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  • Hou, Hui-Rang
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Meng, Qing-Hao
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 7227-7235, article id 8945323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas source localization (including gas source declaration) is critical for environmental monitoring, pollution control and chemical safety. In this paper we approach the gas source declaration problem by constructing a tetrahedron, each vertex of which consists of a gas sensor and a three-dimensional (3D) anemometer. With this setup, the space sampled around a gas source can be divided into two categories, i.e. inside (“source in”) and outside (“source out”) the tetrahedron, posing gas source declaration as a classification problem. For the declaration of the “source in” or “source out” cases, we propose to directly take raw gas concentration and wind measurement data as features, and apply a median value filtering based extreme learning machine (M-ELM) method. Our experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed method, yielding accuracies of 93.2% and 100% for gas source declaration in the regular and irregular tetrahedron experiments, respectively. These results are better than that of the ELM-MFC (mass flux criterion) and other variants of ELM algorithms.

  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bader, Eveline
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Florian
    TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Schabmann, Alfred
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students with Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study2019In: Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, ISSN 1937-6928, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity recognition in whole number representations is a fundamental skill children need to acquire in their mathematical development. Despite the observed correlation to mathematics achievement, however, the abil-ity to recognize quantities in structured whole number representations has not been studied extensively. In this article, we investigate how stu-dents with mathematical difficulties (MD) differ from typically develop-ing (TD) students in quantity recognition in structured whole number representations. We use eye tracking (ET), which can help to identify stu-dents’ quantity recognition strategies. In contrast to methods that include collecting verbal answers and reports, ET avoids an additional verbal-ization step, which may be affected by poor language skills and by low meta-cognitive abilities or memory issues when monitoring, recalling,and explaining one’s thoughts. We present an ET study with 20 students of which ten were found to have MD in initial tests (using qualitative and quantitative diagnostics). We used ET glasses, which allow seeing the students’ view of the scene with an augmented visualization of the gaze point projected onto the scene. The obtained gaze-overlaid videos also include audio data and records of students’ answers and utterances. In our study, we did not find significant differences between the error rates of MD and TD students. Response times, however, were longer for students with MD. The analysis of the ET data brought students’ quantity recogni-tion strategies to light, some of which were not found in previous research. Our analyses revealed differences in the use of these quantity recognition strategies between MD and TD students. Our study illustrates the power of ET for investigating students’ quantity recognition strategies and the potential of ET to support MD students.

  • Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Scheuschner, Nils
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model2019In: 2019 IEEE SENSORS, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors mounted on mobile robotsenable the mapping of gas distributions in large or hardlyaccessible areas. A challenging task, however, is the generation ofthree-dimensional distribution maps from the gas measurements.Suitable reconstruction algorithms can be adapted, for instance,from the field of computed tomography (CT), but both theirperformance and strategies for selecting optimal measuring posesmust be evaluated. For this purpose simulations are used, since, incontrast to field tests, they allow repeatable conditions. Althoughseveral simulation tools exist, they lack realistic models of remotegas sensors. Recently, we introduced a model for a Tunable DiodeLaser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor taking intoaccount the conical shape of its laser beam. However, the novelmodel has not yet been validated with experiments. In this paperwe compare our model with a real sensor device and show thatthe assumptions made hold.

  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modeling in Human-Robot Navigation2019In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence: Volume 1 (FCTA), SciTePress, 2019, p. 296-305Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the crossings of the trajectories of humans and robots. We discuss the intersection calculation and its fuzzy version in the context of human-robot navigation with respect to noise information. Based on known parameters of the Gaussian input distributions at the orientations of human and robot the parameters of the output distributions at the intersection are to be found by analytical and fuzzy calculation. Furthermore the inverse task is discussed where the parameters of the output distributions are given and the parameters of the input distributions are searched. For larger standard deviations of the orientation signals we suggest mixed Gaussian models as approximation of nonlinear distributions.

  • Vintr, Tomas
    et al.
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Molina, Sergi
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems (L-CAS), University of Lincoln.
    Senanayake, Ransalu
    Stanford University.
    Broughton, George
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Yan, Zhi
    Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Laboratory (CIAD), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), France.
    Ulrich, Jiri
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Kucner, Tomasz P.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Swaminathan, Chittaranjan Srinivas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Majer, Filip
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Stachova, Maria
    University of Matej Bel, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Krajnik, Tomas
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, article id 8870909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a human-centric spatio-temporal model for service robots operating in densely populated environments for long time periods. The method integrates observations of pedestrians performed by a mobile robot at different locations and times into a memory efficient model, that represents the spatial layout of natural pedestrian flows and how they change over time. To represent temporal variations of the observed flows, our method does not model the time in a linear fashion, but by several dimensions wrapped into themselves. This representation of time can capture long-term (i.e. days to weeks) periodic patterns of peoples’ routines and habits. Knowledge of these patterns allows making long-term predictions of future human presence and walking directions, which can support mobile robot navigation in human-populated environments. Using datasets gathered by a robot for several weeks, we compare the model to state-of-the-art methods for pedestrian flow modelling.

  • Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Submap per Perspective: Selecting Subsets for SuPer Mapping that Afford Superior Localization Quality2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets high-precision robot localization. We address a general problem for voxel-based map representations that the expressiveness of the map is fundamentally limited by the resolution since integration of measurements taken from different perspectives introduces imprecisions, and thus reduces localization accuracy.We propose SuPer maps that contain one Submap per Perspective representing a particular view of the environment. For localization, a robot then selects the submap that best explains the environment from its perspective. We propose SuPer mapping as an offline refinement step between initial SLAM and deploying autonomous robots for navigation. We evaluate the proposed method on simulated and real-world data that represent an important use case of an industrial scenario with high accuracy requirements in an repetitive environment. Our results demonstrate a significantly improved localization accuracy, up to 46% better compared to localization in global maps, and up to 25% better compared to alternative submapping approaches.

