be adopted to this domain without adequate modifications. We address in particular the question of how the need for autonomy, and its appropriate degree, can be inferred from measurable information.

  • Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Doctoral theses within the Swedish Institute for Disability Research 2000-2012: A review of content and interdisciplinarity2017In: International Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 2372-5060, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR) was founded in 2000. The SIDR graduate programmedis a leading research programmedin disability science. The scientific method at SIDR is based on an interdisciplinary approach.The aim of this study is to describe content of doctoral theses presented within SIDR, and to analyzethe occurrence of interdisciplinarywithin the theses published between 2000 and 2012. Forty-one theses were included in the study. First, the manifest data was categorized in a matrix, and second, the latent content was analyzedwithin a scheme. The scheme included seven criteria within interdisciplinary theory, namely: Is the phenomenon multi-dimensional? Does the aim reflect an interdisciplinary approach? Are the studies non-reductionist? Have multiple methods been used? Is the knowledge integrated? Are the results discussed as a whole?Do they explicitly show an interdisciplinaryknowledge?Findings show a variety of disability groups studied within SIDR, but the main disabilities are hearing impairment or deafness, and cognitive and communication difficulties. Different theoretical perspectives are used within the theses. To different extents, an interdisciplinary approach is used as an overall meta-theory.

  • Du Rietz, Sabina
    Stockholms universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Accounting in the field of governance2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate governance phenomena have traditionally been, and are still, studied foremost as relationships between principals and agents. Studies of how accounting plays out in corporate governance settings rather share the interest in hierarchical influence than challenge it. The present thesis argues that when studying accounting in corporate governance settings we must, in addition to studying hierarchical influence, take into account the ‘field of governance’ in which accounting is situated. The hierarchical influence with which the corporate governance literature is concerned does not occur in an isolated setting, but in a field with pre-existing, concurrent and entering governance initiatives, technologies and actors. Such aspects of the field of governance necessarily influence how accounting is able to serve corporate governance ends.

    Based on two empirical cases, institutional investors and trade unions, active in a field of governance concerned with social and environmental aspects of corporate performance, this thesis consists of four studies investigating the different aspects (who, what and where) of the field of governance and the influence these aspects have on accounting in a corporate governance setting. This thesis, as a result, proposes a new way to study accounting in corporate governance settings and identifies further conditions for accounting’s constitutive ability.

  • Renoux, Jennifer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alizeraie, Marjan
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Context Recognition in Multiple Occupants Situations: Detecting the Number of Agents in a Smart Home Environment with Simple Sensors2017In: Knowledge-based techniques for problem solving and reasoning(KnowProS 2017): A workshop at AAAI 2017, February 5, 2017, San Francisco, U.S.A., Palo Alto: AAAI Press, 2017, Vol. ws17, 758-764 p., WS-17-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-recognition and activity recognition systems in multi-user environments such as smart homes, usually assume to know the number of occupants in the environment. However, being able to count the number of users in the environment is important in order to accurately recognize the activities of (groups of) agents. For smart environments without cameras, the problem of counting the number of agents is non-trivial. This is in part due to the difficulty of using a single non-vision based sensors to discriminate between one or several persons, and thus information from several sensors must be combined in order to reason about the presence of several agents. In this paper we address the problem of counting the number of agents in a topologically known environment using simple sensors that can indicate anonymous human presence. To do so, we connect an ontology to a probabilistic model (a Hidden Markov Model) in order to estimate the number of agents in each section of the environment. We evaluate our methods on a smart home setup where a number of motion and pressure sensors are distributed in various rooms of the home.

  • Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner Koler, Cheryl
    Konstfack, Industridesignprogrammet.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiologiskt forskningscentrum i Örebro, Region Örebro län, Örebro, Sweden.
    Identification of vibrotactile morse code on abdomen and wrist2017In: International Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation, ISSN 2456-1851, Vol. 1, no 4, 351-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morse code has been used as a communications system at a distance to transmit text through tone or light pulses. This comparative study aims to test and evaluate the vibrotactile identification of Morse coded signals communicating instructions for movement. The pulses were presented on abdomen and wrist among 14 males (40-85 yr) experienced in acoustic Morse code and the rate of pulses was 12 words per minute using a Vibration Motor mounted in a plastic holder. There identification results were statistically significantly better on wrist compared to abdomen. Words were identified significantly better on the wrist as compared to abdomen but the identification results of the letters were equally good in both placements. There was a negative correlation between age and the pooled identification results tested on wrist PCC r=-0.45 (p<0.02). The participants rank ordered the wrist, over the abdomen, as the best place for positioning the vibrator. The results support haptic/tactile interaction research in positioning and communication system. Our future plans are to apply the results to the project "Ready Ride" for instructions for horseback riding for people with deafblindness as well as activity and movement for elderly people with impaired vision and hearing.

  • Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    et al.
    Konstfack, Industridesignprogrammet.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Integrating Sensitizing Labs in an Educational Design Process for Haptic Interaction2016In: FORMakademisk, ISSN 1890-9515, E-ISSN 1890-9515, ISSN 1890-9515, Vol. 9, no 2, 1-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methods for educating designers are needed to adapt the attributes of haptic interaction to fit the embodied experience of the users. This paper presents educationally framed aesthetic sensitizing labs: 1) a material-lab exploring the tactile and haptic structures of materials, 2) a vibrotactile-lab exploring actuators directly on the body and 3) a combined materials- and vibrotactile-lab embedded in materials. These labs were integrated in a design course that supports a non-linear design process for embodied explorative and experimental activities that feed into an emerging gestalt. A co-design process was developed in collaboration with researchers and users who developed positioning and communications systems for people with deafblindness. Conclusion: the labs helped to discern attributes of haptic interactions which supported designing scenarios and prototypes showing novel ways to understand and shape haptic interaction.

  • Hägglund, Maria
    et al.
    Health Informatics Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Koch, Sabine
    Health Informatics Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ålander, Ture
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences (IFV), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Developing and implementing national eHealth services for patients: an interactive exploration of challenges and potential solutions2015In: Digital Healthcare Empowering Europeans: Proceedings of MIE2015 / [ed] Ronald Cornet, Lăcrămioara Stoicu-Tivadar, Alexander Hörbst, Carlos Luis Parra Calderón, Stig Kjær Andersen, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, IOS Press , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this workshop, examples and experiences from ongoing work to develop and implement eHealth services for citizens will be provided. Challenges and potential solutions based on different international contexts will be discussed in interactive sessions. The results will form a report suggesting strategies and activities that could provide potential solutions to the identified challenges.

  • Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wetterstrand, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sundhäll, Marucs
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Att få sina bedömningar granskade: Lärares syn på de nationella provens syfte att främja likvärdig bedömning2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 75-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1940 there has been different types of national tests in Sweden, each with a different aim and purpose. Since 2011, Skolverket is required to review how teachers correct these national tests, and also to publish easily accessible statistics showing possible discrepancies between the results of the students and their final grades. Based on interviews with 17 teachers in mathematics between grade 6-9, the consequences of the review of teachers assessments have been investigated. The result shows worrying effects. The increased focus on discrepancies has led to an inadequate appraisal of teachers assessment competence. However, teachers are pleased to have their corrections reviewed in a formative way.

  • Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Perspektiv på Nationella prov.2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 5-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Li, Jing
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Culturally Significant Key Component of Qigong, ‘Heart adjustment’, is Lost in Translation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qigong is a Chinese traditional ethnic sport that is practised worldwide. In the West it is often applied as an Eastern mind-body intervention. Although clinical trials have reported its positive effects, some scholars have questioned the research design and methodology. It is clear that there is a need for im-provements in the quality and comparability of studies.

    A lack of knowledge about the meditative aspect of Qigong may con-tribute to poor research quality. Therefore, the aims of this dissertation are to explore the meaning and functions of the culturally significant key component ‘Heart

    1 adjustment’ and to investigate how this basic technical component and the concept of Qigong are expressed in scientific litera-ture. Through the application of two research methods – a cross-cultural linguistic approach and a case-based comparative method – the disserta-tion shows that the meaning of ‘Heart adjustment’ relates to eight tech-niques and functions in Qigong training which affect: 1) the emotions, 2) the physical heart, 3) the mind, 4) virtue, 5) wisdom, 6) concentration, 7) desires and vision and 8) a person’s way of life and attitude. Unfortu-nately, the ‘Heart adjustment’ aspect of Qigong is excluded in the English case; where the word ‘mind’ replaces the Chinese concept of Heart. The cultural knowledge that is embedded in the abstract concept of ‘Heart adjustment’ has apparently not been understood in the West, which means that the above techniques and functions have not been specified. Conse-quently, there has been no objective basis for an evaluation of the quality of Qigong practice.

