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  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Projektledning i korta projekt: Observationer av projektledares arbete i multiprojektmiljö2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As most of the project management models were developed for larger projects, there is a lack of understanding of what project managers in short duration projects do. Short-duration projects are projects in multi-project environments lasting for a number of weeks rather than a number of months. Even if they are common today, short-duration projects have not yet attracted the interest of project researchers. The present study aims to analyze what the project managers in short duration projects do and to develop a method for studying the project managers at work.

    A theoretical framework is built on earlier studies of managers’ work, suggesting three areas having impact on the project manager’s work. The impacting areas are the project, the project manager’s experience, and the organizational context of the project. The project manager and the assisting project manager were studied while managing a sub-project in a greater telecom system project. The project managers were studied one week each using participant observation and interviews. The findings indicate that much of the time at work was spent in meetings of different kinds, to deal with change, and to guard the production teams from being disturbed by changes in the environment. It was also found that studying a multi-project environment from the sub-project’s perspective gives a different view on multi-project environments that have earlier been presented as the project managers in the short-duration project constantly have to adjust to changes, inputs and demands from the surrounding projects and functional organizations. In the end some proposals on directions for further studies of managers of short-duration projects are made. 

  • Kremel, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Heterogeneity in the level and handling of the Liability of Newness: Female and immigrant entrepreneurs’ need for and use of business advisory service2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the start-up entrepreneurs face the Liability of Newness when problems and challenges often threaten business survival. Business advisory service, provided by public and private supplier contacts, can offer important knowledge and information, accompanied by various forms of assistance, and thereby decrease the entrepreneurs’ risk of failure and reduce their Liability of Newness. However, it is difficult to match the entrepreneurs’ need for such advice with the available advice. The support must meet the need. Most nations in the European Union have programs and projects that provide such support for entrepreneurs and SMEs. Special programs often support female entrepreneurs and/or immigrant entrepreneurs.

    This thesis examines the level and handling of the Liability of Newness with special focus on female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden. The four papers of this thesis take the perspective of these entrepreneurs. The research is based on a sample of 2 832 entrepreneurs who were interviewed (in a telephone survey) on their impressions and recollections on their need for and use of business advisory service in the start-up processes of their companies. Fulfilment of need is achieved when the need for business advisory service is matched with the right use of business advisory service.

    Heterogeneities as far as the level and handling of the Liability of Newness exist related to female entrepreneurs (vs. male entrepreneurs) and immigrant entrepreneurs (vs. non-immigrant entrepreneurs). Female entrepreneurs have a higher need for business advisory service than male entrepreneurs and also use more business advisory service than male entrepreneurs. As a result, female entrepreneurs can decrease the hazard rate for their companies and also reduce the Liability of Newness as their companies move toward the standard risk in their industry. Immigrant entrepreneurs also have a higher need for business advisory service than non-immigrant entrepreneurs. However, because immigrant entrepreneurs use business advisory service to the same extent that non-immigrant entrepreneurs do, immigrant entrepreneurs are unable to decrease the hazard rate for their companies or to reduce the Liability of Newness.The thesis makes both theoretical, methodological and practical contributions.

    The thesis may be of interest to government policy makers with its attention to the need and use of business advisory service by female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs.

  • Persson, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A policy problem that cannot escape its past: constraints on the reformation of safety policy2015In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 9, no 2, 158-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within many current policy theories there is a tendency to first identify change and then explainit. A retrospective analysis of policy changes risks missing continuous processes and struggles forchange as well as mechanisms of resistance to change. Taking this as a point of departure, thispaper develops an understanding of the policy process as a struggle over meaning, as a way toallow for a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of policy change and continuity. Thisapproach is illustrated by an analysis of the formation of public safety policy in Sweden.Alternative storylines giving ‘new’ meanings to the policy problem were strategicallyincorporated into the policy discourse. However, it is found that an ideational path-dependency ofthe policy constrains the possibility for problem reformulation and thereby also the possibility forpolicy change. The discourses that instantiated the policy problem not only affect the ways inwhich the problem is rendered thinkable for the purposes of its government, but also for policyanalysts as well as the public. The analysis shows that it is crucial to understand the interrelationsbetween different discourses (within policy, politics and research) to understand the mechanismsof policy change and continuity.

  • Persson, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The relative importance of institutional trust in countering feelings of unsafety in disadvantaged neighbourhoods2013In: European Spatial Research And Policy, Vol. 20, no 1, 73-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The segregated nature of urban areas reflects an uneven exposure to risk and unsafety. This article analyzes the relevance of place to people’s feelings of unsafety by comparing questionnaire responses from people living in a segregated, disadvantaged neighbourhood to a random sample of people living in the same city. The results suggest that the central factors explaining the individual’s feelings of unsafety differ in this particular neighbourhood compared to the broader population. The article shows that place has a moderating effect on feelings of unsafety. Trust in public institutions is argued to be particularly important in segregated, disadvantaged neighbourhoods because of its potential to prevent feelings of unsafety.

  • Kremel, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Yazdanfar, D.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Business advisory services and risk among start-ups and young companies: A gender perspective2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 2, 168-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the demand for business advisory services by owners of start-ups and young companies by taking a gender perspective. The study also examines whether risk-taking is more characteristic of masculine than feminine behaviour in this context. Design/methodology/approach – Aliterature review examines business advisory services and risk aversion from a gender perspective. The empirical data are derived from interviews with owners of more than 2,700 start-ups and young companies in Sweden.Anumber of key variables compare how the company owners (women and men) view business advisory services as a way to overcome risk and to gain access to information in networks. Several statistical tests are used to analyse these data. Findings – Women owners of start-ups and young companies use more and different business advisory services than men owners. There are differences among the men owners and women owners with regard to the amount of start-up capital, company size and industry sector. Given the risks associated with start-up, business advisory services are important to women in helping them reduce their risk in the start-up and early stages of their companies. Research limitations/implications – Companies in Sweden’s largest city, Stockholm, were not included in the sample. Financial data were not used as variables. Practical implications – Policymakers should address women owners’ greater demand for business advisory services in their companies’ early stages. Originality/value – This study’s originality is its gender perspective on the demand for business advisory services by start-ups and young companies and its challenge to previous findings about entrepreneurial behaviour and risk-taking. 

  • Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Olika versioner av "bedömning för lärande" i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Karlsson, Patrik
    Karlstad universitet.
    The influence of tool steel microstructure on galling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a sort of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, the overall aim was to gain knowledge of the influence of tool steel microstructure on galling initiation under sliding conditions. It was discovered that material transfer and tool steel damage caused by sheet material flow creating wear-induced galling initiation sites occurred in the early stage of galling. The galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher matrix hardness due to better resistance to tool steel damage. Initial friction and critical contact pressure to galling was influenced by the strength of the sheet material. Material transfer happened at low pressures and the friction value was high in a case of sheet materials with lower proof strength, possibly due to the sheet contact against the tool steel matrix resulting in high adhesion and quicker tool damage. It was demonstrated that, in addition to hardness of the tool steel matrix and sheet material proof strength, tool steel microstructural features like size, shape, distribution and height of hard phases are important parameters influencing galling. Tool steels comprising homogeneously distributed, small and high hard phases better prevented the contact between sheet material and the tool steel matrix. Thus, a metal to metal contact with high friction was more efficiently avoided, which resulted in better tool performance.