  • Lilienthal, Achim J.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Germany.
    Current Trends in Eye Tracking Research in Mathematics Education: A PME Literature Review: A PME Survey2019In: 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2019, Vol. 4, p. 62-62Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking (ET) is a research method that receives growing interest in mathematics education research (MER). This paper aims to give a literature overview, specifically focusing on the evolution of interest in this technology, ET equipment, and analysis methods used in mathematics education. To capture the current state, we focus on papers published in the proceedings of PME, one of the primary conferences dedicated to MER, of the last ten years. We identify trends in interest, methodology, and methods of analysis that are used in the community, and discuss possible future developments.

  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaussian Noise and the Intersection Problem in Human-Robot Systems: Analytical and Fuzzy Approach2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6, article id 8858796Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the intersection problem in humanrobot systems with respect to noisy information is discussed. The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the intersections of trajectories. We discuss the intersection problem with respect to noisy information on the basis of an analytic geometrical model and its TS fuzzy version. The transmission of a 2-dimensional Gaussian noise signal, in particular information on human and robot orientations, through a non-linear static system and its fuzzy version, will be described. We discuss the problem: Given the parameters of the input distributions, find the parameters of the output distributions.

  • Chadalavada, Ravi Teja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany, Cologne, Gemany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implicit intention transference using eye-tracking glasses for improved safety in human-robot interaction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye gaze can convey information about intentions beyond what can beinferred from the trajectory and head pose of a person. We propose eye-trackingglasses as safety equipment in industrial environments shared by humans androbots. In this work, an implicit intention transference system was developed and implemented. Robot was given access to human eye gaze data, and it responds tothe eye gaze data through spatial augmented reality projections on the sharedfloor space in real-time and the robot could also adapt its path. This allows proactivesafety approaches in HRI for example by attempting to get the human'sattention when they are in the vicinity of a moving robot. A study was conductedwith workers at an industrial warehouse. The time taken to understand the behaviorof the system was recorded. Electrodermal activity and pupil diameter wererecorded to measure the increase in stress and cognitive load while interactingwith an autonomous system, using these measurements as a proxy to quantifytrust in autonomous systems.

  • Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Opportunities for Education for Sustainabilitythrough multidimensional preschool science2019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 3, no 15, p. 358-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we exemplify and discuss how preschool science education may contribute to Education forSustainability (EfS). We draw on data from science activities in fourteen Swedish preschools, in which wehave previously identified examples of ‘multidimensional science teaching’, hence, teaching that intertwineschildren’s science learning with multiple dimensions of children’s lives, such as emotions, fantasy,play and aesthetic modes of expressions. By re-analysing these activities through an EfS lense, we showseveral examples of how multidimensional science teaching provide opportunities for children to developagency and empowerment as well as connectedness with the environment, and some examples of creativeproblem solving. Yet, we advocate that teachers’ active participation is crucial for realising multidimensionalscience teaching in a way that contributes to EfS.

  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hobson, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing2020In: The New Handbook of Political Sociology / [ed] T. Janoski, C. de Leon, J. Misra and I. Martin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 1, p. 153-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The concept of citizenships, in the plural, reflects different research traditions in citizenship theorizing: citizenship as legal status in a sovereign state, as a bearer of rights and obligations; citizenship as participation (civic republicanism); and citizenship as social membership. Each of these enhance the capabilities of individuals to become participants in political, economic and social spheres of life. Citizenships as a concept also embraces practices: how these aspects of citizenship are experienced in everyday encounters and the relationships of power:  in families, workplaces, welfare offices, social movements and their variations in institutional contexts.

    We focus on how gender has become more salient in theorizing across these citizenship domains, extending the boundaries of social membership and inclusion (Lister 2003; Hobson and Lister 2002). Implicit in the pluralizing of citizenships is the recognition of the need for a dynamic concept that engages with multi-dimensional aspects of gender, citizenships and social memberships within, below and beyond the state. This approach allows us to capture both the diversity in locations and situations of individuals and groups and the multi-scalar structures of governance: by national and transnational institutions and actors, as well as the opportunities and constraints for social movements to transform them. Finally, this chapter engages with the theoretical terrain on intersectionalities, viewing gender through the lens of complex inequalities across age, citizenship/migrant status, class, ethnicity/race, region, and their intersections. Throughout we engage with the dilemmas and challenges in theorizing gender, citizenships and social memberships: if and how gender matters in the framing of citizenship and what processes shape social divisions and citizenship identities.  

    This chapter comprises two main sections and a concluding discussion. The first focuses on feminist theorizing within two main research traditions in citizenship theorizing: first, social membership: T.H. Marshall’s framework, its legacy in welfare regime paradigm, and the dialogues on gender, states and citizenship that arose from them; second, civic republicanism and participatory citizenship, addressing agency (citizenship in practice), frames of gendered citizenship. In the second section, we focus on the changing landscape of feminist theorizing on citizenships emerging from critical analysis of men and masculinities, postcolonial critical race theory, intersectionality, migration and transnationalism. We conclude with Challenges, Dilemmas and Debates, addressing the implications of these complexities and dilemmas and challenges in gendered citizenships, in particular, the fragmentation in solidarities reflected in the widening gap in capabilities and inequalities and polarization across citizenship identities expressed in new forms of nationhood, nationalism and populism.  