    From the sport science perspective, the dissertation concludes that the lack of a unified standard with which to assess the quality of Qigong prac-tice in the scientific field thus affects the research quality and data com-parability of Qigong studies. Therefore, the establishment of a methodol-ogy that measures the quality of the practice is absolutely vital.

    List of papers
    1. The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Languages and Culture, ISSN 2141-6540, Vol. 4, no 5, 75-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In China, the word, xin 心  (often translated as ‘heart’) is frequently used and its concept is central to Chinese culture. However, its meaning is not exactly the same as ‘heart’ in English. Using qigong as the context, this article aims to explore the meaning of xin as a cultural keyword in order to gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese culture and knowledge within that cultural system. Qigong is a Chinese health maintenance system and healing tradition which integrates physical activity with training of the mind and self-cultivation. One of qigong’s basic components is xin adjustment. It is impossible to convey the full meaning of this concept without understanding the meaning of xin. In Chinese culture, xin is the root of physical and mental life. It is the seat of all emotions, and embodies the inherent goodness of human nature and wisdom. Xin helps to guide the individual’s way of life and attitude, and can lead one to deep contentment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lagos, Nigeria: Academic Journals, 2013
    Keyword
    xin xin, Chinese heart, cultural keyword, natural semantic metalanguage (NSM), qigong, heart adjustment. INTRODUCTION
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cultural Studies Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20096 (URN)
    Note

    DOI 10.5897/JLC12.054

    Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62672 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
  • Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Arbets-och organisationspsykologi, Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Arbetsvetenskap, Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter bland läkare: Samband mellan illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress kartlagt i enkätstudie2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 48, 2216-2219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi riktat fokus på läkaryrket som profession och på sambandet mellan avgränsning av arbetsuppgifter och anspänning och utmattning.

  • Gustavsson, Maria
    et al.
    Pedagogik och sociologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Den nya akutläkaren: arbetsvillkor, hälsa och vilja att stanna på akutmottagningar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läkare i akutsjukvård är en egen basspecialitet sedan 2015. En ny specialitet och stor efterfrågan på akutläkare innebär en omställning för akutmottagningarna, sjukhusen och gängse utbildningssystem för läkare. Föreliggande studie initierades som en konsekvens av behovet av dessa behov av förändringar – vilka är förutsättningarna på landets akutmottagningar för att den nya specialiteten ska få goda arbetsförhållanden och stanna kvar på akutmottagningarna?

    I studien genomfördes inledningsvis en intervjustudie med 14 akutläkare. Därefter utvecklades en webb-baserad enkät. Totalt 15 akutmottagningar i landet valde att deltaga i studien, och 147 läkare på akutmottagningar (51%) besvarade enkäten. Forskargruppen har erbjudit samtliga medverkande akutmottagningar återkoppling av resultaten, några akutmottagningar har deltagit i dessa möten. Tanken med återkopplingarna är att ge underlag för förbättringsarbetet inom respektive akutmottagning.

    Resultaten av intervjustudien och enkätstudien visar att det finns en stor variation mellan de olika akutmottagningarna med avseende på hur arbetet organiseras, hur arbetsmiljön blir för läkarna, hur läkarna mår och i vilken grad de vill stanna kvar på akutmottagningen.

    De tre distinkta faserna inflöde, vårdprocess och utflöde utgör ramen för arbetets förutsättningar på akutmottagningar. Hur inflödet organiseras beror dels på politiska beslut, dels på triage processen inom akutmottagningen. Ofta görs arbetet i team, ett välfungerande team ger bättre förutsättningar i arbetet än team med oerfarna medlemmar. Att arbeta i team kan vara en ny erfarenhet för många läkare och övrig vårdpersonal och ställer krav på relevant utbildning för detta. Även oklarheter i rollerna inom teamet kan försvåra arbetet.

    Många akutläkare rapporterar att vårdprocessen inom akutmottagningarna organiserats så att de får många oskäliga och onödiga arbetsuppgifter: dubbeldokumentation, att jaga vårdplatser, rutiner kring intagning eller överflyttning av patienter, administrativa uppgifter, mm. Denna typ av arbetsuppgifter fördubblar risken för arbetsrelaterad anspänning och utmattning bland akutläkarna. Många akutläkare upplever också oacceptabel tidspress och överbelastning, samtidigt som de anser sig ha måttligt inflytande över verksamhetsnära frågor om hur arbetet skall organiseras. Ett gott inflytande över arbetet kan kompensera för höga krav, men i denna studie finner vi inte belägg för att graden av inflytande kompenserar för de höga kraven. Höga krav i arbetet har starka samband med en ökad risk för trötthet bland akutläkare.