     

  • Koski, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Matarma, Tanja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pedisic, Zeljko
    Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kokko, Sami
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lane, Aoife
    Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland .
    Hartmann, Herbert
    German gymnastic federation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hämäläinen, Timo
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Sports Confederation, Helsinki, Finland;.
    Nykänen, Ulla
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rakovac, Marija
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Livson, Matleena
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Savola, Jorma
    Finnish Sport for All Association, , Finland.
    Sports Club for Health (SCforH): uppdaterade riktlinjer för hälsofrämjande idrottsaktiviteter i föreningsmiljö2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SCforH är ett expertbaserat koncept som hjälper såväl föreningar som nationella och regionala idrottsorganisationer att inse de potentiella hälsofördelarna i sina idrottsdiscipliner och att organisera hälsofrämjande idrottsaktiviteter inom ramen för sin verksamhet.

  • Borgestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV).
    The impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate the impact of gaze-based assistive technology on daily activities in children with severe physical impairments and without speech. The objectives were to develop and pilot a gaze-based assistive technology intervention (GAT intervention) at home and in school for these children and to understand its impact on daily activities as experienced by their parents.

    Methods: Study I was a pilot study in which the basic components that were developed for the intervention were evaluated for students with physical impairments. The study aimed at improving the use of computers as assistive technology (AT) in school. Based on the findings in Study I, the GAT intervention was developed. The GAT intervention aimed at implementing gaze-based AT in daily activities. It consisted of two parts; having access to gaze-based AT and having access to services from a multi professional communication team during nine to ten months. Studies II-IV concerned gazebased AT for children with severe physical impairments without speech who participated in the GAT intervention. The participants were ten children (ages 1-15) (Studies II, III), and their parents (Study IV). Studies II and III had longitudinal designs and children were followed during 15-20 months with repeated measurements before, after and at follow-up. In Study II children’s repertoire of computer activities, extent of use, and goal attainment with gaze-based AT was evaluated, as well as parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services. In Study III children’s eye gaze performance when using gaze-based AT was examined. In Study IV, parents were interviewed twice with the aim of  exploring their experiences of children’s gaze-based AT use in daily life. In Study IV a hermeneutical approach was used.

    Results: The findings of Study I showed that the basic components of intervention improved the use of computers in school. Study II showed an increased repertoire of computer activities with the gazebased AT, maintained use in daily activities for all at follow up, and that all children attained goals for gaze-based AT use in daily activities. Parents were satisfied with the gaze-based AT, and with the services in the GAT intervention. In study III, nine children improved in eye gaze performance over time when using the gaze-based AT in daily activities. Study IV revealed that children’s gaze-based AT usage in daily activities made a difference to parents since the children demonstrated agency, and showed their personality and competencies by using gaze-based AT, and for the parents this opened up infinite possibilities for the child to do and learn things. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT usage provided parents with hope of a future in which their children could develop and have influence in life.

    Conclusions: This thesis shows that these children with severe physical impairments and without speech acquired sufficient gaze control skills to use gaze-based AT for daily activities in the home and at school. The gaze-based AT had a positive impact on performing activities, for example, play activities and communication- and interaction-related activities. For the parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage made a difference since it shaped a hope of a better future for their children, where they can develop and gain influence in their future life. Furthermore, the children continued to perform daily activities with gaze-based AT over time. This finding suggests that key persons were provided with sufficient knowledge and skills to support children in maintained use of gaze-based AT after withdrawal of the services provided in the GAT intervention.

  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Convergence in Financial Reporting: From a Student Perspective2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Insights into IFRS Accounting: From a Student Perspective2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linköpings universitet.
    Past, Present and Future of the IASB: From a Student Perspective2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    IFRSs Address New Market and Institutional Development: From a Student Perspective2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Schiller, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lundh, SimonÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Företagsekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    IFRS accounting in progress: from a student perspective2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Students in the course International Accounting at the master level are encouraged to partake not just in class discussions but also in giving classes. This partaking pedagoical orientation helps the students develop analytical and integrative capabilities for dealing with international financial reporting and international accounting policy issues. As a result of this pedagogical direction the students have written, from a student pespective, a text book on different aspects on IFRS accounting.

  • Rytterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Borgestig, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Avdelningen för arbetsterapi, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Avdelningen för arbetsterapi, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers for pupils with severe motor impairments and without speech2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 31, no 4, 506-519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers’ experiences of using eye gaze-controlled computers with pupils with severe disabilities. Technology to control a computer with eye gaze is a fast growing field and has promising implications for people with severe disabilities. This is a new assistive technology and a new learning situation for teachers. Using a reflective lifeworld approach, 11 teachers were interviewed twice. The essence of the phenomenon of teaching pupils who use an eye gaze-controlled computer is to understand what the pupil does with the computer and relate this to what the pupil wants to express through the computer. The pupils have emotions, wishes and knowledge that are trapped in their own bodies. The eye gaze computer creates opportunities to get a glimpse of these thoughts to others, and creates hope concerning the pupil’s future possibilities. The teacher’s responsibility to try to understand what is inside the pupil’s trapped body is a motivating factor to integrate the computer in everyday classroom activities. The results give directions for teaching and for implementation of eye gaze computers in the school system, and also suggest improvements that could be made to computers.

  • Karlsson, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    The early stage of galling2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a kind of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, galling observed in contacts between tool steels and stainless steel sheets under lubricated sliding conditions was studied, focusing on the early stage of galling. It was found that changes in friction cannot be used as galling indicator in the early stage of galling because transfer and accumulation of sheet material happens even though friction is low and stable. The progression of galling is influenced by tool steel damage occurring around the tool steel hard phases caused by sheet material flow, which results in formation of wear-induced galling initiation sites. A correlation between the critical contact pressure to galling and sheet material proof stress was found. Galling happened at lower pressures for sheet material with lower proof stress possibly due to easier sheet material flow, resulting in quicker tool damage. Material transfer and tool steel damage were delayed for tool steels comprising homogenously distributed, small and high hard phases. Additionally, the galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher hardness due to decreased tool steel damage. In a comparison between observations of the worn tool surfaces after wear tests and calculations in FEM it was found that material transfer did not take place at regions with highest contact pressures but at regions with highest plastic strains. The results obtained in this thesis indicate that tool steel damage and sheet material flow occurring in the contact during sliding are important factors influencing galling.

  • Grosinger, Jasmin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Proactivity Through Equilibrium Maintenance with Fuzzy Desirability2017In: IEEE SMC 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive cognitive agents need to be capable ofboth generating their own goals and enacting them. In thispaper, we cast this problem as that ofmaintaining equilibrium,that is, seeking opportunities to act that keep the system indesirable states while avoiding undesirable ones. We characterizedesirability of states as graded preferences, using mechanismsfrom the field of fuzzy logic. As a result, opportunities for anagent to act can also be graded, and their relative preferencecan be used to infer when and how to act. This paper providesa formal description of our computational framework, andillustrates how the use of degrees of desirability leads to well-informed choices of action.

  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE), Umeå, Sweden.
    Projektledning i praktiken: Observationer av arbete i korta projekt2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management used to be described as rational and well structured - a notion that builds on a traditional view that project management is about planning, budgeting and controlling. Nevertheless, it has been questioned if this is a full description. Even though project management techniques were developed for large projects, those techniques and models are used today in small projects of short duration - projects that are quite dissimilar to the large ones. The present study takes a practice perspective to investigate what project managers do when they lead such short projects. Its observations and interviews are used to analyze what happens in the everyday life of project managers. Using classical managerial behaviour studies as a foundation, seen through a practice perspective lens, the study finds that the work of project managers in a software development project is fragmented – their time is filled with formal and informal meetings of different kinds and efforts to resist disturbances in the project.

    Three challenges were found in the project manager’s work. The first was to Understand: to create meaning. The plans were clearly defined at the start of the project but as the goals were later re-defined, it was scarcely possible to finalize them before delivery. Contrary to the traditional view that plans are inflexible, these plans were discussed, negotiated and interpreted throughout the project. This was the continuous work of creating both meaning in the plans and a common understanding of the project.