  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency: The role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency2019In: The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Differences in Quantity Recognition Between Students with and without Mathematical Difficulties Analyzed Through Eye: Analysis Through Eye-Tracking and AI2019In: Proceedings of the 43rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] M. Graven, H. Venkat, A. Essien & P. Vale, PME , 2019, Vol. 3, p. 281-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties in mathematics learning are an important topic in practice and research. In particular, researchers and practitioners need to identify students’ needs for support to teach and help them adequately. However, empirical research about group differences of students with and without mathematical difficulties (MD) is still scarce. Previous research suggests that students with MD may differ in their quantity recognition strategies in structured whole number representations from students without MD. This study uses eye-tracking (ET), combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular pattern recognition methods, to analyze group differences in gaze patterns in quantity recognition of N=164 fifth grade students.

  • Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Visselblåsare och skatt2019In: Svensk Skattetidning, ISSN 0346-2218, Vol. 8, p. 493-500Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Lagriffoul, Fabien
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perceiving and acting out of the box2019In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition / [ed] Angelo Cangelosi, Antonio Lieto, CEUR-WS , 2019, Vol. 2483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses potential limitations in learning in au-tonomous robotic systems that integrate several specialized subsystemsworking at different levels of abstraction. If the designers have antici-pated what the system may have to learn, then adding new knowledgeboils down to adding new entries in a database and/or tuning parametersof some subsystem(s). But if this new knowledge does not fit in prede-fined structures, the system can simply not acquire it, hence it cannot“think out of the box” designed by its creators. We show why learningout of the box may be difficult in integrated systems, hint at some exist-ing potential approaches, and finally suggest that a better approach maycome by looking at constructivist epistemology, with focus on Piaget’sschemas theory.

  • Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Similarity criteria: evaluating perceptual change for visual localization2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, article id 8870962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual localization systems may operate in environments that exhibit considerable perceptual change. This paper proposes a method of evaluating the degree of appearance change using a similarity criteria based on comparing the subspaces spanned by the principal components of the observed image descriptors. We propose two criteria - θmin measures the minimum angle between subspaces and Stotal measures the total similarity between the subspaces. These criteria are introspective - they evaluate the performance of the image descriptor using nothing more than the image descriptor itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these similarity criteria reflect the ability of the image descriptor to perform visual localization successfully, thus allowing a measure of quality control on the localization output.

  • Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Petersson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Risk management of Domestic Violence2019In: The EU Mutual Learning Programme in Gender Equality: Preventing domestic violence with Men and Boys: Challenges and Opportunities, European Commission, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Finland; University of South Africa, South Africa.
    Young Working-Class Men in Transition 2019In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 202-204Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Hanken School of Economics, Finland .
    Thym, Anika
    University of Basel, Switzerland; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Masculinities under Neoliberalism (A. Cornwall, F. G. Karioris and N. Lindisfarne, eds.)2019In: Gender and Development, ISSN 1355-2074, E-ISSN 1364-9221, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 407-409Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of Huddersfield, UK.
    Howson, Richard
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    The institutionalization of (Critical) Studies on Men and Masculinities: Geopolitical perspectives2019In: Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström and Tamara Shefer, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 19-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vasquez del Aquila, Ernesto
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughson, Marina
    Institute of Criminology, Serbia.
    Unsustainable institutions of men: transnational dispersed centres and immanent contradictions2019In: Unsustainable Institutions of Men: Transnational Dispersed Centres, Gender Power, Contradictions / [ed] Jeff Hearn, Ernesto Vasquez del Aquila, Marina Hughson, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hall, Matthew
    Arden University, Coventry, UK.
    New technologies, image distribution and cyberabuse2019In: NOTA News, no 88, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Evaluation of approach strategies for harvesting robots: Case study of sweet pepper harvesting2019In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 149-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic harvesters that use visual servoing must choose the best direction from which to approach the fruit to minimize occlusion and avoid obstacles that might interfere with the detection along the approach. This work proposes different approach strategies, compares them in terms of cycle times, and presents a failure analysis methodology of the different approach strategies. The different approach strategies are: in-field assessment by human observers, evaluation based on an overview image using advanced algorithms or remote human observers, or attempting multiple approach directions until the fruit is successfully reached. In the latter approach, each attempt costs time, which is a major bottleneck in bringing harvesting robots into the market. Alternatively, a single approach strategy that only attempts one direction can be applied if the best approach direction is known a-priori. The different approach strategies were evaluated for a case study of sweet pepper harvesting in laboratorial and greenhouse conditions. The first experiment, conducted in a commercial greenhouse, revealed that the fruit approach cycle time increased 8% and 116% for reachable and unreachable fruits respectively when the multiple approach strategy was applied, compared to the single approach strategy. The second experiment measured human observers’ ability to provide insights to approach directions based on overview images taken in both greenhouse and laboratorial conditions. Results revealed that human observers are accurate in detecting unapproachable directions while they tend to miss approachable directions. By detecting fruits that are unreachable (via automatic algorithms or human operators), harvesting cycle times can be significantly shortened leading to improved commercial feasibility of harvesting robots.

  • Kellgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Affärsrätt.
    IAS 10 Events after the Reporting Period Problematized: Some Questions Regarding the Standard’s (Read by its Letter) Understandability2018In: Skattenytt, ISSN 0346-1254, p. 3-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events after the reporting period is an interesting phenomenon, as they areboth very common and can be tricky to address correctly. Yet, quite surprisingly,not much research has been carried out on how to interpret the rulesregarding events after the reporting period. This article is written from a legalperspective, with the purpose of looking closely at the wording of the IAS 10, inorder to discuss if, or to what extent, it is clear enough to (as far as possible) givethe management of a business (or auditors, courts etc.) sufficient clarity onhow to handle events after the reporting period – or if, and if so how, the rulesare unclear. Some hints de lege ferenda (what improvements could be made inthe standard?) are also given, with the purpose of making the IAS 10 clearer.

