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  • Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Jens
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”2017In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 8, 197-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish upper secondary school and its physical education (PE) should, according to the Lgy11 (the 2011 curriculum of upper secondary school in Sweden), raise aware- ness about and challenge stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Previous research, however, has concluded that there is an upholding of traditional, hegemonic masculinity ideals through PE. The purpose of this article is to highlight how gender and power influence the outcome of a just education. Theoretical inspiration is taken from Irish Marion Young’s and Raewyn Connell’s work on gender and hegemonic masculinity, and the method involves interviews with PE teachers and observations of PE classes. Dance, ball games, competition, socializing violence, performance of heterosexual norms are identified as key points, which are discussed in terms of norms and power linked to men and masculinity ideals. The results show that the making of masculinity is constantly oc- curring in PE, both in active elements but also during “inactive” breaks. Although strong ideals linked to men and masculinity were identified, there were usually also alternative representations. In other words, the educational gender practices were not identified as unambiguous, but rather as ambiguous and contradictory. However, most respondents showed decided views on how boys and girls naturally “are” in certain ways, which con- ditions a counter-stereotypical approach to education. 

  • Nilsson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Swedish Web Version of the Quality of Recovery Scale Adapted for Use in a Mobile App: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study2017In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 5, no 12, e188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) questionnaire is well validated for measuring self-assessed postoperative recovery. The Swedish version of the 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) has been developed into a Web-based questionnaire, the Swedish Web version of the Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire, adapted for use in a mobile app, Recovery Assessment by Phone Points, or RAPP.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical acceptability and feasibility of SwQoR.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective psychometric evaluation study including 494 patients aged ≥18 years undergoing day surgery at 4 different day-surgery departments in Sweden. SwQoR was completed daily on postoperative days 1 to 14.

    Results: All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. There was excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range .91-.93), split-half reliability (coefficient range .87-.93), and stability (ri=.99, 95% CI .96-.99; P<.001). Cohen d effect size was 1.00, with a standardized response mean of 1.2 and a percentage change from baseline of 59.1%. An exploratory factor analysis found 5 components explaining 57.8% of the total variance. We noted a floor effect only on postoperative day 14; we found no ceiling effect.

    Conclusions: SwQoR is valid, has excellent reliability and high responsiveness, and is clinically feasible for the systematic follow-up of patients’ postoperative recovery.

  • Dahl, Izabela A.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The complexity of displacement: Polish Jews in Sweden after World War II2017In: Building from Ashes: Jews in Postwar Europe (1945-1950), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hällgren, Sebastian
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Some aspects on designing for metal Powder Bed Fusion2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) using the Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a relatively new manufacturing method that is capable of creating shapes that was previously practically impossible to manufacture. Many think it will revolutionize how manufacturing will be done in the future. This thesis is about some aspects of when and how to Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) when using the PBF method in metal materials. Designing complex shapes is neither easy nor always needed, so when to design for AM is a question with different answers depending on industry or product. The cost versus performance is an important metric in making that selection. How to design for AM can be divided into how to improve performance and how to improve additive manufacturability where how to improve performance once depends on product, company and customer needs. Using advanced part shaping techniques like using Lattices or Topology Optimization (TO) to lower part mass may increase customer value in addition to lowering part cost due to faster part builds and less powder and energy use. Improving PBF manufacturability is then warranted for parts that reach series production, where determining an optimal build direction is key as it affects many properties of PBF parts. Complex shapes which are designed for optimal performance are usually more sensitive to defects which might reduce the expected performance of the part. Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) might be needed to certify a part for dimensional accuracy and internal defects prior use. The licentiate thesis covers some aspects of both when to DfAM and how to DfAM of products destined for series production. It uses design by Lattices and Topology Optimization to reduce mass and looks at the effect on part cost and mass. It also shows effects on geometry translation accuracies from design to AM caused by differences in geometric definitions. Finally it shows the effect on how different NDE methods are capable of detecting defects in additively manufactured parts.

    List of papers
    1. Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 384-389 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) using Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) allows part with abstract shapes, that otherwise would need costly tooling, to be manufactured with short lead time. In this study AM build time simulations are used to predict series part cost for eight parts that are possible to cut from rod blanks using High Speed Machining (HSM). Results indicate that when the part shape can be cut from rod blanks, AM is more expensive than HSM even for series of one. If post processing machining is added to the printed AM blank part, the cost difference increases further. Finally, the model is used to predict part-cost in series production if print speed increases, if machine cost is reduced or if part mass is reduced as a result of redesign for AM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, High speed machining, cost, series production, AISI MR
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53931 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.049 (DOI)000387666600064 ()2-s2.0-84986576762 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. (Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>(Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 246-251 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D-printing has been used to create prototypes during the development phase for more than 20 years. Now, functional parts can be printed directly in specific metal powders using similar layer-by-layer techniques. The additive method is unlike traditional mass production manufacturing methods in many ways, creating new possibilities for designers to realise new and different design ideas previously impossible to manufacture. When products are mass produced, there is a desire to improve manufacturability. This is traditionally done by a designer with knowledge about certain manufacturing methods altering design choices to make it cheaper to manufacture.

    This paper shows different design for AM (DfAM) methods where performance and part cost are both of interest. It adds to existing research by classifying design for additive manufacturing in two different classes; process-driven and designer-driven shaping of parts. A cost-prediction model for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) printed parts is suggested as an initial step to choose parts for redesign from an economical perspective. A case study of a missile launcher beam redesigned for additive manufacturing using three different approaches is presented. Differences and similarities in design methods are discussed and the redesigned parts are compared for mass and cost. It is shown that redesigning for AM can reduce mass but depending on part size and print speed, the part can become more expensive than the original design, creating a need to know the customer value of what the redesigned part provides, in this case, the value of reduced mass.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, design, topology optimisation, lattices, DfAM
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53930 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.04.150 (DOI)000387666600041 ()2-s2.0-84986631521 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. 3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
    2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 518-523 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D data exchange between different CAD systems and from design to manufacturing has largely moved to ISO STEP based formats. The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process today requires an approximate, planar triangle tessellated 3D model as an input. Improving accuracy in STL file exports is done differently in different CAD systems. Poor tessellation accuracy results in built parts with poor geometric accuracy because of errors in source data. In this study, results of tessellation from six different CAD systems are compared. Roundness accuracy for the different settings is calculated. Results show that tessellation effects may be visible even when roundness requirements are fulfilled. A method for 3D data exchange for AM using STEP and geometric requirements is proposed until better accuracy AM formats can be used.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
    Keyword
    Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, STL, STEP, tessellation, accuracy, roundness
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Research subject
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53932 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.046 (DOI)000387666600087 ()2-s2.0-84986558119 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
    Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
    2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Keyword
    additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, aluminium, computed tomography, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51003 (URN)
    Conference
    World PM 2016, Powder Metallurgy World Congress, Hamburg, Germany, October 9-13, 2016
    Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • Engman, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thomtén, Johanna
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Avoiding or enduring painful sex?: A longitudinal study of coping patterns and sexual function in women with vulvovaginal pain2017In: SSTAR (Society for Sex Therapy and Research) 42nd annual meeting, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Recurring pain in the vulvar- or vaginal region induced by touch or pressure is common, affecting between 10-28% of women in reproductive age (e.g., Harlow et al., 2014). In addition to evident negative effects on sexual aspects such as frequency of sexual activity, sexual satisfaction and sexual function (for a review see Bergeron et al., 2015), vulvovaginal pain has an impact on women’s overall quality of life (Arnold et al., 2006). Despite these extensive consequences little is known about how women with vulvovaginal pain actually cope with sexual activities and the subsequent pain, and how their coping may affect the pain experience and sexual function over time. While avoidance (of pain associated activities) seem to be a commonly used strategy (for a review see Thomtén and Linton, 2013) amongst women with vulvovaginal pain, there is also evidence of endurance (of sexual activity despite pain) as a prevalent strategy (Brauer et al., 2014; Elmerstig et al., 2013).

     

    Method: The study used questionnaire data from female university students between 18 and 35 years old, with two measurement points of five months apart. Women who reported experiencing recurring vulvovaginal pain during the last six months, and who responded at both measurement points constitute the sample of the study (N=117). First, multiple regression analysis was executed to test whether avoidance and endurance coping had a predictive value of sexual function beyond the pain experience in itself. Then, cluster analyses based on the respondent’s answers to the CHAMP Sexual Pain Coping Scale (CSPCS) were performed at both time points. Finally, common pathways over time was investigated to explore whether the same coping was used at baseline and follow-up.

     

    Results: The multiple regression model exploring if pain, avoidance and endurance at baseline predicted sexual function at follow-up was significant, explaining 25% of the variance (F(2, 90) = 10.22, p < .001). Avoidance at baseline was the only significant predictor in the model, explaining unique variance of sexual function over time. The cluster analyses at baseline and follow up resulted in four distinct clusters respectively; Low scores, Avoidance, Endurance and High scores. The common pathways analyses, exploring typical pathways of change, revealed high stability within the clusters over time meaning that it was common for individuals in all clusters to use the same patterns of coping at both measurement points.

     

    Discussion: The results of the study further manifests findings from earlier research while also making an important attribution in quantifying coping strategies in relation to vulvovaginal pain. The study reveals a strong association between vulvovaginal pain and how women cope with sexual activities, the stability of the use of coping over time, as well as the connection between coping and sexual function.

     

    Utility/Limitations/Risks: Further knowledge about the relationship between coping and vulvovaginal pain will provide important theoretical and clinical implications regarding the development of the pain as well as potential clinical interventions.

     

    Behavioral learning objectives:

    After attending this poster presentation, the participants will be able to:

    1. Recognize the importance of avoidance coping in relation to sexual function

    2. Discuss the use of avoidance and endurance coping as a combined pattern

    3. Identify the stability of the use of coping patterns over time

     

    References:

    Arnold, L. D., Bachmann, G. A., Kelly, S., Rosen, R., & Rhoads, G. G. (2006). Vulvodynia: characteristics and associations with co-morbidities and quality of life. Obstetrics and gynecology, 107(3), 617.

     

    Bergeron, S., Corsini-Munt, S., Aerts, L., Rancourt, K., & Rosen, N. O. (2015). Female sexual pain disorders: a review of the literature on etiology and treatment. Current Sexual Health Reports, 7(3), 159-169.

     

    Brauer, M., Lakeman, M., Lunsen, R., & Laan, E. (2014). Predictors of task‐persistent and fear‐avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders. The journal of sexual medicine, 11(12), 3051-3063.

     

    Elmerstig, E., Wijma, B., & Swahnberg, K. (2013). Prioritizing the partner’s enjoyment: a population-based study on young Swedish women with experience of pain during vaginal intercourse. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 34(2), 82-89.

     

    Harlow, B. L., Kunitz, C. G., Nguyen, R. H., Rydell, S. A., Turner, R. M., & MacLehose, R. F. (2014). Prevalence of symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of vulvodynia: population-based estimates from 2 geographic regions. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 210(1), 40-e1.

     

    Thomtén, J., & Linton, S. J. (2013). A psychological view of sexual pain among women: applying the fear-avoidance model. Women’s Health, 9(3), 251-263.

     

  • Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flygare, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Godkänd eller icke godkänd? : En studie om hur erfarenheter av mobbning, skolk och socialt umgänge inverkar på elevers skolprestationer2017Report (Other academic)
  • Vermesan, Ovidiu
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bröring, Arne
    SIEMENS AG, Germany.
    Tragos, Elias
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Serrano, Martin
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Bacciu, Davide
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Chessa, Stefano
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Gallicchio, Claudio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Micheli, Alessio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Dragone, Mauro
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Simoens, Pieter
    Ghent University – imec, Belgium.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy.
    Bahr, Roy
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Internet of robotic things: converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms2017In: Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation: Internet of Things Intelligence Evolution / [ed] Ovidiu Vermesan,‎ Joel Bacquet, River Publishers, 2017, 97-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing newdevelopments in various application domains, such as the Internet of MobileThings (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous Systemof Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internetof Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc.that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influencerepresents new development and deployment challenges in different areassuch as seamless platform integration, context based cognitive network integration,new mobile sensor/actuator network paradigms, things identification(addressing, naming in IoT) and dynamic things discoverability and manyothers. The IoRT represents new convergence challenges and their need to be addressed, in one side the programmability and the communication ofmultiple heterogeneous mobile/autonomous/robotic things for cooperating,their coordination, configuration, exchange of information, security, safetyand protection. Developments in IoT heterogeneous parallel processing/communication and dynamic systems based on parallelism and concurrencyrequire new ideas for integrating the intelligent “devices”, collaborativerobots (COBOTS), into IoT applications. Dynamic maintainability, selfhealing,self-repair of resources, changing resource state, (re-) configurationand context based IoT systems for service implementation and integrationwith IoT network service composition are of paramount importance whennew “cognitive devices” are becoming active participants in IoT applications.This chapter aims to be an overview of the IoRT concept, technologies,architectures and applications and to provide a comprehensive coverage offuture challenges, developments and applications.

  • Potenza, Andre
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards Sliding Autonomy in Mobile Robotic Telepresence: A Position Paper2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sliding autonomy is used in teleoperation to adjusting a robot's level of local autonomy to match the user's needs. We claim that sliding autonomy can also improve mobile robotic telepresence, but we argue that existing approaches cannot be adopted to this domain without adequate modifications. We address in particular the question of how the need for autonomy, and its appropriate degree, can be inferred from measurable information.

  • Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Doctoral theses within the Swedish Institute for Disability Research 2000-2012: A review of content and interdisciplinarity2017In: International Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 2372-5060, Vol. 5, no 2, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR) was founded in 2000. The SIDR graduate programmedis a leading research programmedin disability science. The scientific method at SIDR is based on an interdisciplinary approach.The aim of this study is to describe content of doctoral theses presented within SIDR, and to analyzethe occurrence of interdisciplinarywithin the theses published between 2000 and 2012. Forty-one theses were included in the study. First, the manifest data was categorized in a matrix, and second, the latent content was analyzedwithin a scheme. The scheme included seven criteria within interdisciplinary theory, namely: Is the phenomenon multi-dimensional? Does the aim reflect an interdisciplinary approach? Are the studies non-reductionist? Have multiple methods been used? Is the knowledge integrated? Are the results discussed as a whole?Do they explicitly show an interdisciplinaryknowledge?Findings show a variety of disability groups studied within SIDR, but the main disabilities are hearing impairment or deafness, and cognitive and communication difficulties. Different theoretical perspectives are used within the theses. To different extents, an interdisciplinary approach is used as an overall meta-theory.

  • Du Rietz, Sabina
    Stockholms universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Accounting in the field of governance2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate governance phenomena have traditionally been, and are still, studied foremost as relationships between principals and agents. Studies of how accounting plays out in corporate governance settings rather share the interest in hierarchical influence than challenge it. The present thesis argues that when studying accounting in corporate governance settings we must, in addition to studying hierarchical influence, take into account the ‘field of governance’ in which accounting is situated. The hierarchical influence with which the corporate governance literature is concerned does not occur in an isolated setting, but in a field with pre-existing, concurrent and entering governance initiatives, technologies and actors. Such aspects of the field of governance necessarily influence how accounting is able to serve corporate governance ends.

    Based on two empirical cases, institutional investors and trade unions, active in a field of governance concerned with social and environmental aspects of corporate performance, this thesis consists of four studies investigating the different aspects (who, what and where) of the field of governance and the influence these aspects have on accounting in a corporate governance setting. This thesis, as a result, proposes a new way to study accounting in corporate governance settings and identifies further conditions for accounting’s constitutive ability.

  • Renoux, Jennifer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alizeraie, Marjan
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Context Recognition in Multiple Occupants Situations: Detecting the Number of Agents in a Smart Home Environment with Simple Sensors2017In: Knowledge-based techniques for problem solving and reasoning(KnowProS 2017): A workshop at AAAI 2017, February 5, 2017, San Francisco, U.S.A., Palo Alto: AAAI Press, 2017, Vol. ws17, 758-764 p., WS-17-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-recognition and activity recognition systems in multi-user environments such as smart homes, usually assume to know the number of occupants in the environment. However, being able to count the number of users in the environment is important in order to accurately recognize the activities of (groups of) agents. For smart environments without cameras, the problem of counting the number of agents is non-trivial. This is in part due to the difficulty of using a single non-vision based sensors to discriminate between one or several persons, and thus information from several sensors must be combined in order to reason about the presence of several agents. In this paper we address the problem of counting the number of agents in a topologically known environment using simple sensors that can indicate anonymous human presence. To do so, we connect an ontology to a probabilistic model (a Hidden Markov Model) in order to estimate the number of agents in each section of the environment. We evaluate our methods on a smart home setup where a number of motion and pressure sensors are distributed in various rooms of the home.

  • Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner Koler, Cheryl
    Konstfack, Industridesignprogrammet.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiologiskt forskningscentrum i Örebro, Region Örebro län, Örebro, Sweden.
    Identification of vibrotactile morse code on abdomen and wrist2017In: International Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation, ISSN 2456-1851, Vol. 1, no 4, 351-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morse code has been used as a communications system at a distance to transmit text through tone or light pulses. This comparative study aims to test and evaluate the vibrotactile identification of Morse coded signals communicating instructions for movement. The pulses were presented on abdomen and wrist among 14 males (40-85 yr) experienced in acoustic Morse code and the rate of pulses was 12 words per minute using a Vibration Motor mounted in a plastic holder. There identification results were statistically significantly better on wrist compared to abdomen. Words were identified significantly better on the wrist as compared to abdomen but the identification results of the letters were equally good in both placements. There was a negative correlation between age and the pooled identification results tested on wrist PCC r=-0.45 (p<0.02). The participants rank ordered the wrist, over the abdomen, as the best place for positioning the vibrator. The results support haptic/tactile interaction research in positioning and communication system. Our future plans are to apply the results to the project "Ready Ride" for instructions for horseback riding for people with deafblindness as well as activity and movement for elderly people with impaired vision and hearing.

  • Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    et al.
    Konstfack, Industridesignprogrammet.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Integrating Sensitizing Labs in an Educational Design Process for Haptic Interaction2016In: FORMakademisk, ISSN 1890-9515, E-ISSN 1890-9515, ISSN 1890-9515, Vol. 9, no 2, 1-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methods for educating designers are needed to adapt the attributes of haptic interaction to fit the embodied experience of the users. This paper presents educationally framed aesthetic sensitizing labs: 1) a material-lab exploring the tactile and haptic structures of materials, 2) a vibrotactile-lab exploring actuators directly on the body and 3) a combined materials- and vibrotactile-lab embedded in materials. These labs were integrated in a design course that supports a non-linear design process for embodied explorative and experimental activities that feed into an emerging gestalt. A co-design process was developed in collaboration with researchers and users who developed positioning and communications systems for people with deafblindness. Conclusion: the labs helped to discern attributes of haptic interactions which supported designing scenarios and prototypes showing novel ways to understand and shape haptic interaction.

  • Hägglund, Maria
    et al.
    Health Informatics Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Koch, Sabine
    Health Informatics Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ålander, Ture
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences (IFV), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Developing and implementing national eHealth services for patients: an interactive exploration of challenges and potential solutions2015In: Digital Healthcare Empowering Europeans: Proceedings of MIE2015 / [ed] Ronald Cornet, Lăcrămioara Stoicu-Tivadar, Alexander Hörbst, Carlos Luis Parra Calderón, Stig Kjær Andersen, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, IOS Press , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this workshop, examples and experiences from ongoing work to develop and implement eHealth services for citizens will be provided. Challenges and potential solutions based on different international contexts will be discussed in interactive sessions. The results will form a report suggesting strategies and activities that could provide potential solutions to the identified challenges.

  • Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wetterstrand, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sundhäll, Marucs
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Att få sina bedömningar granskade: Lärares syn på de nationella provens syfte att främja likvärdig bedömning2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 75-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1940 there has been different types of national tests in Sweden, each with a different aim and purpose. Since 2011, Skolverket is required to review how teachers correct these national tests, and also to publish easily accessible statistics showing possible discrepancies between the results of the students and their final grades. Based on interviews with 17 teachers in mathematics between grade 6-9, the consequences of the review of teachers assessments have been investigated. The result shows worrying effects. The increased focus on discrepancies has led to an inadequate appraisal of teachers assessment competence. However, teachers are pleased to have their corrections reviewed in a formative way.

  • Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Perspektiv på Nationella prov.2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 5-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Li, Jing
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Culturally Significant Key Component of Qigong, ‘Heart adjustment’, is Lost in Translation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qigong is a Chinese traditional ethnic sport that is practised worldwide. In the West it is often applied as an Eastern mind-body intervention. Although clinical trials have reported its positive effects, some scholars have questioned the research design and methodology. It is clear that there is a need for im-provements in the quality and comparability of studies.

    A lack of knowledge about the meditative aspect of Qigong may con-tribute to poor research quality. Therefore, the aims of this dissertation are to explore the meaning and functions of the culturally significant key component ‘Heart

    1 adjustment’ and to investigate how this basic technical component and the concept of Qigong are expressed in scientific litera-ture. Through the application of two research methods – a cross-cultural linguistic approach and a case-based comparative method – the disserta-tion shows that the meaning of ‘Heart adjustment’ relates to eight tech-niques and functions in Qigong training which affect: 1) the emotions, 2) the physical heart, 3) the mind, 4) virtue, 5) wisdom, 6) concentration, 7) desires and vision and 8) a person’s way of life and attitude. Unfortu-nately, the ‘Heart adjustment’ aspect of Qigong is excluded in the English case; where the word ‘mind’ replaces the Chinese concept of Heart. The cultural knowledge that is embedded in the abstract concept of ‘Heart adjustment’ has apparently not been understood in the West, which means that the above techniques and functions have not been specified. Conse-quently, there has been no objective basis for an evaluation of the quality of Qigong practice.

    From the sport science perspective, the dissertation concludes that the lack of a unified standard with which to assess the quality of Qigong prac-tice in the scientific field thus affects the research quality and data com-parability of Qigong studies. Therefore, the establishment of a methodol-ogy that measures the quality of the practice is absolutely vital.

    List of papers
    1. The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Languages and Culture, ISSN 2141-6540, Vol. 4, no 5, 75-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In China, the word, xin 心  (often translated as ‘heart’) is frequently used and its concept is central to Chinese culture. However, its meaning is not exactly the same as ‘heart’ in English. Using qigong as the context, this article aims to explore the meaning of xin as a cultural keyword in order to gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese culture and knowledge within that cultural system. Qigong is a Chinese health maintenance system and healing tradition which integrates physical activity with training of the mind and self-cultivation. One of qigong’s basic components is xin adjustment. It is impossible to convey the full meaning of this concept without understanding the meaning of xin. In Chinese culture, xin is the root of physical and mental life. It is the seat of all emotions, and embodies the inherent goodness of human nature and wisdom. Xin helps to guide the individual’s way of life and attitude, and can lead one to deep contentment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lagos, Nigeria: Academic Journals, 2013
    Keyword
    xin xin, Chinese heart, cultural keyword, natural semantic metalanguage (NSM), qigong, heart adjustment. INTRODUCTION
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cultural Studies Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20096 (URN)
    Note

    DOI 10.5897/JLC12.054

    Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62672 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
  • Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Arbets-och organisationspsykologi, Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Arbetsvetenskap, Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter bland läkare: Samband mellan illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress kartlagt i enkätstudie2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 48, 2216-2219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi riktat fokus på läkaryrket som profession och på sambandet mellan avgränsning av arbetsuppgifter och anspänning och utmattning.

  • Gustavsson, Maria
    et al.
    Pedagogik och sociologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Den nya akutläkaren: arbetsvillkor, hälsa och vilja att stanna på akutmottagningar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läkare i akutsjukvård är en egen basspecialitet sedan 2015. En ny specialitet och stor efterfrågan på akutläkare innebär en omställning för akutmottagningarna, sjukhusen och gängse utbildningssystem för läkare. Föreliggande studie initierades som en konsekvens av behovet av dessa behov av förändringar – vilka är förutsättningarna på landets akutmottagningar för att den nya specialiteten ska få goda arbetsförhållanden och stanna kvar på akutmottagningarna?

    I studien genomfördes inledningsvis en intervjustudie med 14 akutläkare. Därefter utvecklades en webb-baserad enkät. Totalt 15 akutmottagningar i landet valde att deltaga i studien, och 147 läkare på akutmottagningar (51%) besvarade enkäten. Forskargruppen har erbjudit samtliga medverkande akutmottagningar återkoppling av resultaten, några akutmottagningar har deltagit i dessa möten. Tanken med återkopplingarna är att ge underlag för förbättringsarbetet inom respektive akutmottagning.

    Resultaten av intervjustudien och enkätstudien visar att det finns en stor variation mellan de olika akutmottagningarna med avseende på hur arbetet organiseras, hur arbetsmiljön blir för läkarna, hur läkarna mår och i vilken grad de vill stanna kvar på akutmottagningen.

    De tre distinkta faserna inflöde, vårdprocess och utflöde utgör ramen för arbetets förutsättningar på akutmottagningar. Hur inflödet organiseras beror dels på politiska beslut, dels på triage processen inom akutmottagningen. Ofta görs arbetet i team, ett välfungerande team ger bättre förutsättningar i arbetet än team med oerfarna medlemmar. Att arbeta i team kan vara en ny erfarenhet för många läkare och övrig vårdpersonal och ställer krav på relevant utbildning för detta. Även oklarheter i rollerna inom teamet kan försvåra arbetet.

    Många akutläkare rapporterar att vårdprocessen inom akutmottagningarna organiserats så att de får många oskäliga och onödiga arbetsuppgifter: dubbeldokumentation, att jaga vårdplatser, rutiner kring intagning eller överflyttning av patienter, administrativa uppgifter, mm. Denna typ av arbetsuppgifter fördubblar risken för arbetsrelaterad anspänning och utmattning bland akutläkarna. Många akutläkare upplever också oacceptabel tidspress och överbelastning, samtidigt som de anser sig ha måttligt inflytande över verksamhetsnära frågor om hur arbetet skall organiseras. Ett gott inflytande över arbetet kan kompensera för höga krav, men i denna studie finner vi inte belägg för att graden av inflytande kompenserar för de höga kraven. Höga krav i arbetet har starka samband med en ökad risk för trötthet bland akutläkare.

    Generellt sett har läkarna en mycket positiv inställning till den nya specialiteten och de menar att patientflödet förbättras. Akutläkare uppfattas dock ha låg status jämfört med traditionella specialiteter. Följande slutsatser dras från denna studie.

    • De flesta akutläkare mår bra, men en tredjedel av akutläkarna har symptom på arbetsrelaterad anspänning, utmattning och trötthet. Dessa symptom är vanligare bland kvinnliga akutläkare. Symptomen har starka samband med arbetets organisering. Organisering av arbetet bidrar till förekomsten av onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter och hög arbetsbelastning. Akutläkarna har inte inflytande över verksamhetsnära frågor och upplever sin autonomi och sitt inflytande som reducerat på grund av organisatoriska förändringar. Ett gott arbetsklimat innebär att risken för att utveckla dessa symptom minskar. Ett gott arbetsklimat bygger dels på ett väl fungerande teamarbete, dels på ett gott ledarskap där akutläkarna uppfattar att de får stöd och återkoppling på sitt arbete.
    • Införande av nya organisations- och flödesmodeller inspirerade av lean och teamorganisering används för att effektivisera arbetet. I denna förändringsprocess går verksamheten från en vertikal organisation som bygger på profession till en horisontell organisation som bygger på teamarbete. Detta kan skapa otydliga professionsgränser mellan läkare och annan vårdpersonal. Studien pekar på att det kan finnas vissa motsättningar mellan olika yrkesgrupper på akutmottagningarna och att det kan finnas oklarheter i vem som är teamledare. Tydlighet i roll- och ansvarsfördelning är inte alltid utvecklad, vilket kan leda till meningsmotsättningar. Akutmottagningar uppfattas ofta som sjuksköterskornas arena, medan läkare, som har det medicinska ansvaret, uppfattar sig som faktiska ledare. En viktig förutsättning för ett väl fungerande teamarbete är att de olika ingående professionerna har fått träning och utbildning i teamarbete.
    • En relativt stor andel av de läkare som arbetar på akutmottagningar, eller som avser att bli specialister i akutsjukvård, är inte helt tillfreds med sina arbetsförhållanden. Ungefär hälften av läkarna har övervägt att byta arbetsgivare eller att byta klinik. Viljan att stanna kvar inom akutmottagningen har starkt samband med om läkaren får stöd och feedback från ledningen. Andra studier har visat att symptom på utmattning ökar benägenheten att byta arbete. Majoriteten av de som svarat på enkäten är ST-läkare inom akutsjukvård vilket indikerar att det är viktigt att tidigt uppmärksamma symptom på utmattning för att förebygga att yngre läkare väljer att lämna arbetet.

    Hur arbetet på akutmottagningar organiseras har betydelse för arbetsmiljön och för om processer och flöden möjliggör för läkarna att utföra sitt arbete på ett säkert och effektivt sätt. En akutmottagning måste ses som en del i vårdkedjan i ett större system, men också att akutmottagningen är ett system i sig med lokala förutsättningar som styr in- och utflödet av patienter. Interventioner för att förbättra arbetsförhållanden kan därför inte begränsas till enskilda faktorer utan bygga på hur förutsättningar för hälsopromotiva arbets- och lärmiljöer skapas i organisationer.

  • Grünloh, Christiane
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rexhepi, Hanife
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Myreteg, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Huvila, Isto
    Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Åland.
    Patient Empowerment Meets Concerns for Patients: a Study of Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records in Sweden2016In: Exploring Complexity in Health: An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach / [ed] Alexander Hoerbst, Werner O. Hackl, Nicolette de Keizer, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, Simon de Lusignan, IOS Press , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As part of a EU project, the Swedish county Uppsala launched a patient portal, Journalen in 2012 [1]. Patients can now access their Electronic Health Records (EHR) online, which is aimed to increase patient empowerment. The medical professionals reacted strongly on patients accessing the medical records. Main concerns were related to quality of care, the effect on their work environment, providing bad news through the eHealth service, and also the wellbeing of patients. While the opportunities of implementing these e-health services seem promising, the concerns of the medical professionals have to be understood and addressed, as well as the actual use of the system by patients. This presentation integrates results from two interview studies with physicians and patients related to patients accessing their medical records online [2,3].

    Method

    The presented results are synthesis of the interviews studies with 12 physicians [2] and 30 patients [3], which took place about 6–12 months after the launch of the portal. The synthesis presented in this paper focus on Technological Frames [4] of physicians and patients including the attitudes and experiences in relation to possible (1) anxiety creation, (2) increased of workload, and (3) the general value of patients reading medical records.

    Results Anxiety creation due to receiving bad news. Many physicians believe that breaking bad news to patients during a patient encounter is vital as this would give them the possibility to also explain treat- ments and answer questions. Somewhat unexpectedly, some patients preferred receiving bad news through Journalen instead of waiting for the physicians. The patients argue that waiting times causes more anxiety. The choice of not accessing is also important, as there are patients who do not want to receive bad news before a patient encounter. Workload increases. Many physicians are worried about the work- load of doctors, as reading the medical record online may result in increased number of phone calls because of anxious patients. However, many patients did not tend to take any additional contacts to ask questions. Some of the patients even believe that access to their medical records reduces the number of contacts with healthcare. Usefulness of accessing online. Many physicians are concerned that online access will have a negative impact on the patient such as increased anxiety and misconceptions as they lack understanding of medical terms. Unlike the doctors’ perspective, many patients argue that they do not have major difficulties in understanding the contents. They also argue that Journalen was central to their coping with their decease.

    Conclusion

    From this study it is clear that the Technological Frames of physicians differ from those of patients, and that they have different attitudes and experiences towards the system. The intention from the politicians was that the system would contribute to Patient Empowerment, but that framing of the technology differs from the physicians’ view, as they are concerned of the consequences. More research is needed on the framing of the technology and how that has been changed after the launch of the system.

    [1] Erlingsdottir, G., Lindholm, C. When patient empowerment encounters professional autonomy: The conflict and negotiation process of inscribing an eHealth service. Scandinavian journal of public administration 2015;19(29):27- 48.

    [2] Grünloh, C., Cajander, Å., Myreteg, G., “The Record is our Work Tool!” - Physicians’ Framing of a Patient Portal in Sweden. J Med Internet Res (submitted).

    [3] Rexhepi, H., Åhlfeldt, R.-M., Cajander, Å, & Huvila, I. (2015). Cancer Patients’ Attitudes and Experiences of Online Medical Records, 1–8. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research ISHIMR 2015.

    [4] Orlikowski, W.J., Gash, D.C. Technological Frames: Making sense of information technology in organizations. Transactions on Information Systems 1994;12(2):174–207. doi: 10.1145/196734.196745

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does infrastructure really cause growth?: the time scale dependent causality nexus between infrastructure investments and GDP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between infrastructure investments and economic activity in Sweden for the period 1800-2000. In order to overcome the problem of endogeneity, independent time scales are used to analyze the relationship. The paper also examines the dynamics between the variables by testing for causality in the Granger sense and constructing a vector autoregressive model separately for each time scale. The finding is that the causality nexus between growth and transport infrastructure investment is timescale-dependent since it reverses in a comparison of the short-run dynamics (2-4 years) and the longer-run dynamics (8-16 years). This causality reversal is unique for infrastructure investments compared to investments in other sectorsof the economy.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    The impact of stochastic properties of traffic demand on real option value in road projects2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the stochastic properties that long term aggregate traffic demand exhibits. Based on the results of the time series analysis, we examine how fractionally integrated processes affect real option valuation in road projects. We conclude that the long memory property we find in long term aggregate traffic demand using Swedish data, implying that a shock in demand has persistent positive effects on future demand, leads to higher option values in road projects compared to the values from a standard model using geometric Brownian motion.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fakhraei Roudsari, Farzad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Freight Train Delays: Evidence from Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how freight train delays are distributed with respect to size, location and time of their occurrence. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data covering all freight train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. Moreover, the link between capacity usage and expected delay is analyzed using the fact that demand fluctuates on different time scales, especially due to the economic chock in 2009. Since the distribution of delays on different scales describe reliability and vulnerability in the rail transport system, the results have potentially important policy implications for rail investment appraisal

  • Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.

  • Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Datateknik, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Sadikov, Aleksander
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Groznik, Vida
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Žabkar, Jure
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Možina, Martin
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haubenberger, Dietrich
    NINDS Intramural Research Program, Clinical Trials Unit, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD, USA.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neurology, Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Automatic spiral analysis for objective assessment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease2015In: MDS 19th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders. Volume 30, June 2015 Abstract, Volume 30, June 2015 Abstract Supplement, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 1082Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop a method for objective quantification of PD motor symptoms related to Off episodes and peak dose dyskinesias, using spiral data gathered by using a touch screen telemetry device. The aim was to objectively characterize predominant motor phenotypes (bradykinesia and dyskinesia), to help in automating the process of visual interpretation of movement anomalies in spirals as rated by movement disorder specialists.

    Background: A retrospective analysis was conducted on recordings from 65 patients with advanced idiopathic PD from nine different clinics in Sweden, recruited from January 2006 until August 2010. In addition to the patient group, 10 healthy elderly subjects were recruited. Upper limb movement data were collected using a touch screen telemetry device from home environments of the subjects. Measurements with the device were performed four times per day during week-long test periods. On each test occasion, the subjects were asked to trace pre-drawn Archimedean spirals, using the dominant hand. The pre-drawn spiral was shown on the screen of the device. The spiral test was repeated three times per test occasion and they were instructed to complete it within 10 seconds. The device had a sampling rate of 10Hz and measured both position and time-stamps (in milliseconds) of the pen tip.

    Methods: Four independent raters (FB, DH, AJ and DN) used a web interface that animated the spiral drawings and allowed them to observe different kinematic features during the drawing process and to rate task performance. Initially, a number of kinematic features were assessed including ‘impairment’, ‘speed’, ‘irregularity’ and ‘hesitation’ followed by marking the predominant motor phenotype on a 3-category scale: tremor, bradykinesia and/or choreatic dyskinesia. There were only 2 test occasions for which all the four raters either classified them as tremor or could not identify the motor phenotype. Therefore, the two main motor phenotype categories were bradykinesia and dyskinesia. ‘Impairment’ was rated on a scale from 0 (no impairment) to 10 (extremely severe) whereas ‘speed’, ‘irregularity’ and ‘hesitation’ were rated on a scale from 0 (normal) to 4 (extremely severe). The proposed data-driven method consisted of the following steps. Initially, 28 spatiotemporal features were extracted from the time series signals before being presented to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier. The features were based on different kinematic quantities of spirals including radius, angle, speed and velocity with the aim of measuring the severity of involuntary symptoms and discriminate between PD-specific (bradykinesia) and/or treatment-induced symptoms (dyskinesia). A Principal Component Analysis was applied on the features to reduce their dimensions where 4 relevant principal components (PCs) were retained and used as inputs to the MLP classifier. Finally, the MLP classifier mapped these components to the corresponding visually assessed motor phenotype scores for automating the process of scoring the bradykinesia and dyskinesia in PD patients whilst they draw spirals using the touch screen device. For motor phenotype (bradykinesia vs. dyskinesia) classification, the stratified 10-fold cross validation technique was employed.

    Results: There were good agreements between the four raters when rating the individual kinematic features with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88 for ‘impairment’, 0.74 for ‘speed’, 0.70 for ‘irregularity’, and moderate agreements when rating ‘hesitation’ with an ICC of 0.49. When assessing the two main motor phenotype categories (bradykinesia or dyskinesia) in animated spirals the agreements between the four raters ranged from fair to moderate. There were good correlations between mean ratings of the four raters on individual kinematic features and computed scores. The MLP classifier classified the motor phenotype that is bradykinesia or dyskinesia with an accuracy of 85% in relation to visual classifications of the four movement disorder specialists. The test-retest reliability of the four PCs across the three spiral test trials was good with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of 0.80, 0.82, 0.54 and 0.49, respectively. These results indicate that the computed scores are stable and consistent over time. Significant differences were found between the two groups (patients and healthy elderly subjects) in all the PCs, except for the PC3.

    Conclusions: The proposed method automatically assessed the severity of unwanted symptoms and could reasonably well discriminate between PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms, in relation to visual assessments of movement disorder specialists. The objective assessments could provide a time-effect summary score that could be useful for improving decision-making during symptom evaluation of individualized treatment when the goal is to maximize functional On time for patients while minimizing their Off episodes and troublesome dyskinesias.

  • Kroon, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Angus, Daniel
    University of Queensland, St Lucia Qld, Australia.
    Microphone pokes as prank or political action: Challenges to politicians' visibility in the age of web TV2017In: Journal of Language and Politics, ISSN 1569-2159, E-ISSN 1569-9862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of political talk is changing in response to ongoing changes in the overall media ecology. The rise of web TV challenges the previously dominant mediated politics of traditional broadcasting. In this paper we examine the practices of the mediatization of politics in the web TV environment via a humorous encounter between a self-declared “prankster” posing as a web TV broadcaster, and several Swedish politicians. The discussion reflects on various data emanating from this encounter to reveal how Web TV challenges traditional broadcasting norms, and offers fresh challenges for politicians who are continuously adapting to new media logics for exposure.

  • Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG, Switzerland, Business Innovation, Environmental Social Science Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    What service transition?: Rethinking established assumptions about manufacturers’ service-led growth strategies2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 45, 59-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both academics and practitioners emphasize the importance for product firms of implementing service-led growth strategies. The service transition concept is well established, namely a unidirectional repositioning along a product-service continuum—from basic, product-oriented services towards more customized, process-oriented ones—ultimately leading to the provision of solutions. We challenge this service transition assumption and develop alternative ones regarding how product firms should pursue service-led growth. Using ‘problematization methodology’, and drawing on findings from thirteen system suppliers, we identify three service-led growth trajectories: (1) becoming an availability provider, which is the focus of most transition literature; (2) becoming a performance provider, which resembles project-based sales and implies an even greater differentiation of what customers are offered; and, (3) becoming an ‘industrializer’, which is about standardizing previously customized solutions to promote repeatability and scalability. Based on our critical inquiry, we develop two alternative assumptions: (a) firms need to constantly balance business expansion and standardization activities; and (b) manage the co-existence of different system supplier roles. Finally, we consider the implications for implementing service-led growth strategies of the alternative assumptions.

  • Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Klein Strandberg, Ester
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lorenz, Caroline
    Private person.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Internet delivered transdiagnostic treatment with telephone support for painpatients with emotional comorbidity: a replicated single case study2017In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 10, 54-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pain patients, comorbid emotional problems have been linked to negative outcomes, including suboptimaltreatment gains. Developing parsimonious and accessible treatment options is therefore important. The overarchingaim of this study was to test an internet delivered therapist guided transdiagnostic treatment withtelephone support. An adapted version of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatments of EmotionalDisorders was used as an intervention for pain patients with residual pain problems and comorbid emotionalproblems after having received a multimodal pain rehabilitation. The study used a replicated AB single caseexperimental design (N =5; 3 females). Outcome measures were depressive and general anxiety symptoms, painintensity, pain coping problems, and diagnostic status. Feasibility measures (completion and compliance) andpatient satisfaction were also assessed. Scores on Nonoverlap of All Pairs (NAP) indicate a decrease of anxiety forthree participants and a decrease of depression for four participants. Decreases were small and did not alwaysreach statistical significance. Also, Tau-U scores could only confirm a reliable trend for one participant. Two outof four patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders before treatment did no longer fulfill diagnosticcriteria posttreatment. No improvements could be seen on pain problems. The treatment was feasible and patientsatisfaction was high. Hence, while an internet delivered transdiagnostic treatment with telephone support maybe a feasible and accepted secondary intervention for pain patients with comorbid emotional problems, theeffects are unclear. The gap between high patient satisfaction and small changes in symptomatology should beexplored further.

  • Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Liu, Xing
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lunander, Anders
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Mandell, Svante
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Mellin, Anna
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Vierth, Inge
    Transportekonomi, TEK, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sverige .
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. They address these questions from several different angles. For example, they discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, there is a discussion on how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road.

  • Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Institutionen för Nationalekonomi, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Does Gibrat’s Law hold for Swedish energy firms?2015In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 49, no 2, 659-674 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibrat's law predicts that firm growth is purely random and should be independent of firm size. We use a random effects-random coefficient model to test whether Gibrat's law holds on average in the studied sample as well as at the individual firm level in the Swedish energy market. No study has yet investigated whether Gibrat's law holds for individual firms, previous studies having instead estimated whether the law holds on average in the samples studied. The present results support the claim that Gibrat's law is more likely to be rejected ex ante when an entire firm population is considered, but more likely to be confirmed ex post after market selection has "cleaned" the original population of firms or when the analysis treats more disaggregated data. From a theoretical perspective, the results are consistent with models based on passive and active learning, indicating a steady state in the firm expansion process and that Gibrat's law is violated in the short term but holds in the long term once firms have reached a steady state. These results indicate that approximately 70 % of firms in the Swedish energy sector are in steady state, with only random fluctuations in size around that level over the 15 studied years.

  • Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carrington, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johed, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Professionalism och kommersialism bland revisorer2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Laitila, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lundgren, Marie
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Sweden.
    Olsson, Michael
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Sweden.
    Commuting and the Economic Milieu: An Investigation of the Choice to Commute Related to Labor Demand, Worker Competition and Wage2015In: Regional Development in an International Context: Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, 369-380 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate aggregate economic-milieu variables and use them as explanatory variables to study the Swedish commuting pattern. The variables are of accessibility type (i.e. spatially discounted) and are logarithmic ratios. We start from the assumption of utility maximizing individuals. The probability to commute using a link increases with expected utility. We apply two models: the quantity model and the wage model. The explanatory power is high and the results are as expected. Labor demand is positively related to utility. Worker competition is negatively related to utility. Wage is positively related to utility. A municipality, which isnot a regional center, can strive to increase the number of jobs within the municipality. The second best, for such a municipality, is that jobs are available in the municipality that is the regional center. Otherwise, the municipality and region will economically decline.

  • Anyadike-Danes, Michael
    et al.
    Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Nationalekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gottschalk, Sandra
    ZEW, Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany.
    Hölzl, Werner
    WIFO, Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, Austria.
    Johansson, Dan
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Maliranta, Mika
    , ETLA - Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Research projects, Helsinki, Finland; University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myrann, Anja
    Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, v, Norway.
    Accounting for Job Growth: Disentangling Size and Age Effects in an International Cohort Comparison2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of different-sized businesses to job creation continues to attract policymakers’ attention, however, it has recently been recognized that conclusions about size were confounded with the effect of age. We probe the role of size, controlling for age, by comparing the cohorts of firms born in 1998 over their first decade of life, using variation across half a dozen northern European countries Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK to pin down the effects. We find that a very small proportion of the smallest firms play a crucial role in accounting for cross-country differences in job growth.

  • Jarl, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Tranberg, Roy
    Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An innovative sealed shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers - a feasibility study2017In: Diabetic Foot & Ankle, ISSN 2000-625X, Vol. 8, no 1, 1348178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-removable knee-high devices are the gold standard to treat diabetic foot ulcers located on the plantar forefoot, but they immobilize the ankle, which restricts daily life activities and has negative effects on joint functioning. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of sealing a therapeutic shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers. Design: A case series of seven men with type 2 diabetes and a metatarsal head ulcer were prescribed therapeutic shoes and custom-made insoles. The shoe was sealed with a plastic band. Off-loading was assessed with the F-scan pressure measurement system. Adherence to wearing the shoe was assessed with a temperature sensor and by documenting the status of the seal. Results: The off-loading was effective and all ulcers healed. Median time to healing was 56 days (range 8-160). Complications were secondary ulcer (n = 1) and plantar hematoma (n = 1). Five of seven participants did not disturb the seal. Conclusions: Sealing a therapeutic shoe is a feasible way to off-load and heal forefoot ulcers. A controlled trial is needed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a sealed shoe to other non-removable devices.

  • Arensmeier, Cecilia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lennqvist Lindén, Ann-Sofie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bemyndigande eller granskning: nationella prov som styrinstrument2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 26, no 2, 49-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authorizing or auditing – national tests as a governing tool

    NPM, particularly in the form of output evaluations, have had a large impact on Swedish educational reforms over the past decades. This article focuses on the governing of schools and the professional status of teachers by examining how teachers have experienced the new national tests, introduced in compulsory schools in 2014 in social study subjects. Two ideal types of governing, authorizing and auditing, provide the theoretical framework. The empirical material consists of focus group interviews. The results expose a tension in teacher experience. On the one hand, the teachers feel validated by the tests; on the other, they oppose the questioning of their profession that the tests imply. Trust is a key factor at play. The current way Swedish schools are governed signals a distrust in teachers. At the same time, the teachers display a significant level of trust in the state, combined with a limited professional confidence. This reinforces the status of teaching as a semi-profession. 

  • Yang, Haomin
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brand, Judith S
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Jingmei
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ugalde-Morales, Emilio
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hall, Per
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Czene, Kamila
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk and predictors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer: a Swedish population-based cohort study.2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, no 1, 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The risk of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer is largely unknown, as available evidence is limited to case findings. We systematically examined the incidence and risk factors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer.

    METHODS: A Swedish nationwide cohort of 56,235 breast cancer patients (2001-2012) was compared to 280,854 matched reference individuals from the general population to estimate the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset psoriasis. We also calculated HRs for psoriasis according to treatment, genetic, and lifestyle factors in a regional cohort of 8987 patients.

    RESULTS: In the nationwide cohort, 599 patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with psoriasis during a median follow-up of 5.1 years compared to 2795 cases in the matched reference individuals. This corresponded to an incidence rate of 1.9/1000 person-years in breast cancer patients vs. 1.7/1000 person-years in matched reference individuals. Breast cancer patients were at an increased risk of psoriasis (HR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.28), especially its most common subtype (psoriasis vulgaris; HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.17-1.52). The risk of psoriasis vulgaris was highest shortly after diagnosis but remained increased up to 12 years. Treatment-specific analyses indicated a higher risk of psoriasis in patients treated with radiotherapy (HR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.44-4.12) and mastectomy (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03-2.31). Apart from treatment-specific effects, we identified genetic predisposition, obesity, and smoking as independent risk factors for psoriasis in breast cancer patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psoriasis is slightly elevated among patients with breast cancer, with treatment, lifestyle, and genetic factors defining the individual risk profile.

  • Malmberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Interaktiva och kognitiva system, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Högskolan för design och konsthantverk, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Design in Public Sector: Exploring Antecedents of Sustained Design Capability2016In: The 20th dmi: Academic Design Management Conference proceedings, Boston: Design Management Institute , 2016, 1287-1307 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Experio Lab, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moritz, Stefan
    Veryday, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Empowering transformation through design inquiry in public healthcare2015In: Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Design4Health 2015, Sheffield,13 -16 July 2015, Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In health and care service processes the coordination between different caregivers is one of the crucial challenges. This paper presents The patient journey project  as a practical application of a pragmatist pattern of inquiry (Dewey, 1938) and as fruitful way to work with/achieve transformative design. Situations of lived experience and moments of reflections perform as a carrier of knowledge and development. The paper argues that the design tools and mindset used in this project are of great importance in the ongoing transformation towards the patients focus in a Swedish public health care organization. 

  • Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Längkvist, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An Ontology-Based Reasoning Framework for Querying Satellite Images for Disaster Monitoring2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 11, 2545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying. To illustrate the utility of SemCityMap in a disaster scenario, we use an urban environment—central Stockholm—in combination with a flood simulation. We show that the system provides useful answers to high-level queries also with respect to the current flood status. Examples of such queries concern path planning for vehicles or retrieval of safe regions such as “find all regions close to schools and far from the flooded area”. The particular advantage of our approach lies in the fact that ontological information and reasoning is explicitly integrated so that queries can be formulated in a natural way using concepts on appropriate level of abstraction, including additional constraints.

  • Public defence: 2018-01-19 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Örebro
    Fengsrud, Espen
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Atrial fibrillation: endoscopic ablation and postoperative studies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure and cardiovascular death. Initial treatment focuses on rhythm or rate control and anticoagulation after risk assessment. Catheter abla-tion (CA) is an option in highly symptomatic patients but is less effective in long-standing persistent AF(LSPAF). Total endoscopic ablation is an alternative, but its clinical role needs further evaluation. In patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery, up to 9 % present with preoperative AF. One-third experience postoperative AF, which is associated with increased hospital stay, risk of stroke and decreased long-term survival. The long-term effects on heart rhythm have not been studied.

    Methods and Results: 571 patients undergoing CABG from 1999 to 2000 were followed for six years. Postoperative AF was the strongest independent risk factor for late AF and an age-independent risk factor for late mortality. 615 pa-tients from the same cohort, including patients with preoperative AF, were fol-lowed up at 15 years. Death due to cerebral ischaemia, heart failure and sudden death were most common in the pre- and postoperative AF groups. The presence of pre- or postoperative AF was an independent risk factor for late mortality.

    In our first ten patients, total endoscopic ablation of AF using a right-sided unilateral approach was feasible and safe with acceptable results. 36 patients with symptomatic LSPAF were then randomized to total endoscopic ablation or rate control. Loop recorders were implanted in all patients. In the control group, all patients were in permanent AF for 12 months. In the ablation group, 12/15 patients (80%) were in SR without antiarrhythmic drugs at 12 months. Median freedom of AF at 3–12 months was 95%, and 8/15 (53%) had an AF burden of < 5%. Myocardial function, physical working capacity(PWC) and subjective physical and mental health improved.

    Conclusions: Postoperative AF patients have an eightfold increased risk of future AF and a doubled long-term cardiovascular mortality. Both pre- or post-operative AF in CABG patients is a major risk factor for late cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Total endoscopic ablation of AF is feasible and safe. In patients with LSPAF, it significantly reduced AF burden at 12 months compared with controls. Myocardial function, PWC and subjective physical and mental health improved.

    List of papers
    1. Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery carries an eightfold risk of future atrial fibrillation and a doubled cardiovascular mortality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery carries an eightfold risk of future atrial fibrillation and a doubled cardiovascular mortality
    2010 (English)In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1010-7940, E-ISSN 1873-734X, Vol. 37, no 6, 1353-1359 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) and its long-term effects on mortality and heart rhythm.

    METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 571 patients with no history of AF who underwent primary aortocoronary bypass surgery from 1999 to 2000. Postoperative AF occurred in 165/571 patients (28.9%). After a median follow-up of 6 years, questionnaires were obtained from 91.6% of surviving patients and an electrocardiogram (ECG) from 88.6% of all patients. Data from hospitalisations due to arrhythmia or stroke during follow-up were analysed. The causes of death were obtained for deceased patients.

    RESULTS: In postoperative AF patients, 25.4% had atrial fibrillation at follow-up compared with 3.6% of patients with no AF at surgery (p<0.001). An episode of postoperative AF was the strongest independent risk factor for development of late AF, with an adjusted risk ratio of 8.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.20-16.43). Mortality was 29.7% (49 deaths/165 patients) in the AF group and 14.8% (60 deaths/406 patients) in the non-AF group (p<0.001). Death due to cerebral ischaemia was more common in the postoperative AF group (4.2% vs 0.2%, p<0.001), as was death due to myocardial infarction (6.7% vs 3.0%, p=0.041). Postoperative AF was an age-independent risk factor for late mortality, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.34).

    CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative AF patients have an eightfold increased risk of developing AF in the future, and a doubled long-term cardiovascular mortality.

    Keyword
    Atrial fibrillation; Bypass; Surgery; Follow-up studies; Survival
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Research subject
    Cardiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35559 (URN)10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.12.033 (DOI)000279086500020 ()20138531 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77952584268 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-06-27 Created: 2014-06-27 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Pre- and postoperative atrial fibrillation in CABG patients have similar prognostic impact
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre- and postoperative atrial fibrillation in CABG patients have similar prognostic impact
    2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 51, no 1, 21-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study pre- and postoperative atrial fibrillation and its long-term effects in a cohort of aortocoronary bypass surgery patients.

    Design: Altogether 615 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass graft surgery in 1999-2000 were studied. Forty-four (7%) had preoperative atrial fibrillation. Postoperative atrial fibrillation occurred in 165/615 patients (27%) while 406/615 patients (66%) had no atrial fibrillation. After a median follow-up of 15 years, symptoms and medication in survivors were recorded, and cause of death in the deceased was obtained.

    Results: Death due to cerebral ischaemia was most common in the pre- and postoperative atrial fibrillation groups (7% and 5%, respectively, v. 2% among those without atrial fibrillation, p = 0.038), as were death due to heart failure (18% and 14%, v. 7%, p = 0.007) and sudden death (9% and 5%, v. 2%, p = 0.029). The presence of pre- or postoperative atrial fibrillation was an independent risk factor for late mortality (hazard ratios 1.47 (1.02-2.12) and 1.28 (1.01-1.63), respectively).

    Conclusions: Patients with pre- or postoperative atrial fibrillation undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery have increased long-term mortality and risk of cerebral ischemic and cardiovascular death compared with patients in sinus rhythm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keyword
    Atrial fibrillation, bypass surgery, cerebral ischaemia, anticoagulation, survival
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52180 (URN)10.1080/14017431.2016.1234065 (DOI)000392468400004 ()27615545 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988640946 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Research Committee, Orebro University Hospital  136/04

    Available from: 2016-09-21 Created: 2016-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Total endoscopic ablation of atrial fibrillation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Total endoscopic ablation of atrial fibrillation
    2015 (English)In: Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS / European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1813-9175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Total endoscopic ablation of atrial fibrillation is a treatment option in symptomatic patients after unsuccessful catheter ablation or when catheter ablation is considered inappropriate. We describe a technique of endoscopic ablation of the left atrium using temperature-controlled unipolar or bipolar radiofrequency. A left atrial box lesion encircling the pulmonary veins is created using three ports in the right hemithorax. The technical aspects and preliminary results of the procedure are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2015
    Keyword
    Ablation; Atrial fibrillation; Endoscopy; Radiofrequency energy
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Surgery esp. Thoracic and Cardivascular Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50201 (URN)10.1093/mmcts/mmv010 (DOI)26079408 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84944929578 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-07-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Total endoscopic ablation of patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Total endoscopic ablation of patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled study
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    2016 (English)In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 23, no 2, 292-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Total endoscopic ablation of atrial fibrillation is an alternative to catheter ablation, but its clinical role needs further evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare total endoscopic ablation with rate control in patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation and to examine the effect of endoscopic ablation on heart rhythm, symptoms, physical working capacity and myocardial function during 1 year of follow-up.

    Methods: In a prospective controlled study, 36 patients aged >50 years with symptomatic long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation were randomized to either total endoscopic ablation (n = 17, after two drop-outs before ablation n = 15) or rate control therapy (n = 19). In the ablation group, a box lesion encircling the pulmonary veins was performed, using temperature-controlled radiofrequency energy. Loop recorders were implanted in all patients. Echocardiography and quality-of-life assessment were performed at 6 and 12 months, and physical working capacity assessment at 6 months.

    Results: There was no mortality or thromboembolic event. In the control group, all patients were in permanent atrial fibrillation during 12 months of follow-up. In the ablation group, the proportion of patients in sinus rhythm without antiarrhythmic drugs was 12/15 (80%) at 12 months. The median freedom of atrial fibrillation at 3-12 months was 95% in the ablation group and the proportion of patients with an atrial fibrillation burden of <5% at 3-12 months was 8/15 (53%). The left ventricular ejection fraction increased during follow-up in the ablation group compared with the control group (from 53.7 ± 8.6 to 58.8 ± 6.5%, P = 0.003), combined with a reduction in the left atrial area (from 29.2 ± 5.5 to 27.2 ± 6.3 cm(2), P = 0.002). The physical working capacity increased in the ablation group compared with the control group (from 94 ± 21.4 to 102.9 ± 14.4%, P = 0.011). The subjective physical and mental capacity scale also improved during follow-up in the ablation group, but not in the control group (P =0.003 and 0.018, respectively).

    Conclusions: Total endoscopic ablation in patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation significantly reduced atrial fibrillation burden 12 months after intervention compared with controls. The left ventricular function, physical working capacity and subjective physical and mental health were improved. These results need to be confirmed in larger randomized trials.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2016
    Keyword
    Atrial fibrillation, ablation, endoscopy, randomized trial, implantable loop recorder
    National Category
    Surgery Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Research subject
    Surgery esp. Thoracic and Cardivascular Surgery; Cardiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50200 (URN)10.1093/icvts/ivw088 (DOI)000383248800021 ()27068249 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84981165123 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Research Committee of Örebro University Hospital

    Available from: 2016-07-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • de Boise, Sam
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Gender Inequalities and Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden2017In: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 0, no 0, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education,especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher musiceducation (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK andSweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the numbers of menand women who applied to HME subjects, compared to those who were offered a place ontheir chosen program or course, in both nations. Through this it demonstrates that whilst aSwedish HME appears to show less institutional discrimination against women, there arestill similar transnational divisions in men’s and women’s HME subject choices. Howeverthe article uses these data to build on existing critiques around a need for intersectionalunderstandings of gender inequalities, before arguing that a critique of neoliberalism isessential to tackling gender inequalities in HME.

  • Arneback, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University, Sweden,.
    Doing interdisciplinary in teacher education: Resources for learning through writing in two educational programmes2017In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    In search for an innovation theory2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations are usually conceived as new technical products aimed for commercial markets. However, the interest for innovations in the public sector is increasing and accompanying this interest follows a need for deeper knowledge about public sector innovation. A co-learning program among public sector organisations has been carried out in order to enhance innovation knowledge among public administrators. One of the main ideas of this learning program is that members from one organisation study innovation work in another organisation and then share their learnings to all participants of the learning program. In order to conduct such an inquiry the participants have used different innovation concepts structured in an innovation model. This supportive knowledge has been framed as a practical theory (following pragmatist epistemology) in this paper. The paper presents how this practical theory on public sector innovation has been continually improved during the learning program. The practical theory consists of three parts: An innovation concept, a description of the innovation process and the innovation context (internal and external preconditions). The development of the practical theory has been done following principles of multi-grounding (theoretical grounding, empirical grounding and internal grounding).

  • Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Institutionen för datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Innovationslabbet för eHälsa, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Kliniska Beslutsstöd: En konceptualisering med IT-goverance implikationer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en konceptualisering av begreppet kliniska beslutsstöd. Fem centrala frågor diskuteras och besvaras; vilket är ursprunget för kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kliniska beslutsstöd?, var existerar kliniska beslutsstöd?, vilken funktion/syfte har kliniska beslutsstöd?, vad är kontexten för kliniska beslutsstöd?, hur pratar vi om kliniska beslutsstöd?. Resultatet används som avstam för vidare forskning kring IT-governance för kliniska beslutsstöd. 

  • Magnusson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kucner, Tomasz Piotr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    IS lab, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Semi-Supervised 3D Place Categorisation by Descriptor Clustering2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2017, 620-625 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Place categorisation; i. e., learning to group perception data into categories based on appearance; typically uses supervised learning and either visual or 2D range data.

    This paper shows place categorisation from 3D data without any training phase. We show that, by leveraging the NDT histogram descriptor to compactly encode 3D point cloud appearance, in combination with standard clustering techniques, it is possible to classify public indoor data sets with accuracy comparable to, and sometimes better than, previous supervised training methods. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to outdoor data, with an added benefit of being able to hierarchically categorise places into sub-categories based on a user-selected threshold.

    This technique relieves users of providing relevant training data, and only requires them to adjust the sensitivity to the number of place categories, and provide a semantic label to each category after the process is completed.

  • Hadfield, James
    et al.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Simon R
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Seth-Smith, Helena M B
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Applied Microbiology Research, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Parmar, Surendra
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Andersson, Patiyan
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia.
    Giffard, Philip M.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia; School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Schachter, Julius
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Moncada, Jeanne
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Ellison, Louise
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Radebe, Frans
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mendoza, Suyapa
    Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, FM1100, Honduras, Honduras.
    Ouburg, Sander
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Morré, Servaas A
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Institute of Public Health Genomics, School for Oncology & Developmental Biology (GROW), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Sachse, Konrad
    Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Jena, Germany.
    Puolakkainen, Mirja
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korhonen, Suvi J
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sonnex, Chris
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Wiggins, Rebecca
    Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Jalal, Hamid
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Brunelli, Tamara
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Casprini, Patrizia
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Pitt, Rachel
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Ison, Cathy
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Savicheva, Alevtina
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Shipitsyna, Elena
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia; WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hadad, Ronza
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kari, Laszlo
    Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA.
    Burton, Matthew J
    Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Mabey, David
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Solomon, Anthony W
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Lewis, David
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa;Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Marsh, Peter
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Clarke, Ian N
    Molecular Microbiology Group, University Medical School, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Parkhill, Julian
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Thomson, Nicholas R.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Comprehensive global genome dynamics of Chlamydia trachomatis show ancient diversification followed by contemporary mixing and recent lineage expansion2017In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 27, no 7, 1220-1229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the world's most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and leading infectious cause of blindness, yet it is one of the least understood human pathogens, in part due to the difficulties of in vitro culturing and the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation. Genome sequencing has reinvigorated this field, shedding light on the contemporary history of this pathogen. Here, we analyze 563 full genomes, 455 of which are novel, to show that the history of the species comprises two phases, and conclude that the currently circulating lineages are the result of evolution in different genomic ecotypes. Temporal analysis indicates these lineages have recently expanded in the space of thousands of years, rather than the millions of years as previously thought, a finding that dramatically changes our understanding of this pathogen's history. Finally, at a time when almost every pathogen is becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we show that there is no evidence of circulating genomic resistance in C. trachomatis.

  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Projektledning i korta projekt: Observationer av projektledares arbete i multiprojektmiljö2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As most of the project management models were developed for larger projects, there is a lack of understanding of what project managers in short duration projects do. Short-duration projects are projects in multi-project environments lasting for a number of weeks rather than a number of months. Even if they are common today, short-duration projects have not yet attracted the interest of project researchers. The present study aims to analyze what the project managers in short duration projects do and to develop a method for studying the project managers at work.

    A theoretical framework is built on earlier studies of managers’ work, suggesting three areas having impact on the project manager’s work. The impacting areas are the project, the project manager’s experience, and the organizational context of the project. The project manager and the assisting project manager were studied while managing a sub-project in a greater telecom system project. The project managers were studied one week each using participant observation and interviews. The findings indicate that much of the time at work was spent in meetings of different kinds, to deal with change, and to guard the production teams from being disturbed by changes in the environment. It was also found that studying a multi-project environment from the sub-project’s perspective gives a different view on multi-project environments that have earlier been presented as the project managers in the short-duration project constantly have to adjust to changes, inputs and demands from the surrounding projects and functional organizations. In the end some proposals on directions for further studies of managers of short-duration projects are made. 

  • Kremel, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Heterogeneity in the level and handling of the Liability of Newness: Female and immigrant entrepreneurs’ need for and use of business advisory service2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the start-up entrepreneurs face the Liability of Newness when problems and challenges often threaten business survival. Business advisory service, provided by public and private supplier contacts, can offer important knowledge and information, accompanied by various forms of assistance, and thereby decrease the entrepreneurs’ risk of failure and reduce their Liability of Newness. However, it is difficult to match the entrepreneurs’ need for such advice with the available advice. The support must meet the need. Most nations in the European Union have programs and projects that provide such support for entrepreneurs and SMEs. Special programs often support female entrepreneurs and/or immigrant entrepreneurs.

    This thesis examines the level and handling of the Liability of Newness with special focus on female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden. The four papers of this thesis take the perspective of these entrepreneurs. The research is based on a sample of 2 832 entrepreneurs who were interviewed (in a telephone survey) on their impressions and recollections on their need for and use of business advisory service in the start-up processes of their companies. Fulfilment of need is achieved when the need for business advisory service is matched with the right use of business advisory service.

    Heterogeneities as far as the level and handling of the Liability of Newness exist related to female entrepreneurs (vs. male entrepreneurs) and immigrant entrepreneurs (vs. non-immigrant entrepreneurs). Female entrepreneurs have a higher need for business advisory service than male entrepreneurs and also use more business advisory service than male entrepreneurs. As a result, female entrepreneurs can decrease the hazard rate for their companies and also reduce the Liability of Newness as their companies move toward the standard risk in their industry. Immigrant entrepreneurs also have a higher need for business advisory service than non-immigrant entrepreneurs. However, because immigrant entrepreneurs use business advisory service to the same extent that non-immigrant entrepreneurs do, immigrant entrepreneurs are unable to decrease the hazard rate for their companies or to reduce the Liability of Newness.The thesis makes both theoretical, methodological and practical contributions.

    The thesis may be of interest to government policy makers with its attention to the need and use of business advisory service by female entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs.

  • Ledin, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Annan-orientering i masskommunicerande brevtexter: en tentativ modell2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to operationalise the concept of other-orientation. Based on an explorative approach, a tentative model for analysing the marks of other-orientation is developed. The model consists of four grammatical and pragmatic categories in language: deixis, speech acts, modality, and evaluative words. The process of finding out the significant marks in each category and develop a model has been an interplay between a thorough linguistic coding, an interpretative, evaluating reading, and abductive reasoning in a step-by-step process.

    Theoretically the study is based on dialogism. From this perspective, the very fact that human nature is social indicates that other-orientation is a constituent component in every communicative act. For that reason, the challenge has not been to prove that other-orientation exists in texts, but to explore how a text is made interactive, contextual, dynamic and other-oriented by means of grammatical and pragmatic selectives such as words, phrases, and clauses.

    The data consists of eight personally addressed mass communication letters about everyday matters. Each text has its model reader in a readers’ collective. Consequently the language in the texts is construed to form a dialogue between an in-text writer and reader that share the same context, although the distance between the real writer and reader is crucial.

    One result of the study is the model as such, another the analyses in which the functions of other-orientation related to the four categories are presented. Moreover, the linguistic analyses show differences between texts and readers’ collectives. Texts aimed at large anonymous collectives generally feature a direct address singular you, a high rate of positive evaluative words, more responsive speech acts, and some more potential modality. In texts aimed at a small familiar collective, there is an "I" or a "we" addressing a collective "you". There are not as many evaluative words but more assertions without any evaluation or modality.

    When it comes to other-orientation, the categories of deixis and speech acts tend to be of greater importance compared to modality and evaluative words. It makes a difference if you address a reader with a singular or collective "you" and if you choose to interact with responsive speech acts or informative statements. These contrast ways to address a reader are of importance for the construction of genre and say a great deal about other-orientation in texts.