    The second challenge was to Order/coordinate: to manage resources. The project manager reacted to emerging issues rather than acting to prevent things from happening. These reactions led to creative ways of managing and finding solutions to problems. One important way of managing new or changed conditions was to reorganize resources to cover the needs of different teams. The meetings played a central role in this work as arenas for negotiating resources, which became especially evident in times of stress or high workload.

    The third challenge was to Make it in time: to manage time. Time is a central aspect of project management as projects are temporary organizations; they have a beginning and an end. Previous research has found a point in time, in the middle of a project, when the team starts to feel pressured and stressed about meeting their deadlines. For project managers there is always a struggle to manage time, as dates for delivery are one of the things in a project that are not negotiable. In short-duration projects where projects follow each other seriatim, there is an almost constant feeling of urgency; stress and pressure. The project manager used experiential data to determine and plan the amount of time that would be needed to manage changes in the project, intending that the slack created would enable the project to deliver on time. Although changes and deviations were expected, the project manager rarely knew beforehand what they were or when they would come.

    The three challenges, previously described as separated from each other, were observed to be all managed simultaneously. The site, the practitioner and the practices influence daily work practice.

  • Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Brekke, Ole Andreas
    Stein Rokkan Centre for Social Studies, Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Business Administration, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Distriktsvenleg, miljøvenleg og klimavenleg?: Drivkrefter i utviklinga av småkraft i Hardanger2017In: Tidsskriftet Utmark, ISSN 1502-3532, E-ISSN 1502-3532, no 1, 68-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, small scale hydro power projects developed rapidly both in scope and volume in the post-millennium period. This was the result of a particular window of time in the environmental and energy field in Norway. In the Hardanger-region this development has been particularly noticeable, and thearticle describes the development through analyses of the licensing process and the regional general publics. The article asks the following questions: What characterizes the development of the licensing processes? What conflicts and arguments in the public domain characterize this development, and how is this played out against the historical development of natural resource management in the Hardanger-region?The analysis shows that in the early 2000s small scale hydro power projects were framed as both climate-friendly, environmentally benign and a catalyst for rural development. However, these arguments have all become contested in later years.

  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Deliberative democracy meets democratised science: a deliberative systems approach to global environmental governance2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main achievements of the debates on deliberative democracy and democratised science are investigated in order to analyse the reasons, meanings and prospects for a democratisation of global environmental policy. A deliberative systems approach, which emphasises the need to explore how processes in societal spheres interact to shape the deliberative qualities of the system as a whole, is adopted. Although science plays a key role in this, its potential to enhance deliberative capacity has hardly been addressed in deliberative theories. The democratisation of science has potential to contribute to the democratisation of global environmental policy, in that it also shapes the potential of deliberative arrangements in the policy sphere. Deliberative arrangements within the policy sphere may stimulate the democratisation of science to different degrees.

  • Canelhas, Daniel Ricão
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Truncated Signed Distance Fields Applied To Robotics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with topics related to dense mapping of large scale three-dimensional spaces. In particular, the motivating scenario of this work is one in which a mobile robot with limited computational resources explores an unknown environment using a depth-camera. To this end, low-level topics such as sensor noise, map representation, interpolation, bit-rates, compression are investigated, and their impacts on more complex tasks, such as feature detection and description, camera-tracking, and mapping are evaluated thoroughly. A central idea of this thesis is the use of truncated signed distance fields (TSDF) as a map representation and a comprehensive yet accessible treatise on this subject is the first major contribution of this dissertation. The TSDF is a voxel-based representation of 3D space that enables dense mapping with high surface quality and robustness to sensor noise, making it a good candidate for use in grasping, manipulation and collision avoidance scenarios.

    The second main contribution of this thesis deals with the way in which information can be efficiently encoded in TSDF maps. The redundant way in which voxels represent continuous surfaces and empty space is one of the main impediments to applying TSDF representations to large-scale mapping. This thesis proposes two algorithms for enabling large-scale 3D tracking and mapping: a fast on-the-fly compression method based on unsupervised learning, and a parallel algorithm for lifting a sparse scene-graph representation from the dense 3D map.

    The third major contribution of this work consists of thorough evaluations of the impacts of low-level choices on higher-level tasks. Examples of these are the relationships between gradient estimation methods and feature detector repeatability, voxel bit-rate, interpolation strategy and compression ratio on camera tracking performance. Each evaluation thus leads to a better understanding of the trade-offs involved, which translate to direct recommendations for future applications, depending on their particular resource constraints.

  • Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Våld föder våld, eller?: Om män, sportvåld och formande av hegemonisk manlighet som bidragande riskfaktor till våldet i samhället2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 2, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel undersöker argumentet att det våld och den hårda fysiska kontakten som vissa idrotter innehåller, samt de ideal som hyllas i dessa, bidrar till en normalisering av mäns våldsanvändning mot andra människor även utanför själva idrottsarenan. Sportvåldet tolkas med inspiration från den kritiska forskningen om män och maskuliniteter och ses som ett led i upprätthållandet av en hierarkisk, patriarkal maktordning. I artikeln förs en diskussion kring vissa idrotters normalisering av våld som problemlösande metod och huruvida sådana idrotter skapar mer våldsbenägna män. Slutsatsen är att det i vissa idrotter kan finnas en riskfaktor för somliga män.

  • Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Mokdad, Ali H. (Contributor)
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle WA, United States.
    Transport injuries and deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study2017In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Widehammar, Cathrine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The influence of environment: experiences of users of myoelectric arm prosthesis, a qualitative study. Influence of environment on arm prosthesis use2017In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Prostheses are used to varying degrees; however, little is known about how environmental aspects influence this use.

    Objectives:To describe users" experiences of how environmental factors influence their use of a myoelectric arm prosthesis.

    Study design:Qualitative and descriptive.

    Methods:A total of 13 patients previously provided with a myoelectric prosthetic hand participated. Their age, sex, deficiency level, etiology, current prosthesis use, and experience varied. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed through inductive content analysis.

    Results:Four categories were created from the data: "Prosthesis function," "Other people's attitudes," "Support from family and healthcare," and "Individual's attitude and strategies." The overarching theme, "Various degrees of embodiment lead to different experiences of environmental barriers and facilitators," emerged from differences in individual responses depending on whether the individual was a daily or a non-daily prosthesis user. Environmental facilitators such as support from family and healthcare and good function and fit of the prosthesis seemed to help the embodiment of the prosthesis, leading to daily use. This embodiment seemed to reduce the influence of environmental barriers, for example, climate, attitudes, and technical shortcomings.

    Conclusion:Embodiment of prostheses seems to reduce the impact of environmental barriers. Support and training may facilitate the embodiment of myoelectric prosthesis use.

    Clinical relevance:For successful prosthetic rehabilitation, environmental factors such as support and information to the patient and their social network about the benefits of prosthesis use are important. Local access to training in myoelectric control gives more people the opportunity to adapt to prosthesis use and experience less environmental barriers.

  • Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE SICS.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An Ontology-based Context-aware System for Smart Homes: E-care@home2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 7, 1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart home environments have a significant potential to provide for long-term monitoring of users with special needs in order to promote the possibility to age at home. Such environments are typically equipped with a number of heterogeneous sensors that monitor both health and environmental parameters. This paper presents a framework called E-care@home, consisting of an IoT infrastructure, which provides information with an unambiguous, shared meaning across IoT devices, end-users, relatives, health and care professionals and organizations. We focus on integrating measurements gathered from heterogeneous sources by using ontologies in order to enable semantic interpretation of events and context awareness. Activities are deduced using an incremental answer set solver for stream reasoning. The paper demonstrates the proposed framework using an instantiation of a smart environment that is able to perform context recognition based on the activities and the events occurring in the home.