  • Lugnegård, Tove
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults2019In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 5, no 3, article id e42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism are increasingly recognised in adults. For a diagnostic evaluation, parental information on childhood development is needed. However, no instruments that retrospectively describe neurodevelopmental problems in childhood are validated for evaluating adults. The 181-item parent-report questionnaire Five to Fifteen (FTF) is nevertheless frequently used for assessments in adulthood.

    AIMS: To examine if FTF is reliable for obtaining retrospective neurodevelopmental history among young adults.

    METHOD: Details of parents who had assessed their children with the FTF for neuropsychiatric evaluation were retrieved and they were asked to complete the FTF again 10-19 years later. Agreements between original and retrospective scorings were analysed.

    RESULTS: Long-term reliability for FTF varies considerably between individual items. Several difficulties are reported as more severe at the retrospective scoring than at the original scoring. A selection of 24 items (FTF-Brief) with good agreement over time, is presented for use in adult psychiatry settings.

    CONCLUSION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms may fluctuate over time and become more prominent when demands increase. Informants' recollections of their child's neurodevelopmental symptoms may be a selection of symptoms that are longstanding rather than present at a specific age in childhood.

    DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

  • Hesselmark, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Karolinska Institutet; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Clinical features of paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: findings from a case-control study2019In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 5, no 2, article id e25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), an umbrella term that includes PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) is suggested to be a psychiatric disorder of autoimmune aetiology. PANS is characterised by an acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder or restricted eating with multiple comorbid symptoms. The specificity of the PANS criteria is not fully understood.AimsTo describe a cohort of patients with PANS and to determine if PANS features relating to symptoms, onset and course are more common in PANS than in other psychiatric conditions.

    METHOD: A case-control study comparing patients with interview-confirmed PANS with patients with suspected PANS and patients with a psychiatric condition but with no suspicion of PANS. Validated and non-validated measures of symptoms, onset and episodic course were used.

    RESULTS: Illness in patients with interview-confirmed PANS featured an episodic course and multiple symptoms present at onset compared with the psychiatric controls. However, individuals with interview-confirmed PANS did not present a specific symptom profile.

    CONCLUSIONS: PANS may be a distinct clinical entity featuring an acute onset, an episodic course and multiple symptoms at onset.Declaration of interestNone.

  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strandberg, ThomasÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ageing in a changing society: Interdisciplinary popular science contributions from the Newbreed research school2019Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lavesson, Nils
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ögren, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Forces on parallel three-phase AC-conductors during a phase to ground fault2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of calculating forces on high current solid conductors, as is present in various types of electrical installations e.g. in substations [1]. An example of such an installation with three parallel conductors is shown in Figure 1. The conductor forces are important for the design of the station, in particular for the conductor geometry and mechanical support.

  • Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Trust in Managers Revisited: Antecedents, Mediating Factors, and Consequences2019In: Dynamic relationships management journal, ISSN 2232-5867, E-ISSN 2350-367X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first purpose of this paper is to find the reasons why subordinates trust their managers in private organizations. The second purpose is related to whether there are national differences in the degree of subordinates’ trust in their managers. Studies from two European countries are presented which were based on the same instrument for measuring subordinates’ trust. These studies concluded that managers’ actions are the antecedent to trust. Managers are, however, trusted to different degrees. It appears that managers need to show by their actions that they trust their subordinates, offer help and guidance, show appreciation to the subordinates, and solve problems adequately. The antecedent was the managers’ proximity to the subordinates. Other studies found more antecedents. Additionally, a number of positive consequences of trust in managers – reported in other studies – are work performance, job satisfaction, and subordinates’ motivation. Some questions regarding trust in managers still need answers. They are formulated but not answered in this paper. 

  • Trenta, Cristina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Juridicum Anthology 20192019Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Section ICT, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands .
    Establishing and implementing data collaborations for public good: A critical factor analysis to scale up the practice2019In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data analytics for public good has become a hot topic thanks to the inviting opportunities to utilize ‘new’ sources of data, such as social media insights, call detail records, satellite imagery etc. These data are sometimes shared by the private sector as part of corporate social responsibility, especially in situations of urgency, such as in case of a natural disaster. Such partnerships can be termed as ‘data collaboratives’. While experimentation grows, little is known about how such collaborations are formed and implemented. In this paper, we investigate the factors which are influential and contribute to a successful data collaborative using the Critical Success Factor (CSF) approach. As a result, we propose (1) a framework of CSFs which provides a holistic view of elements coming into play when a data collaborative is formed and (2) a list of Top 15 factors which highlights the elements which typically have a greater influence over the success of the partnership. We validated our findings in two case studies and discussed three broad factors which were found to be critical for the formation of data collaboratives: value proposition, trust, and public pressure. Our results can be used to help organizations prioritize and distribute resources accordingly when engaging in a data collaborative.

  • Lilliedahl, Jonathan
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Specialised music classes in comprehensive education: a case study of the Swedish shift from social-democratic uniformity to neoliberal diversity2020In: Journal of Educational Administration & History, ISSN 0022-0620, E-ISSN 1478-7431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following article examines the emerging historical legitimacy of specialised comprehensive schools in Sweden. During the 1980s, neoliberal ideas were gaining ground in Swedish educational policy. As a result, the social democratic government began to relax the rigour of the unified, state-regulated educational system. Specialised music classes played a significant role in this context, as such programmes were increasingly considered models for specialisation and deregulation. The establishment of specialised music classes in Sweden was symptomatic of the national adoption of neoliberal principles in education policy.