    Generellt sett har läkarna en mycket positiv inställning till den nya specialiteten och de menar att patientflödet förbättras. Akutläkare uppfattas dock ha låg status jämfört med traditionella specialiteter. Följande slutsatser dras från denna studie.

    • De flesta akutläkare mår bra, men en tredjedel av akutläkarna har symptom på arbetsrelaterad anspänning, utmattning och trötthet. Dessa symptom är vanligare bland kvinnliga akutläkare. Symptomen har starka samband med arbetets organisering. Organisering av arbetet bidrar till förekomsten av onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter och hög arbetsbelastning. Akutläkarna har inte inflytande över verksamhetsnära frågor och upplever sin autonomi och sitt inflytande som reducerat på grund av organisatoriska förändringar. Ett gott arbetsklimat innebär att risken för att utveckla dessa symptom minskar. Ett gott arbetsklimat bygger dels på ett väl fungerande teamarbete, dels på ett gott ledarskap där akutläkarna uppfattar att de får stöd och återkoppling på sitt arbete.
    • Införande av nya organisations- och flödesmodeller inspirerade av lean och teamorganisering används för att effektivisera arbetet. I denna förändringsprocess går verksamheten från en vertikal organisation som bygger på profession till en horisontell organisation som bygger på teamarbete. Detta kan skapa otydliga professionsgränser mellan läkare och annan vårdpersonal. Studien pekar på att det kan finnas vissa motsättningar mellan olika yrkesgrupper på akutmottagningarna och att det kan finnas oklarheter i vem som är teamledare. Tydlighet i roll- och ansvarsfördelning är inte alltid utvecklad, vilket kan leda till meningsmotsättningar. Akutmottagningar uppfattas ofta som sjuksköterskornas arena, medan läkare, som har det medicinska ansvaret, uppfattar sig som faktiska ledare. En viktig förutsättning för ett väl fungerande teamarbete är att de olika ingående professionerna har fått träning och utbildning i teamarbete.
    • En relativt stor andel av de läkare som arbetar på akutmottagningar, eller som avser att bli specialister i akutsjukvård, är inte helt tillfreds med sina arbetsförhållanden. Ungefär hälften av läkarna har övervägt att byta arbetsgivare eller att byta klinik. Viljan att stanna kvar inom akutmottagningen har starkt samband med om läkaren får stöd och feedback från ledningen. Andra studier har visat att symptom på utmattning ökar benägenheten att byta arbete. Majoriteten av de som svarat på enkäten är ST-läkare inom akutsjukvård vilket indikerar att det är viktigt att tidigt uppmärksamma symptom på utmattning för att förebygga att yngre läkare väljer att lämna arbetet.

    Hur arbetet på akutmottagningar organiseras har betydelse för arbetsmiljön och för om processer och flöden möjliggör för läkarna att utföra sitt arbete på ett säkert och effektivt sätt. En akutmottagning måste ses som en del i vårdkedjan i ett större system, men också att akutmottagningen är ett system i sig med lokala förutsättningar som styr in- och utflödet av patienter. Interventioner för att förbättra arbetsförhållanden kan därför inte begränsas till enskilda faktorer utan bygga på hur förutsättningar för hälsopromotiva arbets- och lärmiljöer skapas i organisationer.

  • Grünloh, Christiane
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rexhepi, Hanife
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Myreteg, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Huvila, Isto
    Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Åland.
    Patient Empowerment Meets Concerns for Patients: a Study of Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records in Sweden2016In: Exploring Complexity in Health: An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach / [ed] Alexander Hoerbst, Werner O. Hackl, Nicolette de Keizer, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, Simon de Lusignan, IOS Press , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As part of a EU project, the Swedish county Uppsala launched a patient portal, Journalen in 2012 [1]. Patients can now access their Electronic Health Records (EHR) online, which is aimed to increase patient empowerment. The medical professionals reacted strongly on patients accessing the medical records. Main concerns were related to quality of care, the effect on their work environment, providing bad news through the eHealth service, and also the wellbeing of patients. While the opportunities of implementing these e-health services seem promising, the concerns of the medical professionals have to be understood and addressed, as well as the actual use of the system by patients. This presentation integrates results from two interview studies with physicians and patients related to patients accessing their medical records online [2,3].

    Method

    The presented results are synthesis of the interviews studies with 12 physicians [2] and 30 patients [3], which took place about 6–12 months after the launch of the portal. The synthesis presented in this paper focus on Technological Frames [4] of physicians and patients including the attitudes and experiences in relation to possible (1) anxiety creation, (2) increased of workload, and (3) the general value of patients reading medical records.

    Results Anxiety creation due to receiving bad news. Many physicians believe that breaking bad news to patients during a patient encounter is vital as this would give them the possibility to also explain treat- ments and answer questions. Somewhat unexpectedly, some patients preferred receiving bad news through Journalen instead of waiting for the physicians. The patients argue that waiting times causes more anxiety. The choice of not accessing is also important, as there are patients who do not want to receive bad news before a patient encounter. Workload increases. Many physicians are worried about the work- load of doctors, as reading the medical record online may result in increased number of phone calls because of anxious patients. However, many patients did not tend to take any additional contacts to ask questions. Some of the patients even believe that access to their medical records reduces the number of contacts with healthcare. Usefulness of accessing online. Many physicians are concerned that online access will have a negative impact on the patient such as increased anxiety and misconceptions as they lack understanding of medical terms. Unlike the doctors’ perspective, many patients argue that they do not have major difficulties in understanding the contents. They also argue that Journalen was central to their coping with their decease.

    Conclusion

    From this study it is clear that the Technological Frames of physicians differ from those of patients, and that they have different attitudes and experiences towards the system. The intention from the politicians was that the system would contribute to Patient Empowerment, but that framing of the technology differs from the physicians’ view, as they are concerned of the consequences. More research is needed on the framing of the technology and how that has been changed after the launch of the system.

    [1] Erlingsdottir, G., Lindholm, C. When patient empowerment encounters professional autonomy: The conflict and negotiation process of inscribing an eHealth service. Scandinavian journal of public administration 2015;19(29):27- 48.

    [2] Grünloh, C., Cajander, Å., Myreteg, G., “The Record is our Work Tool!” - Physicians’ Framing of a Patient Portal in Sweden. J Med Internet Res (submitted).

    [3] Rexhepi, H., Åhlfeldt, R.-M., Cajander, Å, & Huvila, I. (2015). Cancer Patients’ Attitudes and Experiences of Online Medical Records, 1–8. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research ISHIMR 2015.

    [4] Orlikowski, W.J., Gash, D.C. Technological Frames: Making sense of information technology in organizations. Transactions on Information Systems 1994;12(2):174–207. doi: 10.1145/196734.196745

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does infrastructure really cause growth?: the time scale dependent causality nexus between infrastructure investments and GDP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between infrastructure investments and economic activity in Sweden for the period 1800-2000. In order to overcome the problem of endogeneity, independent time scales are used to analyze the relationship. The paper also examines the dynamics between the variables by testing for causality in the Granger sense and constructing a vector autoregressive model separately for each time scale. The finding is that the causality nexus between growth and transport infrastructure investment is timescale-dependent since it reverses in a comparison of the short-run dynamics (2-4 years) and the longer-run dynamics (8-16 years). This causality reversal is unique for infrastructure investments compared to investments in other sectorsof the economy.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    The impact of stochastic properties of traffic demand on real option value in road projects2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the stochastic properties that long term aggregate traffic demand exhibits. Based on the results of the time series analysis, we examine how fractionally integrated processes affect real option valuation in road projects. We conclude that the long memory property we find in long term aggregate traffic demand using Swedish data, implying that a shock in demand has persistent positive effects on future demand, leads to higher option values in road projects compared to the values from a standard model using geometric Brownian motion.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fakhraei Roudsari, Farzad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Freight Train Delays: Evidence from Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how freight train delays are distributed with respect to size, location and time of their occurrence. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data covering all freight train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. Moreover, the link between capacity usage and expected delay is analyzed using the fact that demand fluctuates on different time scales, especially due to the economic chock in 2009. Since the distribution of delays on different scales describe reliability and vulnerability in the rail transport system, the results have potentially important policy implications for rail investment appraisal

  • Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.