  • Jetzkowitz, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Methods of empirical social research and statistics, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg, Germany.
    van Koppen, C. S. A. Kris
    Environmental Policy, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ott, Konrad
    Department of Philosophy, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Voget-Kleschin, Lieske
    Department of Philosophy, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Wong, Cathrine Mei Ling
    Maison des Sciences Humaines, Porte des Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, Université du Luxembourg, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg.
    The significance of meaning: Why IPBES needs the social sciences and humanities2018In: Innovation. The European Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1351-1610, E-ISSN 1469-8412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term “biodiversity” is often used to describe phenomena of nature, which can be studied without a reference to the socially constructed, evaluative, or indeed normative contexts. In our paper, we challenge this conception by focusing particularly on methodological aspects of biodiversity research. We thereby engage with the idea of interdisciplinary biodiversity research as a scientific approach directed at the recognition and management of contemporary society in its ecological embedding. By doing this, we explore how research on and assessments of biodiversity can be enhanced if meaning, aspiration, desires, and related aspects of agency are methodically taken into account. In six sections, we substantiate our claim that the discourse on biodiversity (including the IPBES (Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) debate) is incomplete without contributions from the social sciences and humanities. In the introduction, a brief overview of biodiversity’s conceptual history is provided showing that “biodiversity” is a lexical invention intended to create a strong political momentum. However, that does not impede its usability as a research concept. Section 2 examines the origins of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) by way of sociological discourse analysis. Subsequently, it proposes a matrix as a means to structure the ambiguities and tensions inherent in the CBD. The matrix reemphasizes our main thesis regarding the need to bring social and ethical expertise to the biodiversity discourse. In Section 3, we offer a brief sketch of the different methods of the natural and social sciences as well as ethics. This lays the groundwork for our Section 4, which explains and illustrates what social sciences and ethics can contribute to biodiversity research. Section 5 turns from research to politics and argues that biodiversity governance necessitates deliberative discourses in which participation of lay people plays an important role. Section 6 provides our conclusions.

  • Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Nilsen, Bente
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Folate intake in a Swedish adult population: Food sources and predictive factors2017In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 61, 1328960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Folate plays an important role in cell metabolism, but international studies show that intake is currently below recommendations, especially among women. The study objective was to identify folate food sources by food group, gender, and age group, and to identify factors influencing folate intake, based on food consumption data for Swedish adults in the 2010-11 Riksmaten study.

    Methods: The sample included a representative Swedish population aged 18-80 years (n = 1657; 56.3% female). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from self-reported food records during 4 consecutive days. Food consumption was categorized into 26 food groups. Stepwise regression was used to analyze food groups as folate sources for participants. Factors predicting the highest folate intake (third tertile) were determined by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Vegetables and pulses represented the most important folate source for all age groups and both genders, especially in women aged 45-64 years (49.7% of total folate intake). The next folate source in importance was dairy products for the youngest group (18-30 years), bread for men, and fruit and berries for women. The likelihood of being in the highest tertile of folate intake (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.354-2.104) was higher for men. Influencing factors for folate intake in the highest tertile were low body mass index and high educational level in the men, and high educational level, vegetarian diet, organic product consumption, nonsmoking, and alcohol consumption within recommendations in the women.

    Conclusion: This study describes the folate intake per food group of Swedish adults according to the 2010-11 Riksmaten survey, identifying vegetables and pulses as the most important source. Data obtained on factors related to folate consumption may be useful for the development of specific nutrition education programs to increase the intake of this vitamin in high-risk groups.

  • Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Från växeltelefoni till "one-stop shops": Framväxten av kommunala servicecenter i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste 15 åren har över 80 svenska kommuner gått från en traditionell växelverksamhet till en mer integrerad serviceyta, ofta kallad kontaktcenter, kundtjänst, medborgarservice, servicecenter, kundcenter eller liknande. Denna typ av organisationsform kallas även internationellt för ”one-stop shops” dit en medborgare kan vända sig med en mångfald av frågor och ärenden. Under de senaste 3 åren har forskare vid Örebro universitet arbetat med att utöka kunskapen om den första kontakten mellan medborgare och myndigheter, främst genom att studera kommunala servicecenter i Sverige. Rapporten bygger på en enkätundersökning genomförd under 2015 och 2016 och syftet är att ge en översikt över framväxten av denna typ av kommunala center. Vilka är de underliggande behoven som driver framväxten av dessa center? Hur sprids dessa idéer? Vilka aktörer är de mest framträdande? Varför sprids dessa center just idag? Är framväxten av dessa center inspirerade av liknande organisationsformer i privat verksamhet? Är etableringen av dessa center ett tecken på demokratiinriktade kommunala initiativ och ett tydligare medborgarfokus i offentlig förvaltning? Denna typ av kommunala one-stop shops är en till synes liten del av den kommunala verksamheten men kan således kopplas till en rad viktiga principiella frågor om offentlig förvaltning.

  • Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Verhulst, Stefaan
    The Governance Lab, New York University, New York, USA.
    Data collaboratives as “bazaars”?: A review of coordination problems and mechanisms to match demand for data with supply2017In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 11, no 1, 157-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In “data collaboratives”, private and public organizations coordinate their activities to leverage data to address a societal challenge. This paper aims to focus on analyzing challenges and coordination mechanisms of data collaboratives.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study uses coordination theory to identify and discuss thecoordination problems and coordination mechanisms associated with data collaboratives. The authors also use a taxonomy of data collaborative forms from a previous empirical study to discuss how different forms of data collaboratives may require different coordination mechanisms.

    Findings: The study analyzed data collaboratives from the perspective of organizational and task levels. At the organizational level, the authors argue that data collaboratives present an example of the bazaar form of coordination. At the task level, the authors identified five coordination problems and discussed potential coordination mechanisms to address them, such as coordination by negotiation, by third party, by standardization, to name a few.

    Research limitations/implications: This study is one of the first few to systematically analyze the phenomenon of “data collaboratives”.

    Practical implications: This study can help practitioners better understand the coordination challenges they may face when initiating a data collaborative and to develop successful data collaboratives by using coordination mechanisms to mitigate these challenges.

    Originality/value: Data collaboratives are a novel form of data-driven initiatives which have seen rapid experimentation lately. This study draws attention to this concept in the academic literature and highlights some of the complexities of organizing data collaboratives in practice.

  • Mai, Anh
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Organizing for efficiency: Essays on merger policies, independence of authorities, and technology diffusion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutions are fundamentally sets of rules in a society that help create stability. Organizations are groups of people who may share the same goal. Changes in organizations and institutions will have large effects on the performance of economies. This thesis explores empirical aspects concerning two elements of institutional and organizational design: economic regulations and independent regulatory authorities (IRAs).

    Essay 1 studies the impact of the 2004 EU merger policy reform on how mergers are reviewed by the European Commission. The EU policy appears to have softened after the reform for unilateral mergers and this may suggest an improvement of merger policy efficiency.

    Essay 2 compares the merger enforcements in the EU and the US. Our approach is to decompose the differences into policy effects and casemix effects. The EU policy has significantly changed after its 2004 reform. Overall, the results show a convergence between the two policies for dominance mergers after the EU policy reform.

    Essay 3 constructs an independence index for 109 European IRAs in six different sectors: competition, energy, financial markets, pharmaceuticals, food safety, and telecom. Factor analysis suggests that the heads of the agencies are mostly constrained by four factors: collegial bodies, the judicial system, politics and scope of tasks, and resources.