    The case study design uses qualitative document analyses of archive materials including public investigations, minutes of political meetings, and newspaper debates. The discursive legitimation of specialised comprehensive education is seen as dependent on three interrelated frame factors: ideology, economics, and law. Within this framework empirical knowledge of the transformative educational policy of the 1980s is analysed.

  • Steinberg, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Employees' rights to influence the work environment and some challenges2019In: Festskrift till Örjan Edström / [ed] Ruth Mannelqvist, Staffan Ingmanson, Carin Ulander-Wänman, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2019, 1, p. 469-483Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A presentation of the employees' right to influence the work environment accordning to the Swedish Work Environment Law and a study of its implementation.

  • Steinberg, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Safety Delegates and the Implementation of the Organisational and Social Work Environment2018In: Festskrift till Håkan Hydén / [ed] Reza Banakar, Karl Dahlstrand, Lotti Ryberg Welander, Lund: Juristförlaget, Lund, 2018, 1, p. 641-658Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is an investigation about how the safety delegates can influnce the Work Environment Authority in matters of psychosocial issues. 

  • Tsertsidis, Antonios
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Challenges in the provision of digital technologies to elderly with dementia to support ageing in place: A case study of a Swedish municipality2020In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify structural problems and challenges for the delivery of digital technologies for ageing in place to elderly with dementia.

    Methods: To that end, I conducted a case study in a Swedish municipality.

    Results: The results showed that elderly with dementia are not exploiting their full potential of receiving help in the form of technology, since the four conditions of the Consumer Direction (Control and Direct services – Variety of digital technologies for ageing in place options – Information and Support – Participation in systems design) were met to a very low degree.

    Conclusions: I propose that the municipality in question creates a proper knowledge-sharing platform so that occupational therapists are well informed about digital technologies for ageing in place, to allow them to provide accurate information and support to elderly with dementia, resulting in a possible increase in use of technology and subsequently support the empowerment goal of Consumer Direction. I also believe, according to the findings of this study, that the module of Information and Support should be treated as the most important condition for achieving increased Consumer Direction.

  • Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Företagande långt från storstäderna: Vilken betydelse har flyg, bredband och annan infrastruktur?2019In: Entreprenörskap för en levande landsbygd. 15 texter om landsbygdsutveckling och entreprenörskap i Norrland. / [ed] Karl Wennberg, Växjö: Familjen Kamprads stiftelse , 2019, p. 61-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Andersson, Pernilla
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Transaktionella analyser av undervisning och lärande: SMED-s tudier 2006-20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Denna rapport presenterar analysmetoder och forskning som fokuserat lärandeprocesser i undervisningspraktiker. Mer specifikt utgör denna rapport en sammanställning av det pragmatiska teoretiska ramverket som utvecklats och tillämpats inom forskargruppen SMED (Studies of Meaning­ making in Educational Discourses) i Uppsala och Örebro 2006-2018.Rapporten inkluderar en introduktion till det pragmatiska teoretiska ramverket och en kort beskrivning av analysmetoderna Praktisk Epistemologisk Analys och Riktningsgivaranalys. Ambitionen är att rapporten ska vara användbar som en orientering för studenter, lärare, doktorander och forskare med intresse för detaljerade analyser av lärandeprocesser i undervisningspraktiker eller andra praktiker där lärande sker. Med lärandeprocesser avses här meningsskapandeprocesser inkluderande utbildningens kvalificerande, socialiserande såväl som subjektifierande/personformerande funktioner samt det som påverkar denna process. Det som påverkar meningsskapandeprocessen kan vara lärare, andra elever/studerande, artefakter och det socio-materiella. Rapporten innehåller en sammanställning av metodologiska bidrag till det didaktiska forskningsfältet såväl som till utbildningspraktiken. Sammanställningen av de metodologiska bidragen är strukturerad i fyra delar: Naturorienterande ämnen, Miljö- och hållbarhetsundervisning, Idrott och hälsa samt Utbildning i förskolan. Utifrån denna sammanställning kan man dra slutsatsen att studierna varit fruktbara för forskningsproblem som handlat om att: (a) fånga komplexiteten i lärandeprocesser, (6) undersöka identifiera och belysa avgörande situationer/ögonblick i lärandeprocesser,(c) undersöka och belysa lärares handlingar och dess betydelse för individers lärandeprocesser, (d) bidra med kunskap och illustrerande empiriska exempel till debatter om hur lärande går till och/eller undervisning bör bedrivas, (e) identifiera och belysa olika ämneskulturer såsom de framträder i praktiken, samt (f) problematisera förgivet-taganden om vad olika utbildningsaktiviteter leder till. Avslutningsvis ges förslag på riktning förfortsatt arbete avseende analys av undervisning och lärandeprocesser."

  • Lodefalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Statliga garantier i utrikeshandeln: Mönster, effekter och reflektioner2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 38-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många länder erbjuder exportkreditgarantier där staten mot en premie utfäster sig att betala exportören om den utländska kunden inte gör det. Vi beskriver det svenska systemet under Exportkreditnämnden, med fokus på små- och medel- stora företag, och undersöker effekterna av sådana garantier på företags export, sysselsättning och förädlingsvärde. Vi finner att garantierna påverkar såväl inträde i export som värdet på exporten positivt. Vi noterar att effekterna är mycket heterogena över olika typer av företag och utfallsvariabler, där de min- dre företagens export underlättas avsevärt mer än de stora företagens. För vissa företag och transaktioner ser vi även effekter på jobb och förädlingsvärde. Vi avslutar med att diskutera policyimplikationer.

  • Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Om 1900-talets progressivism, skolpolitik och skola2019In: Pekpinnar: Historiska perspektiv på utbildning, p. 1-8Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Deduction of Input VAT: Comparative Studies in Tax Law2019Report (Other academic)
  • Lindner, Helen Y
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Buer, Nina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Dept. of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Compensatory Movement in Upper Limb Prosthesis Users during Activity Performance2019In: ISPO 17th World Congress:  Basics to Bionics: Abstract Book, ISPO , 2019, p. -512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low dexterity of conventional two-function (open, close) myoelectric hand prostheses with limited wrist movement often leads to compensatory shoulder and elbow movements, e.g. excess shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. Compensatory movements may lead to musculoskeletal pain [1] and it is thus important to identify prosthesis users with compensatory movements and to develop preventive treatments for musculoskeletal pain.

    AIM: The study aim was to measure and compare compensatory movements during activity performance among upper limb prosthesis users with different levels of myoelectric control.

    METHOD: Twenty-seven users of conventional myoelectric hand prosthesis performed the Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC) at the Örebro Limb Deficiency and Arm Prosthesis Centre. The performances were recorded and analyzed with Dartfish motion capture video analysis software. The software was used to track and measure the maximum angles for shoulder abduction and elbow flexion at the non-prosthetic and prosthetic sides during the activity performance. Two independent raters used Dartfish to analyze 10 videos and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate inter-rater reliability. The ability to control a myoelectric prosthetic hand was assessed by the ACMC.

    RESULTS: The within-individual differences for shoulder abduction ranged from 2° to 52° and for elbow flexion from 1° to 66°. When compared between prosthetic and non-prosthetic side, larger differences in shoulder abduction and elbow flexion were found among the users with ACMC ≤ 0 than users with ACMC > 0 (Fig.1a). When comparing the within-individual side differences between prosthesis users with ACMC ≤0 and users with ACMC >0, a significant angle difference was found in the elbows (p=0.03) but not in the shoulders (p=0.34) (Fig.1b). Inter-rater reliability between the two independent raters was excellent (ICC 0.91).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Compensatory elbow movements during activity performance are higher in upper limb prosthesis users with low level of myoelectric control. Prevention for musculoskeletal pain should consist of both training for improved prosthetic control and improved prosthetic use in activity performance. Measurement of compensatory movements can help to identify amputees with frequent compensatory movements. Future studies are needed to investigate the effect of ability to control myoelectric prosthesis on musculoskeletal pain.

    REFERENCES [1] Jones LE, Davidson JH. Prosthet Orthot Int 1999; 23(1):55-8.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was supported financially by the Norrbacka-Eugenia Foundation.

  • Lindner, Helen Y
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hill, Wendy
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, UNB, Fredericton, Canada.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Dept. of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cognitive load and compensatory movement in learning to use a multi-function hand2019In: ISPO 17th World Congress: Basics to Bionics: Abstract Book, ISPO , 2019, p. 52-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent technology provides increased dexterity in multi-function hands with the potential to reduce compensatory body movements. However, it is challenging to learn how to operate a hand that has up to 36 grips. While the cognitive load required to use these hands is unknown, it is clear that if the cognitive load is too high, the user may stop using the multi-functional hand or may not take full advantage of its advanced features.

    AIM: The aim of this project was to compare cognitive load and compensatory movement in using a multi-function hand versus a conventional myo hand.

    METHOD: An experienced prosthesis user was assessed using his conventional myo hand and an unfamiliar iLimb Ultra hand, with two-site control and the same wrist for both prostheses. He was trained to use power grip, lateral grip and pinch grip and then completed the SHAP test while wearing the Tobii Pro 2 eye-tracking glasses. Pupil diameter (normal range: 2-4mm during normal light) was used to indicate the amount of cognitive load.[1] The number of eye fixations on the prosthesis indicate the need of visual feedback during operation. Dartfish motion capture was used to track the maximum angles for shoulder abduction and elbow flexion.

    RESULTS: Larger pupils were found in the use of Ilimb ultra (2.6-5.6mm) than in the use of conventional myo hand (2.4-3.5mm) during the SHAP abstract light tests. The pupils dilated most often during changing grips, e.g. switching to pinch grip for the tripod task (from 2.7 to 5.6mm). After training of using power grip and pinch grip repeatedly, the maximum pupil diameter decreased from 5.6 to 3.3mm. The number of eye fixations on the I-limb ultra (295 fixations) were also higher than on the conventional myo-hand (139 fixations). Smaller shoulder abduction and elbow flexion were observed in the use of I-limb ultra (16.6°, 36.1°) than in the use of conventional myo hand (57°, 52.7°).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although it is cognitively demanding to learn to use a multi-function hand, it is possible to decrease this demand with adequate prosthetic training. Our results suggest that using a multi-function hand enables reduction of body compensatory movement, however at the cost of a higher cognitive load. Further research with more prosthesis users and other multi-function hands is needed to confirm the study findings.

    REFERENCES [1] van der Wel P, van Steenbergen H. Psychon Bull Rev 2018; 25(6):2005-15.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This project was supported financially by Norrbacka-Eugenia Foundation, Promobilia Foundation and Örebro University.