    Essay 4 explores a correlation between independence of regulatory authorities and corruption. We find that the authorities in corrupt countries to a large extent rely on collegial bodies but are less tightly controlled by the judicial system, compared with those in “clean” countries.

    Essay 5 studies the impact of regulation on broadband diffusion speed. The results imply that a strict local loop unbundling policy appears to slow the diffusion speed of fixed broadband. In contrast, a procompetition policy that aims to promote entry has a significant positive impact on the diffusion speed of mobile broadband.

    List of papers
    1. Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61107 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Does Merger Policy Converge After the 2004 European Union Reform?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Merger Policy Converge After the 2004 European Union Reform?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61108 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Accountable Regulators - To Whom?: A Survey-Based Analysis of National Regulatory Authorities' Governance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accountable Regulators - To Whom?: A Survey-Based Analysis of National Regulatory Authorities' Governance
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61109 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Regulatory accountability, power sharing and corruption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulatory accountability, power sharing and corruption
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61110 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
    5. The impact of regulation on broadband diffusion in Europe
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of regulation on broadband diffusion in Europe
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61111 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
  • Tryggvason, Ásgeir
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Political as Presence: On Agonism in Citizenship Education2017In: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, ISSN 1916-0348, Vol. 24, no 3, 252-265 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, an agonistic approach to citizenship education has been put forward as a way of educating democratic citizens. Claudia W. Ruitenberg (2009) has developed such an approach and takes her starting point in Chantal Mouffe’s agonistic theory. Ruitenberg highlights how political emotions and political disputes can be seen as central for a vibrant democratic citizenship education. The aim of this paper is to critically explore and further develop the concepts of political emotions and political disputes as central components of an agonistic approach. In order to do this, I return to Mouffe’s point of departure in the concept of the political. By drawing on Michael Marder’s (2010) notion of enmity, I suggest how “the presence of the other” can be seen as a vital aspect of the political in citizenship education. By not abandoning the concept of enmity, and with the notion of presence in the foreground, I argue that Ruitenberg’s definition of political emotions needs to be formulated in a way that includes emotions revolving around one’s own existence as a political being. Moreover, I argue that in order to further develop the agonistic approach, the emphasis on the verbalization of opinions in political disputes needs to be relaxed, as it limits the political dimension in education and excludes crucial political practices, such as exodus. 

  • Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Growth Analysis, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Pär
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Growth Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindvert, Markus
    Growth Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Effects of foreign acquisitions on R&D and high-skill activities2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 49, no 1, 163-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish microdata, we find no evidence for the concerns circulating in the public debate that foreign acquisitions lead to reductions in both R&D expenditures and high-skilled activities in targeted domestic firms for either MNEs or non-MNEs. Previous studies have only focused on larger firms. In this paper, we are able to study the impact on smaller firms (fewer than 50 employees), which is important because 90% of the firms acquired meet this criterion. For this group of firms, there is no information on R&D, but by using the register of educational attainment, we obtain data on the share of high skilled labor in all Swedish firms irrespective of size. Interestingly, we find that among smaller firms, foreign enterprises tend to acquire high-productive, skill-intensive firms (cherry-picking). After the acquisitions, skill upgrading appears in acquired smaller, non-MNE firms, particularly in the service sector. 

  • Wijk, Lena
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Enhanced Recovery After Hysterectomy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study recovery after hysterectomy under Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) care, and in relation to different operation techniques.

    Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted comparing 85 patients undergoing hysterectomy with ERAS care to 120 patients immediately before establishing ERAS. In a prospective cohort study of 121 consecutive patients undergoing hysterectomy, the outcome was compared for patients with malignant versus benign indications. The main outcome measure was length of stay (LOS). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 20 women scheduled for hysterectomy compared robot-assisted laparoscopic with abdominal hysterectomy in terms of the development of insulin resistance, inflammatory reactions, and clinical recovery, and examined the relation to hormonal status. All studies were conducted in 2011--2015, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.

    Results: Implementation of a structured ERAS protocol significantly reduced LOS compared to non-ERAS care. The effect was similar between patients with malignant and benign indications for surgery. No difference in complications was found. There was no difference in development of insulin resistance between robotic and abdominal technique, but clinical outcomes and inflammatory responses significantly favoured robot-assisted hysterectomy. Female sex hormone status was associated with the development of insulin resistance.

    Conclusions: Recovery after hysterectomy can be influenced. ERAS care seems to be effective and safe. Clinical outcome can also be influenced by operational technique. Hysterectomy triggers a stress reaction in both the metabolic and the inflammatory system. It remains unclear why the reduced inflammatory reaction and favourable clinical outcome in robotic surgery were not mirrored by less insulin resistance. This could not be explained by female sex hormone status.

    List of papers
    1. Implementing a structured Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol reduces length of stay after abdominal hysterectomy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing a structured Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol reduces length of stay after abdominal hysterectomy
    2014 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 93, no 8, 749-756 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the effects of introducing an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol, modified for gynecological surgery, on length of stay and complications following abdominal hysterectomy.

    Design: Observational study.

    Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Orebro University Hospital, Sweden.

    Population: Eighty-five patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for benign or malignant indications between January and December 2012, with or without salpingo-oophorectomy. Outcomes were compared with all consecutive patients who had undergone the same surgery from January to December 2011, immediately before establishing the ERAS protocol (n = 120).

    Methods: The ERAS protocol was initiated in January 2012 as part of a targeted implementation program. Data were extracted from patient records and from a specific database.

    Main outcome measures: Length of stay and the proportion of patients achieving target length of stay (2 days).

    Results: Length of stay was significantly reduced in the study population after introducing the ERAS protocol from a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.1) days to a mean of 2.3 (SD 1.2) days (p = 0.011). The proportion of patients discharged at 2 days was significantly increased from 56% pre-ERAS to 73% after ERAS (p = 0.012). No differences were found in complications (5% vs. 3.5% in primary stay, 12% vs. 15% within 30 days after discharge), reoperations (2% vs. 1%) or readmission (4% vs. 4%).

    Conclusions: Introducing the ERAS protocol for abdominal hysterectomy reduced length of stay without increasing complications or readmissions.

    Keyword
    Fast track, hysterectomy, length of stay, perioperative care, perioperative period
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36157 (URN)10.1111/aogs.12423 (DOI)000339616100004 ()24828471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84904260752 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Research Committee of Örebro County Council

    Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-08-28 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Protocol in Abdominal Hysterectomies for Malignant versus Benign Disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Protocol in Abdominal Hysterectomies for Malignant versus Benign Disease
    2016 (English)In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, ISSN 0378-7346, E-ISSN 1423-002X, Vol. 81, no 5, 461-467 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol combines unimodal evidence-based interventions aiming to enhance recovery after surgery and reduce length of stay (LOS). We introduced an ERAS protocol in gynecological surgery and compared outcomes after hysterectomies performed for malignant vs. benign indications.

    Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden, among 121 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for malignant (n = 40) or benign (n = 81) indications between 2012 and 2014. Clinical data were prospectively collected and extracted from the patient records and from a specific database. The primary outcomes were LOS and proportion of patients achieving target LOS (2 days).

    Results: Patients operated for malignant vs. benign disease did not differ significantly in terms of LOS (2 (1-5) vs. 2 (1-11) days; p = 0.505), proportion discharged at target LOS (62 vs. 69%; p = 0.465; OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.3-1.6), complications (2 vs. 7% in primary stay, 8 vs. 11% within 30 days after discharge), re operations (0 vs. 2%), or readmissions (2 vs. 1%).

    Conclusion: The ERAS protocol may be equally applicable to patients undergoing hysterectomy either for a malignant or for a benign disease.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel: S. Karger, 2016
    Keyword
    ERAS, Fast-track, Hysterectomy, Length of stay, Perioperative care
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53181 (URN)10.1159/000443396 (DOI)000384034700012 ()26799328 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84955604181 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee of Örebro County Council

    Nyckelfonden, Örebro, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Metabolic and inflammatory responses and subsequent recovery in robotic versus abdominal hysterectomy: A randomised controlled study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic and inflammatory responses and subsequent recovery in robotic versus abdominal hysterectomy: A randomised controlled study
    2016 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, S0261-5614(16)31356-5Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surgery causes inflammatory and metabolic responses in the body. The aim of the study was to investigate whether robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy induces less insulin resistance than abdominal hysterectomy, and to compare inflammatory response and clinical recovery between the two techniques.

    METHODS: A randomised controlled study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. Twenty women scheduled for a planned total hysterectomy with or without salpingo-oophorectomy between October 2014 and May 2015, were randomly allocated to robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy or abdominal hysterectomy. Insulin resistance after surgery was measured by the hyperinsulinemic normoglycaemic clamp method, inflammatory response measured in blood samples, and clinical recovery outcomes registered.

    RESULTS: There were no differences in development of insulin resistance between the robotic group and the abdominal group (mean ± SD: 39% ± 22 vs. 40% ± 19; p = 0.948). The robotic group had a significantly shorter hospital stay (median 1 vs. 2 days; p = 0.005). Inflammatory reaction differed; in comparison to the robotic group, the abdominal group showed significantly higher increases in serum interleukin 6 levels, white blood cell count and cortisol from preoperative values to postoperative peak values.

    CONCLUSIONS: Robotic laparoscopic surgery reduced inflammatory responses and recovery time, but these changes were not accompanied by decreased insulin resistance.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no NCT02291406.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Hysterectomy, Inflammatory response, Insulin resistance, Robotic-assisted hysterectomy
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58062 (URN)10.1016/j.clnu.2016.12.015 (DOI)28043722 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee of Örebro County Council

    Nyckelfonden

    Stiftelsen Gynekologisk Onkologi

    Lisa och Göran Grönbergs Stiftelse

    Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Female sex hormones in relation to insulin resistance after hysterectomy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female sex hormones in relation to insulin resistance after hysterectomy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59437 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    De Majo, Veronica
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Understanding the Global Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction2017In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, no 2, 147-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters are a growing internation al con cern that has spurred the de velopme nt of politicalstrate gies and policies from international to local levels. T his paper analyzes how disasters areconstructed as a policy problem within the UN global strategy for disaster risk reducti on.Building on a social constructivist view of policy problems, we analyze how disasters anddisaster risks are being represented throug h the se global polic ies, while we also pay attention towhat this representation excludes and de-emphasizes. We show that the UN strategy is mostlyconcerned w ith adjustin g or adapting societies to hazards, and managing risks, rat her thanaddressin g the social processes that render people vulnerable to those hazards. The pre dominantconcern with technological and managerial solutions eclipses the need f or changes in the socia lstructures that create disaster risks. We argue t hat the understanding of disasters represented inthe UN strategy support s an emerging holistic paradigm. However, we also argue that the holismit represents is limited rather than radical. By making visible what is excluded or not properlyproblemat ized in this represent ation, we point to t he complexity of t he task and show where itslimitations lie.

  • Rasmussen, Joel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    University of Oslo, Department of Media and Communication, Oslo, Norway.
    Risk, crisis, and social media: A systematic review of seven years' research2017In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on social media use in risk and crisis communication is growing fast, and it is time to take stock before looking forward. A review of 200 empirical studies in the area shows how the literature is indeed increasing and focusing on particular social media platforms, users, and phases from risk to crisis relief. However, although spanning 40 countries, a large proportion of the world’s social media users are under-represented in the research. In addition, little attention is given to the question of who is actually reached through social media, and the effects of the digital divide are rarely discussed. This article suggests that more attention is given to the questions of equal access to information and ICTs, complementary media channels, and cultural diversity. 

  • Öberg, Jacob
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Rise of the Procedural Paradigm: Judicial Review of EU Legislation in Vertical Competence Disputes2017In: European Constitutional Law Review, ISSN 1574-0196, E-ISSN 1744-5515, Vol. 13, no 2, 248-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU Law-Vertical competence review of EU secondary law-Court of Justice control of the exercise of EU legislative powers-Strict procedural review of EU legislation-Standard of judicial review and intensity of judicial review-Judicial review as a safeguard of federalism-Constitutional review of EU legislation-Proportionality, subsidiarity and principle of conferral-Balance between the EU legislator's prerogatives and the need to ensure that EU legislation conforms to the precepts of EU law-Distribution of competences between Member States and the EU.

     

  • Javed, Farrukh
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Podgórski, Krzysztof
    School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Leverage Effect for Volatility with Generalized Laplace Error2014In: Economic Quality Control, ISSN 0940-5151, Vol. 29, no 2, 157-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new model that accounts for the asymmetric response of volatility to positive (`good news') and negative (`bad news') shocks in economic time series – the so-called leverage effect. In the past, asymmetric powers of errors in the conditionally heteroskedastic models have been used to capture this effect. Our model is using the gamma difference representation of the generalized Laplace distributions that efficiently models the asymmetry. It has one additional natural parameter, the shape, that is used instead of power in the asymmetric power models to capture the strength of a long-lasting effect of shocks. Some fundamental properties of the model are provided including the formula for covariances and an explicit form for the conditional distribution of `bad' and `good' news processes given the past – the property that is important for the statistical fitting of the model. Relevant features of volatility models are illustrated using S&P 500 historical data.

  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malm, Arvid
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Örebro, Sweden.
    Economics Doctoral Programs Still Elide Entrepreneurship2017In: Econ Journal Watch, ISSN 1933-527X, E-ISSN 1933-527X, Vol. 14, no 2, 196-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is entrepreneurship covered in economics doctoral programs? Updating an earlier study (Johansson 2004), we examine leading programs in the United States and Sweden by textual analysis of textbooks and assigned articles in microeconomics, macroeconomics, and industrial organization courses. We find that coverage of entrepreneurship in textbooks is scant and that theories regarding the function of the entrepreneur are hardly mentioned in assigned articles. Talk of the entrepreneur is more common in a few newer textbooks, which could indicate a renewed interest. But even textbooks that mention the entrepreneur do not define the concept or discuss the entrepreneur’s economic role in any depth; often the entrepreneur is just another optimizing agent within a model, like a borrower, manager, or investor.

  • Ahmad, Abrar
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Clinical Research.
    Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prognostic Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor +936C/T Polymorphism on Tumor Growth Pattern and Survival in Patients Diagnosed with Colon Carcinoma2016In: Journal of Tumor Research, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-6 p., 1000108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as endothelial cell-specific mitogen that plays an important role in the process of angiogenesis, thereby affecting the prognosis of tumor as angiogenesis is a crucial phase in tumor growth and metastasis. Accordingly, we carried out a case-control study to assess whether VEGF rs3025039 polymorphism affects the growth pattern and susceptibility to colon carcinoma.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with colon carcinoma and the same number of blood controls were used in the present study. VEGF +936 C>T (rs3025039) polymorphism was evaluated by pyrosequencing. Computer image analysis was used to analyse the growth pattern of the colon carcinoma tumor by using cytokeratin-8 stained slides.

    Results: A heterozygous genotype TC in rs3025039 polymorphism was found as a significantly protective genotype as compared to homozygous genotypes (CC and TT). However we found no significant correlation between investigated polymorphisms, tumor growth pattern, 5 years survival and other clinicopathological parameters.

    Conclusion: We concluded that the heterogenous genotype of VEGF rs3025039 polymorphism appears to be a protective factor for colon carcinoma that could be a useful marker in follow-up studies and may be a genetic determinant for colon carcinoma.

  • Tobe, Brian T. D.
    et al.
    Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla CA, USA; Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Administration Medical Center, La Jolla CA, USA .
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Cinical Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Snyder, Evan Y.
    Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla CA, USA; Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA, USA.
    Probing the lithium-response pathway in hiPSCs implicates the phosphoregulatory set-point for a cytoskeletal modulator in bipolar pathogenesis2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 22, E4462-E4471 p., 1700111114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD. By profiling the proteomics of BDP-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2). Active non-phosphorylated CRMP2, which binds cytoskeleton, is present throughout the neuron; inactive phosphorylated CRMP2, which dissociates from cytoskeleton, exits dendritic spines. CRMP2 elimination yields aberrant dendritogenesis with diminished spine density and lost lithium responsiveness (LiR). The "set-point" for the ratio of pCRMP2: CRMP2 is elevated uniquely in hiPSC-derived neurons from LiR BPD patients, but not with other psychiatric (including lithium-nonresponsive BPD) and neurological disorders. Lithium (and other pathway modulators) lowers pCRMP2, increasing spine area and density. Human BPD brains show similarly elevated ratios and diminished spine densities; lithium therapy normalizes the ratios and spines. Consistent with such "spine-opathies," human LiR BPD neurons with abnormal ratios evince abnormally steep slopes for calcium flux; lithium normalizes both. Behaviorally, transgenic mice that reproduce lithium's postulated site-of-action in dephosphorylating CRMP2 emulate LiR in BPD. These data suggest that the " lithium response pathway" in BPD governs CRMP2's phosphorylation, which regulates cytoskeletal organization, particularly in spines, modulating neural networks. Aberrations in the posttranslational regulation of this developmentally critical molecule may underlie LiR BPD pathogenesis. Instructively, examining the proteomic profile in hiPSCs of a functional agent-even one whose mechanism-of-action is unknown-might reveal otherwise inscrutable intracellular pathogenic pathways.

  • Djekic, Demir
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University and Heart Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nicoll, Rachel
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University and Heart Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Novo, Mehmed
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Henein, Michael
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University and Heart Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Metabolomics in atherosclerosis2015In: International Journal of Cardiology Metabolic & Endocrine, E-ISSN 2214-7624, Vol. 8, 26-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD) is a leading cause of death in the West. There are several predisposing factors for ACD, which can be divided into two groups: firstly modifiable risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle and secondly the unmodifiable risk factors such as age, gender and heredity. Since single biomarkers are unable to provide sufficient information about the biochemical pathways responsible for the disease, there is a need for a holistic approach technology, e.g. metabolomics, that provide sufficiently detailed information about the metabolic status and assay results will be able to guide food, drug and lifestyle optimisation. Rather than investigating a single pathway, metabolomics deal with the integrated identification of biological and pathological molecular pathways. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are the two most commonly used techniques for metabolite profiling. This detailed review concluded that metabolomics investigations seem to have great potential in identifying small groups of disturbed metabolites which if put together should draw various metabolic routs that lead to the common track pathophysiology. The current evidence in using metabolomics in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is also limited and morewell designed studies remain to be established, which might significantly improve the comprehension of atherosclerosis pathophysiology and consequently management.

  • Bauducco, Serena
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep undergoes important changes during adolescence and many teenagers experience problems sleeping. These in turn affect adolescents´ academic, physical and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, there are some indications that sleep problems in this age group may be increasing, possibly as a consequence of societal changes, e.g., internet availability. Research on adolescents´ sleep is growing, but more epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep, long and short-term outcomes associated with it, and potential risk and protective factors to target in preventive interventions. The aim of this dissertation was to contribute to each of these goals; Study I investigated the longitudinal association between sleep problems, defined as symptoms of insomnia, and school absenteeism; Study II explored the prevalence of poor sleep, defined as sleep deficit, in an adolescent population and psychosocial and contextual factors associated with it, including emotional and behavioral problems, stress, sleep hygiene and technology use; finally, Study III evaluated the short-term effects of a novel universal school-based intervention to improve adolescents´ sleep health.

    The findings show that poor sleep was strongly related to adolescents´ functioning, including emotional and behavioral problems and school attendance, and that sleep deficit was prevalent in adolescents. This supports the need for prevention. Moreover, sleep deficit was associated with stress, technology use and arousal at bedtime, which may represent important barriers to sleep. A preventive intervention targeting these barriers to promote adolescents´ sleep health was successful with the individuals most at risk. However, it remains to be seen whether these changes will be maintained after the intervention and whether incidence of sleep problems will be lower relative to a control group. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, 205-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

    Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

    Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

    Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

    Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

    Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Sleep, Insomnia, School absenteeism, Adolescence, Longitudinal
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46656 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2015.07.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940890895 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    2016 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, 211-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The first aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep deficit in a large sample of adolescents. Second, the study aimed to assess whether short sleep duration in the sample was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Lastly, the study aimed to investigate the association between daily stressors-bedtime activities and sleep duration.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: The questionnaires were completed during school hours in 17 municipal junior high schools in Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 2767 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, 48% girls.

    Measurements and Results: Sleep measures included total sleep time (TST) for schooldays and weekends, obtained as combined measures of self-reported bed-time, wake-time, and sleep onset latency. We used the new National Sleep Foundation's guidelines to operationalize sleep duration. Overall 12% of younger adolescents (age 12-13 years) and 18% of older adolescents (14-16 years) slept less than recommended (TST < 7 hours). Adolescents reporting nonrecommended TST also reported more behavioral (ie, norm-breaking behaviors) and emotional problems (ie, depression, anxiety, and anger), with effects in the small-medium range. Finally, adolescents reporting bedtime arousal and use of information and communication technology in bed were more likely to report TST < 7 hours. Stress at home (for younger adolescents) and stress of school performance (for older adolescents) were also associated with TST less than 7 hours.

    Conclusions: The new National Sleep Foundation's recommendations were informative in this context. Future sleep interventions need to target barriers to good sleep practices, such as use of information and communication technology, stress, and worry that may contribute to arousal at bedtime.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    National Sleep Foundation (NSF); Sleep duration recommendations; Sleep deficit; Sleep patterns; Emotional and behavioral problems; Adolescent sleep; Daily stressors; Electronic media; Information and communication technology (ICT); Sleep hygiene; Bedtime arousal
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51652 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2016.05.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84977147448 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tre Stads Studien
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agency:

    Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS)

    Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59254 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
  • Fornander, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Upper Airway Mucosal Inflammation: Proteomic Studies after Exposure to Irritants and Microbial Agents2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People are, in their daily lives, exposed to a number of airborne foreign compounds that do not normally affect the body. However, depending on the nature of these compounds, dose and duration of exposure, various airway symptoms may arise. Early symptoms are often manifested as upper airway mucosal inflammation which generates changes in protein composition in the airway lining fluid.

    This thesis aims at identifying, understanding mechanisms and characterizing protein alterations in the upper airway mucosa that can be used as potential new biomarkers for inflammation in the mucosa. The protein composition in the mucosa was studied by sampling of nasal lavage fluid that was further analyzed with a proteomic approach using twodimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Additionally, by studying factors on site through environmental examination, health questionnaires and biological analyses, we have tried to understand the background to these protein alterations and their impact on health.