  • Krishna, Sai
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Estimating Optimal Placement for a Robot in Social Group Interaction2019In: IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (ROMAN), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a model to propose anoptimal placement for a robot in a social group interaction. Ourmodel estimates the O-space according to the F-formation theory. The method automatically calculates a suitable placementfor the robot. An evaluation of the method has been performedby conducting an experiment where participants stand in differ-ent formations and a robot is teleoperated to join the group. Inone condition, the operator positions the robot according to thespecified location given by our algorithm. In another condition,operators have the freedom to position the robot according totheir personal choice. Follow-up questionnaires were performedto determine which of the placements were preferred by theparticipants. The results indicate that the proposed methodfor automatic placement of the robot is supported from theparticipants. The contribution of this work resides in a novelmethod to automatically estimate the best placement of therobot, as well as the results from user experiments to verify thequality of this method. These results suggest that teleoperatedrobots such as mobile robot telepresence systems could benefitfrom tools that assist operators in placing the robot in groupsin a socially accepted manner.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    The Feeling of Music: Affect, Attunement, and Resonance2019In: Music, Speech, and Mind / [ed] Antenor Ferreira Correa, Associação Brasileira de Cognição e Artes Musicais - ABCM , 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Perspectives on Public Sector Outsourcing: Quasi-markets and Prices2019In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 343-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public sector outsourcing, in the form of private production of tax-financed services, is on the increase with economic and social consequences for consumers, taxpayers, and employees. The development has given rise to so-called quasi-markets with choice and competition between public, for-profit, and non-profit providers. By introducing the main characteristics of quasi-markets with a focus on prices, this article provides background perspectives. It sets the stage for the other six articles on public sector outsourcing in this special issue of the journal.

  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Students' Creative Process in Mathematics: Insights from Eye-Tracking-Stimulated Recall Interview on Students' Work on Multiple Solution Tasks2019In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' creative process in mathematics is increasingly gaining significance in mathematics education research. Researchers often use Multiple Solution Tasks (MSTs) to foster and evaluate students' mathematical creativity. Yet, research so far predominantly had a product-view and focused on solutions rather than the process leading to creative insights. The question remains unclear how students' process solving MSTs looks like-and if existing models to describe (creative) problem solving can capture this process adequately. This article presents an explorative, qualitative case study, which investigates the creative process of a school student, David. Using eye-tracking technology and a stimulated recall interview, we trace David's creative process. Our findings indicate what phases his creative process in the MST involves, how new ideas emerge, and in particular where illumination is situated in this process. Our case study illustrates that neither existing models on the creative process, nor on problem solving capture David's creative process fully, indicating the need to partially rethink students' creative process in MSTs.

  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Hanken School of Economics, Finland; University of Huddersfield, UK.
    IPSP: Social progress, some gendered reflections2019In: Global Dialogue, ISSN 2519-8696, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lippold, Melissa
    School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Jensen, Todd
    School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Fosco, Greg
    Human Development and Family Studies and The Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Feinberg, Mark
    College of Health and Human Development and The Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Hostile interactions in the family: Patterns and links to youth externalizing problems2019In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 56-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with family systems theory, we examined patterns of hostile interactions within families and their associations with externalizing problems among early-adolescent children. Using hostility scores based on observational data of six dyadic interactions during a triadic interaction (n = 462; i.e., child-to-mother, mother-to-child, child-to-father, father-to-child, mother-to-father, father-to-mother)—latent profile analysis supported three distinct profiles of hostility. The low/moderate hostile profile included families with the lowest levels of hostility across dyads; families in the mutual parent-child hostileprofile scored higher on parent-child hostility, but lower on interparental hostility; the hostile parentprofile showed higher levels of parent-to-child and interparental hostility, but lower child-to-parent hostility. Concerning links to youth outcomes, youth in the mutual parent-child hostile profile reported the highest level of externalizing problems, both concurrently and longitudinally. These results point to the importance of examining larger family patterns of hostility to fully understand the association between family hostility and youth adjustment.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-28 10:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Örebro
    Ehn, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Life Strategies, Work and Health in People with Usher Syndrome2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: People with Usher syndrome (USH) have an inherited disorder causing congenital deafness or hearing loss combined with progressive vision loss and, in some cases, balance problems. Previous research has shown that people with USH have poor physical and psychological health. Research has, however, demonstrated that there are in-group health differences that have not yet been explored and that there is a lack of studies on life strategies as well as health in relation to working life.

    Aim: The aim was to explore the relationship between work and health in people with USH1 and 2 and to explore the experiences of life strategies in people with USH 2.

    Methods: A quantitative and a qualitative explorative design was employed comprising two cross-sectional studies of the relationship between work and health in people with USH2 (n=67) and USH1 (n=47). The third study, of life strategies, comprised focus group interviews with people with USH2a (n=14) analyzed by content analysis. The fourth study explored the lived experiences of working life by interviewing people with USH2 (n=7) using an interpretative phenomenological approach.

    Results: Study 1 and 2 demonstrated significant differences in health between working and nonworking people. Nonworking people showed significantly poorer health. In study 3, a variety of strategies to prevent and resolve challenges in life, as well as to comfort oneself was identified. The lived experiences of working life in people with USH2 (study 4) disclosed feelings of satisfaction, striving towards a work life balance. Work also disclosed feelings of limitations and uncertainty about the future.

    Conclusion: The results, which are discussed in relation to the Meikirsh model of health, demonstrated a complexity. Individual life strategies, psychological flexibility and environmental aspects, such as social determinants have to be considered to receive a comprehensive picture of the relationship between work and health in people with USH. This thesis provides new insights into the health of people with USH.

    List of papers
    1. The relationship between work and health in persons with Usher syndrome type 2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between work and health in persons with Usher syndrome type 2
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, ISSN 0145-482X, E-ISSN 1559-1476, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Persons with deafblindness may have additional physical and psychological health problems. In this study we have focused on health from a work-life perspective in persons with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2), a disorder with sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between work and disability pension and physical and psychological health in persons with USH2.

    Methods: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. Eighty-four persons (aged 18 to 65 years) received a health-related questionnaire and 67 (36 women and 31 men) agreed to participate. The participants formed two groups (working group, n = 34; disability pension group, n = 33). A Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire comprising questions on psychological and physical health, living conditions, work activity, and social relationships was used. A chi-square test of significance was used with a significance level of p < 0.05.