    Respiratory symptoms from the upper airways are common among people who are exposed to irritative and microbial agents. This thesis have focused on personnel in swimming pool facilities exposed to trichloramine, metal industry workers exposed to metalworking fluids, employees working in damp and moldy buildings and infants diagnosed with respiratory syncytial virus infection. The common denominator in these four studies is that the subjects experience upper airway mucosal inflammation, which is manifested as cough, rhinitis, phlegm etc. In the three occupational studies, the symptoms were work related. Notably, a high prevalence of perceived mucosal symptoms was shown despite the relatively low levels of airborne irritants revealed by the environmental examination. Protein profiling verified an ongoing inflammatory response by identification of several proteins that displayed altered levels. Interestingly, innate immune proteins dominated and four protein alterations occurred in most of the studies; SPLUNC1, protein S100A8 and S100A9 and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Similarly, these proteins were also found in nasal fluid from children with virus infection and in addition a truncated form of SPLUNC1 and two other S100 proteins (S100A7-like 2 and S100A16), not previously found in nasal secretion, were identified.

    Altogether, the results indicate the potential use of a proteomic approach for identifying new biomarkers for the upper respiratory tract at an early stage in the disease process after exposure to irritant and microbial agents. The results indicate an effect on the innate immunity system and the proteins; SPLUNC1, protein S100A8 and S100A9 and alpha-1-antitrypsin are especially promising new biomarkers. Moreover, further studies of these proteins may help us to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in irritant-induced airway inflammation.

  • Rask, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Klinisk fysiologi, Umeå, Sweden.
    Aortic stenosis: diagnostic use and hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Szabo, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Molecular and clinical genetic studies of a novel variant of familial hypercalcemia2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a rare disorder that is treated surgically and mostly occurs in association with tumor-susceptibility syndromes, like multiple endocrine neoplasia and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Familial hypercalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is another cause of hereditary hypercalcemia that generally is considered to require no treatment and is genetically and pathophysiologically distinct from HPT. Inactivating mutations in the calcium receptor gene cause FHH, whereas the down-regulated expression of the CaR in HPT never has been coupled to CaR gene mutations.

    Family screening revealed a hitherto unknown familial condition with characteristics of both FHH and HPT. The hypercalcemia was mapped to a point mutation in the intracellular domain of the CaR gene that was coupled to relative calcium resistance of the PTH release by transient expression in HEK 294 cells. Unusually radical excision of parathyroid glands was required to normalise the hypercalcemia. The mildly enlarged parathyroid glands displayed hyperplasia with nodular components. Frequent allelic loss on especially 12q was found and contrasts to findings in HPT. Allelic loss was also seen in loci typical for primary HPT like 1p, 6q and 15q, but not 11q13. Quantitative mRNA analysis showed that the glands had mild increase in a proliferation index (PCNA/GAPDH mRNA ratio) and mild reduction in genes important to parathyroid cell function, like CaR, PTH, VDR and LRP2.

    A previously unrecognized variant of hypercalcemia is explored that could be one explanation for persistent hypercalcemia after apparently typical routine operations for HPT. It also raises the issue of possibilities to treat FHH with parathyroidectomy provided it is radical enough.

  • Dieleman, Joseph L.
    et al.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA .
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA .
    Future and potential spending on health 2015-40: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10083, 2005-2030 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending.

    Methods: We extracted GDP, government spending in 184 countries from 1980-2015, and health spend data from 1995-2014. We used a series of ensemble models to estimate future GDP, all-sector government spending, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending through 2040. We used frontier analyses to identify patterns exhibited by the countries that dedicate the most funding to health, and used these frontiers to estimate potential health spending for each low-income or middle-income country. All estimates are inflation and purchasing power adjusted.

    Findings: We estimated that global spending on health will increase from US$9.21 trillion in 2014 to $24.24 trillion (uncertainty interval [UI] 20.47-29.72) in 2040. We expect per capita health spending to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 5.3% (UI 4.1-6.8) per year. This growth is driven by continued growth in GDP, government spending, and government health spending. Lower-middle income countries are expected to grow at 4.2% (3.8-4.9). High-income countries are expected to grow at 2.1% (UI 1.8-2.4) and low-income countries are expected to grow at 1.8% (1.0-2.8). Despite this growth, health spending per capita in low-income countries is expected to remain low, at $154 (UI 133-181) per capita in 2030 and $195 (157-258) per capita in 2040. Increases in national health spending to reach the level of the countries who spend the most on health, relative to their level of economic development, would mean $321 (157-258) per capita was available for health in 2040 in low-income countries.

    Interpretation: Health spending is associated with economic development but past trends and relationships suggest that spending will remain variable, and low in some low-resource settings. Policy change could lead to increased health spending, although for the poorest countries external support might remain essential.

  • Dieleman, Joseph
    et al.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion.
    Murray, Christopher, J. L.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA.
    Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10083, 1981-2004 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends.

    Methods: We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development.

    Findings: Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3.0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5.9) and lower-middle-income groups (5.0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4.6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59.2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29.1% and 58.0% of spending was OOP spending and 35.7% and 3.0% of spending was development assistance. Recent growth in development assistance for health has been tepid; between 2010 and 2016, it grew annually at 1.8%, and reached US$37.6 billion in 2016. Nonetheless, there is a great deal of variation revolving around these averages. 29 countries spend at least 50% more than expected per capita, based on their level of economic development alone, whereas 11 countries spend less than 50% their expected amount.

    Interpretation: Health spending remains disparate, with low-income and lower-middle-income countries increasing spending in absolute terms the least, and relying heavily on OOP spending and development assistance. Moreover, tremendous variation shows that neither time nor economic development guarantee adequate prepaid health resources, which are vital for the pursuit of universal health coverage.

  • Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, 231-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Pavli, Antonia
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Creative Disability Classification Systems: The case of Greece, 1990-20152017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disability classification systems belong to the core of states’ social/disability policies through which persons with disabilities are classified as eligible or ineligible for having access to disability allowances. The study of disability classification systems has stimulated the interest of several scholars from the broader area of disability studies. Either by conducting comparative studies between different states and describing the similarities and differences of these systems around the world or by conducting studies focusing on the politics and semantics in the development of disability classification systems in specific states, all studies have shown a pluralism in the systems for assessing and certifying disability. In Greece, the development of disability classification systems for social welfare reasons emerged as a controversy that lasted for almost twenty years. One factor that strengthened the controversy was the outbreak of the economic crisis late in 2009 followed by the announcement by the governmental authorities of the enactment of a new system for assessing and certifying disability as part of the austeritydriven policies that the Greek state would enact for facing the consequences of the economic crisis. Drawing on an interdisciplinary approach, the overall aim of this study is to describe and analyze the enactment of disability classification systems in the context of Greek social policy from 1990 to 2015. For the collection of empirical material, a qualitative research method was employed, consisting of interviews, written material, and newspaper articles. The main findings of this thesis are: I) the involvement of the political parties in the development of the systems for certifying and assessing disability; II) the involvement of the disability movement in policymaking; III) the “creative” use of statistics by governmental authorities for the enactment of disability/social policies; IV) how the concept of “disability fraud” has been constructed as a “threat” to the society; and V) the vulnerability of disability classification systems in times of austerity.

  • Koski, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Matarma, Tanja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pedisic, Zeljko
    Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kokko, Sami
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lane, Aoife
    Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland .
    Hartmann, Herbert
    German gymnastic federation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hämäläinen, Timo
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Sports Confederation, Helsinki, Finland;.
    Nykänen, Ulla
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rakovac, Marija
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Livson, Matleena
    Finnish Olympic Committee, Helsinki, Finland.
    Savola, Jorma
    Finnish Sport for All Association, , Finland.
    Sports Club for Health (SCforH): updated guidelines for health-enhancing sports activities in a club setting2017Book (Other academic)