    Results: The two groups did not differ in terms of age, gender, degree of hearing loss, visual acuity, or visual field loss. The working group had statistically significant better health compared to the disability pension group in areas such as being overweight, handling problems, concentration, feeling unhappy, depressive symptoms, and feelings of worthlessness. Suicidal thoughts and attempts were significantly more common in the disability pension group.

    Discussion: Persons with USH2 generally reported very poor physical and psychological health, with significant differences between persons who were working and those who were not. This study highlights the need for early rehabilitation, vocational training, and opportunities to access the labor market. Implications for practitioners: It is important that persons with USH2 receive vocational support from an early age and that professionals in the field of rehabilitation always include work activity as a key element of interventions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, USA: American Foundation for the Blind, 2016
    National Category
    Occupational Therapy Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51754 (URN)000384897800003 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Örebro University

    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group.

    PURPOSE: To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group.

    MATERIAL: Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons.

    METHODS: The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted.

    RESULTS: The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IOS Press, 2018
    Keywords
    Employment, working life, health, psychological health, dual sensory loss, deafblindness
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68163 (URN)10.3233/WOR-182731 (DOI)000436889900006 ()29865098 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049496022 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Örebro University

    Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Life strategies of people with deafblindness due to Usher syndrome type 2a-a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life strategies of people with deafblindness due to Usher syndrome type 2a-a qualitative study
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1656790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore life strategies in people with Usher syndrome type 2a.

    Background: There are no studies on life strategies in people with Usher syndrome. People with deafblindness are often described in terms of poor health and low quality of life, or as being vulnerable. From a clinical point of view, it is of importance to balance this picture, with an increased knowledge of life strategies.

    Methods: The study had a qualitative explorative design. Fourteen people aged 20-64 years (4 women, 10 men) with USH2a in Sweden participated in focus group interviews, which were transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The content analysis resulted in seven categories; remaining active, using devices, using support, sharing knowledge, appreciating the present, maintaining a positive image and alleviating emotional pain. Two sub-themes: resolve or prevent challenges and comforting oneself was abstracted forming a theme "being at the helm".

    Conclusion: The findings show that people with USH2a have a variety of life strategies that can be interpreted as highlighting different aspects of psychological flexibility in a life adjustment process. The study demonstrates that people with USH2a manage in many ways, and metaphorically, by "taking the helm", they strive to actively navigate towards their own chosen values.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Deafblindness, focus groups, life strategies, psychological flexibility, qualitative content analysis, Usher syndrome type 2
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76565 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2019.1656790 (DOI)000483845400001 ()31470768 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071653423 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University

    Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Experiences of work and health in people with Usher Syndrome type 2 — a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of work and health in people with Usher Syndrome type 2 — a qualitative study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79756 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
  • Gidehag, Anton Nyrenström
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Understanding Firm Behavior: The Role of Recruitments and Institutional Reforms2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is firm behavior and how it is shaped by institutional changes and firms’ recruitment decisions.

    The first essay studies how the recruitment decisions made by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) affect their subsequent productivity development. Previous studies have shown that being able to recruit employees with complementary skills is associated with skill improvement among incumbent personnel, suggesting that new recruits promote productivity through knowledge spillovers. Using matched employer-employee data, we find that recruiting personnel from large multinational firms can be instrumental for the performance of SMEs.

    In the second essay, we evaluate the labor market effects of the 2007 Swedish youth payroll reform. This reform generated considerable labor cost savings for firms, related to their pre-reform number of young employees. We study the effects of these savings on firms’ subsequent employment growth and wage development. Our findings suggest that a total of 18,100 jobs were created over the period 2006-2008 and that the savings were partially used to increase the total wages for incumbent employees.

    The third essay utilizes the 2007 Swedish youth payroll reform to analyze whether general labor cost reductions enhance labor market opportunities for non-western immigrants. In contrast to targeted and time-limited wage subsidies for immigrants, which have frequently been used in the past, these savings were not tied to a specific group or to a certain time period. A strong and positive link between the amount of firms’ labor cost savings and the employment of first-generation non-western immigrants is found.

    The fourth essay evaluates the efficiency of a staff register reform introduced within the Swedish restaurant and hairdresser industries in 2007. The aim of this reform was to prevent firms from deliberately understating their wage payments and, thereby, evading taxes. We estimate the effect of the staff register reform on wages per employee and find wage increases of 2.17-10.2 percent per incumbent employee at restaurant firms during the four years following the introduction of the reform. Through a revenue-cost comparison, we compare the estimated gain in tax revenues to the total costs borne by firms and the tax authority. Our findings imply that the total costs exceed the tax revenues, suggesting that this reform is unlikely to be economically justified.

    List of papers
    1. Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-Level Evidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-Level Evidence
    2017 (English)In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 151-174, article id 1554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited professionals have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. For newly recruited managers there is no general link to the productivity of the hiring SME. We also find that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of key personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Senate Hall Ltd, 2017
    Keywords
    recruitment, knowledge spillovers, firm growth, productivity, SME
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59316 (URN)000406063300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis  

    Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Research Foundation  

    Available from: 2017-08-24 Created: 2017-08-24 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms respond to reduced labor costs? Evidence from the 2007 Swedish payroll tax reform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms respond to reduced labor costs? Evidence from the 2007 Swedish payroll tax reform
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79273 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Firms’ labor cost savings and recruitment of non-western immigrants: The unintended effect of a payroll tax reform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firms’ labor cost savings and recruitment of non-western immigrants: The unintended effect of a payroll tax reform
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79274 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Compulsory staff registers as a way of increasing firms’ wage reporting: A revenue-cost analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compulsory staff registers as a way of increasing firms’ wage reporting: A revenue-cost analysis
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79275 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved