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  • Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardarens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Implementation Integrity of Parenting Programs: Which Aspects Are Most Important?2019Inngår i: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 917-933Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The implementation of preventive interventions is considered a crucial aspect of their success. However, few studies have investigated which components of implementation are most important.

    Objective: We aimed to understand whether the components of implementation integrity—adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participants’ involvement—influenced the effectiveness of four parenting programs. We also investigated factors associated with these components.

    Method: Data come from a national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden. The study was a randomised controlled effectiveness trial, with a sample of 535 parents with 3–12-year-old children. Measures included parenting behaviors (angry outbursts, harsh parenting, attempts to understand, rewarding, and praising), child conduct problems (ECBI and SNAP-V), and measures tapping into the four components (adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participant involvement).

    Results: We ran multilevel models and found that implementation quality (adherence and quality of delivery) did not influence the effects on parents and children. Conversely, participant involvement was associated with improvements in parenting and child conduct. Finally, parents’ perceptions of their leaders as supportive and understanding were associated with parents’ responsiveness and attendance.

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of having actively engaged parents to maximise intervention effects.

  • Tryggvason, Ásgeir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    How to End a Discussion: Consensus or Hegemony?2019Inngår i: Democracy & Education, ISSN 1085-3545, E-ISSN 2164-7992, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking the vantage point of agonistic pluralism, the aim is to enter into dialogue with Samuelsson’s theoretical development of consensus as an educational aim for classroom discussions. The response highlights three points of interest in the deliberative conception of consensus. The first point relates to the problem of exclusion, which Samuelsson clearly framed as something that concerns deliberative theory and agonistic theory. The second point is about the relation between conflict and consensus and the kind of conflict that is compatible with Samuelsson’s idea of consensus. The concluding part of this response is an exploration of how the agonistic concept of hegemony could function as an alternative aim for ending classroom discussions.

  • Janemalm, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    What is complex in complex movement? A discourse analysis of conceptualizations of movement in the Swedish physical education curriculum2019Inngår i: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 1146-1160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the Swedish National Agency for Education introduced a new national curriculum. Thecurriculum contained a number of new terms. One in particular proved problematic for physicaleducators – complex movement. The confusion surrounding the term could be seen as somewhatunexpected since movement is and has been a central element of practically all physical education(PE) curricula. The specific aim of this paper is to identify how the discourse regarding complexmovement is assembled, and by doing so, provide insights into the meaning(s) of complexmovement within the context of PE policy in Sweden. Following Englund and Quennerstedt (2008),the study is framed within a Swedish curriculum theory tradition and six policy texts are examinedusing a discourse analytic methodology. The results suggest three different inferences of complexmovement discourse: advanced with a wide meaning; context-dependent and related to sports forolder pupils; and knowledge-dependent where different views about knowledge exist. From theseresults, three discussion points are raised related to: the diversity of possible meanings presentedin policy; the connection between knowledge and understanding; and the probability of differentaudiences reading the texts in different ways. The paper is concluded with a consideration of theconsequences of different inferences concerning complex movement and whether greater consensusis necessary.

  • Rönnqvist, Mats
    et al.
    The Technical High School of Lindholmen, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. The Technical High School of Lindholmen, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education2019Inngår i: Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 172-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a substantial body of physical education scholarshipfocusing on movement learning. The question of how pupilsthemselves make sense of movement learning has however,largely escaped attention. Answers to such a question wouldseem to be highly germane if educators are to engage in pupilcenteredpedagogies. In light of this absence, the aim of thisinvestigation was to describe how movement learners madesense of their own movement development. Drawing ontheoretical tenets of Gilbert Ryle (2009. The concept of mind.New York, NY: Routledge) and Michael Polanyi (1969. Knowing andbeing. Essays by Michael Polanyi. Chicago, IL: University of ChicagoPress), three cases from an investigation in which movementlearning was occurring are presented. The investigation wasconducted during a physical education project week with pupilsfrom an upper secondary school. Data were produced usingobservations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews, andresearch diaries as a group of pupils learned to juggle. The resultssuggest that: the aspects of moving to which learners attendchange as they learn; learners have a relatively limited capacity toverbally articulate what they learn, and; learners’ expectations ofideal ways of moving have considerable impact on how theycome to make sense of their own ways of moving. The practicalimplications of these points are discussed in the final section ofthe paper.

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Department of Sport and Health Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joy, fear and resignation: Investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019Inngår i: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention fromscholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotionssignificantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy andpleasure are necessary for continued participation in movementactivities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature,however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mentalstates that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we workwith alternative principles that can create new understandings of theaffective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We drawon symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodalcommunicative resources that are performed in social contexts. Fromthis perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigatedas part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical actionand (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We presentobservational material generated with PE teacher education students asthey develop movement capability. We focus on three interactionalepisodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by studentsinteracting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case,we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with themovement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizableidentity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in theinteractional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that assymbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actorswithin movement learning environments. The paper is concluded withreflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners alongwith a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Nemati, Farhang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Resource Sharing in Real-Time Systems on Multiprocessors2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years multiprocessor architectures have become mainstream, and multi-core processors are found in products ranging from small portable cell phones to large computer servers. In parallel, research on real-time systems has mainly focused on traditional single-core processors. Hence, in order for real-time systems to fully leverage on the extra capacity offered by new multi-core processors, new design techniques, scheduling approaches, and real-time analysis methods have to be developed.

    In the multi-core and multiprocessor domain there are mainly two scheduling approaches, global and partitioned scheduling. Under global scheduling each task can execute on any processor at any time while under partitioned scheduling tasks are statically allocated to processors and migration of tasks among processors is not allowed. Besides simplicity and efficiency of partitioned scheduling protocols, existing scheduling and synchronization techniques developed for single-core processor platforms can more easily be extended to partitioned scheduling. This also simplifies migration of existing systems to multi-cores. An important issue related to partitioned scheduling is the distribution of tasks among the processors, which is a bin-packing problem.

    In this thesis we propose a blocking-aware partitioning heuristic algorithm to distribute tasks onto the processors of a multi-core architecture. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to decrease the blocking overhead of tasks, which reduces the total utilization and has the potential to reduce the number of required processors.

    In industrial embedded software systems, large and complex systems are usually divided into several components (applications) each of which is developed independently without knowledge of each other, and potentially in parallel. However, the applications may share mutually exclusive resources when they co-execute on a multi-core platform which introduce a challenge for the techniques needed to ensure predictability. In this thesis we have proposed a new synchronization protocol for handling mutually exclusive resources shared among real-time applications on a multi-core platform. The schedulability analysis of each application is performed in isolation and parallel and the requirements of each application with respect to the resources it may share are included in an interface. The protocol did not originally consider any priorities among the applications. We have proposed an additional version of the protocol which grants access to resources based on priorities assigned to the applications. We have also proposed an optimal priority assignment algorithm to assign unique priorities to the applications sharing resources. Our evaluations confirm that the protocol together with the priority assignment algorithm outperforms existing alternatives in most cases.

    In the proposed synchronization protocol each application is assumed to be allocated on one dedicated core. However, in this thesis we have further extended the synchronization protocol to be applicable for applications allocated on multiple dedicated cores of a multi-core platform. Furthermore, we have shown how to efficiently calculate the resource hold times of resources for applications. The resource hold time of a resource for an application is the maximum duration of time that the application may lock the resource whenever it requests the resource. Finally, the thesis discusses and proposes directions for future work.

  • Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Partitioned Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks on Multi-core Platforms2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years multiprocessor architectures have become mainstream, and multi-core processors are found in products ranging from small portable cell phones to large computer servers. In parallel, research on real-time systems has mainly focused on traditional single-core processors. Hence, in order for real-time systems to fully leverage on the extra capacity offered by new multi-core processors, new design techniques, scheduling approaches, and real-time analysis methods have to be developed.

    In the multi-core and multiprocessor domain there are mainly two scheduling approaches, global and partitioned scheduling. Under global scheduling each task can execute on any processor at any time while under partitioned scheduling tasks are statically allocated to processors and migration of tasks among processors is not allowed. Besides simplicity and efficiency of partitioned scheduling protocols, existing scheduling and synchronization methods developed for single-core processor platforms can more easily be extended to partitioned scheduling. This also simplifies migration of existing systems to multi-cores. An important issue related to partitioned scheduling is distribution of tasks among processors which is a bin-packing problem.

    In this thesis we propose a partitioning framework for distributing tasks on the processors of multi-core platforms. Depending on the type of performance we desire to achieve, the framework may distribute a task set differently, e.g., in an application in which tasks process huge amounts of data the goal of the framework may be to decrease cache misses.Furthermore, we propose a blocking-aware partitioning heuristic algorithm to distribute tasks onto the processors of a multi-core architecture. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to decrease blocking overhead of tasks which reduces the total utilization and has the potential to reduce the number of required processors.Finally, we have implemented a tool to facilitate evaluation and comparison of different multiprocessor scheduling and synchronization approaches, as well as different partitioning heuristics. We have applied the tool in the evaluation of several partitioning heuristic algorithms, and the tool is flexible to which any new scheduling or synchronization protocol as well as any new partitioning heuristic can easily be added.

  • Goodyear, Victoria A.
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    #Gymlad: young boys learning processes and health-related social media2019Inngår i: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent systematic reviews identify that the factors mediating and/or moderating the relationship between social media and health outcomes are sparse. There have also been few attempts to analyse gender specific uses of social media. This paper investigated young boys health-related learning in relation to social media. Data were generated from class activities and interviews and from a large data set that included 1346 young people. The approach to the empirical data adopted was Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA). The findings reveal two main purposes of young boys engagement with social media: (i) communicating with friends, and (ii) accessing health-related information. Irony and humour were central learning mechanisms used by young boys to participate within health-related social media, and in a way that enabled them to engage with, uphold, and handle health discourses associated with masculinity – such as being ripped – without fear of ‘literal’ peer ridicule and within a context of acceptable ‘banter’. There was evidence that young people were critical users and generators of social media, who were clearly thinking through what they see, do, and use online. Hence, this paper provides a fresh evidence-based perspective on the potentially positive role of social media as a health-related learning resource. PEA is illustrated as a new methodological approach for investigating learning in the context of social media. The evidence generated can be used to inform future evaluations of social media use, the design of educative support for young people, and guidance and training for key stakeholders.

  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart: Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.

    Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.

    Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.

    Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).

    Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.

  • Petersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Elektroniska marknadsplatser: IT-stöd för små och medelstora leverantörer2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingens ämne är elektroniska marknadsplatser och hur sådana bör utformas utifrån mindre leverantörers perspektiv. Med leverantörer avses här de säljande företag som använder marknadsplatser som mellanhand för att sälja varor och tjänster. I den situation som studerats används ofta denna kanal på begäran av kunden och dessutom via en marknadsplats vars utformning primärt är utformad utifrån kundens behov. Den kategori av marknadsplatser som har studerats har vidare inriktning mot inköp och försäljning mellan organisationer och företag.

    En central utgångspunkt och viktig förutsättning för studiens berättigande är uppfattningen om att forskningen kring den här kategorin av elektroniska marknadsplatser visat ett oproportionerlig litet intresse för just leverantörernas situation i allmänhet och de mindre aktörerna i synnerhet. Detta trots att ett reellt kunskapsbehov existerar såväl inomvetenskapligt som i praktikfältet. Det problem som ligger bakom praktikfältets kunskapsbehov har dessutom aktualiserats och accentuerats i Sverige under avhandlingsarbetes absoluta slutfas. Detta genom förändrad lagstiftning som innebär att alla leverantörer till offentlig sektor har krav på sig att kunna kommunicera elektroniskt.

    Den övergripande forskningsfråga som behandlas har formulerats som: ”Vilken utformning bör en elektronisk marknadsplats ha för att stödja mindre leverantörers ändamål?” och sedermera besvarats genom utveckling, presentation och tillämpning av en uppsättning utformningskriterier. Den övergripande forskningsstrategin har omfattat genomförande av en kvalitativ fallundersökning bestående av flera delstudier och praktikteori har utgjort ett centralt teoretiskt perspektiv. Undersökningens primära fall har varit den väletablerade skandinaviska marknadsplatsen Visma Proceedo och det praktiska genomförande har inneburit insamling och analys av data i form av intervjuer, dokument och demosystemtester.

    Kunskapsbidraget studien resulterat i består av fyra delar: en uppsättning utformningskriterier för elektroniska marknadsplatser, en kategorisering av mindre leverantörers ändamål, begreppsutveckling om s.k. marknadsplatspraktiker respektive ett antal praktikteoretiska utformningsprinciper. De två förstnämnda bidragen är riktade mot både praktikfältet och forskarsamhället med de två senare mer teoretiskt och inomvetenskapligt ämnade.

    Utformningskriterierna består av sju preskriptiva utsagor vilka är ämnade att kunna användas som riktningsvisare vid marknadsplatsutformning. Kriterierna utgör därmed det egentliga svaret på den övergripande forskningsfrågan. Studiens identifiering och kategorisering av de mindre leverantörernas ändamål visar att leverantörerna använder marknadsplatsen för att tillmötesgå befintliga kunders önskemål och krav. Vidare visar analysen två huvudkategorier vilka utgör centrala förutsättningar för de mindre leverantörernas aktivitet på den här typen av elektronisk marknadsplats: dels möjligheten till kontroll: att kunna granska och påverka sin egen information och dels behovet av matchning: överensstämmelse mellan marknadsplatsaktiviteten och den övriga (egna) verksamheten.

    I syfte att betrakta, analysera och förstå det studerade fenomenet presenterar avhandlingen också de två praktikteoretiska begreppen marknadsplatspraktik respektive försäljningspraktik. Intressenter för detta bidrag finns primärt bland forskare med intresse praktikteori och interorganisatoriska företeelser som elektroniska marknadsplatser.

    På vägen mot de tillämpningsspecifika utformningskriterierna har avhandlingsarbetet emellertid också inneburit teoriutveckling på ett betydligt mer generiskt plan. Resultatet är att en till karaktären deskriptiv praktikteoretisk modell har utökats med en uppsättning designprinciper. Principerna är resultat av en teoretisk syntes av informationssystemteori, sociotekniska designprinciper och praktikteori. Då principerna och tillämpningen av dem presenteras åtskilt från varandra är det möjligt för andra att tillämpa, testa och vidareutveckla dem helt bortom undersökningens fall och studieområde.

  • Andersson, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Geographies of Place Branding: Researching through small and medium sized cities2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Place branding is commonly conceptualized with a focus on big cities, such as London, New York and Singapore, building from concepts and models from mainstream branding theory. In contrast to such conceptualizations, this thesis focuses on place branding in small and medium-sized cities. The present thesis aims to study place branding from a geographical perspective. It starts with debates theoretical and empirical understandings of place branding; what it is and how it is affecting the places where it is introduced. The thesis develops and argues for a perspective of territoriality and relationality to place branding discussing concepts, methods and empirical approaches to carry out place branding research using geographical perspectives. Empirically, this thesis focuses on in-depth studies of place branding in small and medium-sized cities in Sweden. By analyzing the development of place branding over the course of time, nuances and aspects of both territorial and relational origin emerge, situating place branding practices within a wider spatial contextualization. Four individual papers are presented, which taken together contribute to the aim of the thesis. Paper 1 introduces the place branding research field in geography and how it has developed; Paper 2 investigates the phenomena of flagship buildings located in small cities and towns; Paper 3 discusses the relationship between policy tourism and place branding; and Paper 4 analyzes how local environmental policies are affected by green place branding. The thesis demonstrates the complex and continuously interchangeable spatial structures and place contexts that create and re-produce the geographies of place branding. Here, research models and methodological examples are presented to illustrate how place branding can be studied from a geographical perspective and thus improve theoretical understandings of place branding.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frid, Emma
    2Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using eye-tracking to study the effect of haptic feedback on visual focus during collaborative object managing in a multimodal virtual interface2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th SweCog conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, s. 49-51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Zhang, Shiyu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Shuling
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Real-time kinematical optimal trajectory planning for haptic feedback manipulators2019Inngår i: Simulation, ISSN 0037-5497, Vol. 95, nr 7, s. 621-635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To obtain real-time haptic interactions in virtual cockpit systems (VCSs), a real-time trajectory planning method based on kinematical optimization for haptic feedback manipulators (HFMs) is presented in this paper. Firstly, the control panel area is extracted in the workspace of the HFM, in which the interacting point is located. Then a feasible interacting configuration is calculated as the objective configuration of the trajectory encoded by a parametric representation. The trajectory planning problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem based on kinematics, which is solved in real-time by finding a good initial solution with machine learning methods. Simulations show that trajectories with a compromise between safety and rapidity can be calculated in real-time by this method, which provides a basis for haptic interaction in VCSs.

  • Fang, Wei
    et al.
    Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China.
    Santosh, Lamichhane
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lipidomes in health and disease: Analytical strategies and considerations2019Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 120, artikkel-id 115664Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipidomics is a rapidly-growing field which focuses on global characterization of lipids at molecular and systems levels. As small changes in the concentrations of lipids may have important physiological consequences, much attention in the field has recently been paid to more accurate quantitation and identification of lipids. Community-wide efforts have been initiated, aiming to develop best practices for lipidomic analyses and reporting of lipidomic data. Nevertheless, current approaches for comprehensive analysis of lipidomes have some inherent challenges and limitations. Additionally, there is, currently, limited knowledge concerning the impacts of various external and internal exposures on lipid levels. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in lipidomics analysis, with a primary focus on analytical approaches, as well as on the different sources of variation in quantifying lipid levels, both technical and biological.

  • Ahonen, Linda
    et al.
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Jäntti, Sirkku
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suvitaival, Tommi
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Theilade, Simone
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Risz, Claudia
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rossing, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Targeted Clinical Metabolite Profiling Platform for the Stratification of Diabetic Patients2019Inngår i: Metabolites, ISSN 2218-1989, E-ISSN 2218-1989, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id E184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several small molecule biomarkers have been reported in the literature for prediction and diagnosis of (pre)diabetes, its co-morbidities, and complications. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel, quantitative method for the determination of a selected panel of 34 metabolite biomarkers from human plasma. We selected a panel of metabolites indicative of various clinically-relevant pathogenic stages of diabetes. We combined these candidate biomarkers into a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and optimized it, prioritizing simplicity of sample preparation and time needed for analysis, enabling high-throughput analysis in clinical laboratory settings. We validated the method in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity (R2), and intra- and inter-day repeatability of each metabolite. The method's performance was demonstrated in the analysis of selected samples from a diabetes cohort study. Metabolite levels were associated with clinical measurements and kidney complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Specifically, both amino acids and amino acid-related analytes, as well as specific bile acids, were associated with macro-albuminuria. Additionally, specific bile acids were associated with glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medication, statin medication, and clinical lipid measurements. The developed analytical method is suitable for robust determination of selected plasma metabolites in the diabetes clinic.

  • Hysing, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Responsibilization: The case of road safety governance2019Inngår i: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are increasingly turning to new modes of governance to induce nonstate actors to voluntarily take responsibility for societal problems. Using the concept of responsibilization as a theoretical lens, this article analyzes changes in road safety governance in Sweden. How, why, and to whom has the responsibility for road safety been attributed in Swedish policymaking, and how have state authorities engaged in processes of responsibilization during its implementation? The results show a shift in attribution of responsibility from individual road users to a broad set of so-called system designers, based on moral, causal, and preventive rationales. Responsibilization both occurs within the state apparatus and is imposed by state authorities on nonstate actors using soft governance measures. Responsibilization provides a fruitful theoretical lens for governance studies by identifying shifts in responsibility (including deresponsibilization), explicating normative/ethical underpinnings of new governance modes, and helping to open the “black box” of the state.

  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Building Institutional Trust Through Service Experiences: Private Versus Public Provision Matter2019Inngår i: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare service experiences are known to shape citizens' trust in public institutions and their sup-port of the welfare state. But, there is poor understanding of how this relationship is shaped in systems of mixed provision, that is, welfare states that use public in-house as well as contracted private providers for publically funded services. Drawing on the notion of system trust this article provides a theoretical account of how mixed-provision welfare systems condition the relationship between service experience and trust, affecting the legitimacy of the state. Utilizing a random-ized vignette experiment with participants in a general citizen survey in Sweden, we investigate whether it matters for the formation of institutional trust if the welfare service is provided by a public or third-party private provider. The main result show that the spillover of trust from positive service experiences with the provider to trust in public institutions is higher in cases of public ser-vice provision. Thus, the possibility of using welfare services to build trust in the welfare system seems to be greater when public provision is used.

  • Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Hooiveld, Guido J.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    de Vos, Willem
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre and Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    König, Julia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Allogenic Faecal Microbiota Transfer Induces Immune-Related Gene Sets in the Colon Mucosa of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome2019Inngår i: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikkel-id 586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe–host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.

  • Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Complexity in the 'Extended' Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an 'extended' business network is investigated. The ‘extended’ view refers to the inclusion of socio-political actors in the firm’s business network. Building on a business network perspective, the thesis’ purpose is to understand how interactions between business, social, and political actors influence the development of smart city solutions. Based on the findings from the four articles included in the thesis, a complexity lens for further understanding of interaction with socio-political actors is presented. It argues that reaching success in the relationship entails finding a balance between economic and social needs.

    Through the analysis of two smart city projects developed in Brazil, this study investigates the influence of socio-political actors on firms’ cooperative and competitive behavior as well as their decisions relating to resource allocation. The findings illustrate that decisions to cooperate or compete are associated with centrality. The firm’s willingness to be a central actor, i.e., a project leader, places traditional buyer-supplier partners in competition. In addition to this, resource allocation is closely linked to customization. In cities demanding a high level of customization of the smart city solution, companies will be encouraged to allocate resources to exploitation, while in cities requiring a low level of customization, exploration will be chosen instead. But knowledge about how to allocate resources is closely linked to the centrality issue, since a central actor may enjoy better access to a large pool of resources and information. Consequently, the final outcome in relational terms can lead to win-lose rather than a win-win situation if rivalry for centrality between business partners intensifies over time.

    The study of such complex interaction contributes to the industrial marketing and business network literature by providing a practical perspective and showing how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantages for companies. In addition, this thesis suggests that managers need to cope with the complexity inherent in such type of relationships, primarily due the fact that interaction with socio-political actors has important competitive implications for firms. Ultimately, the thesis offers a framework for investigating complexity in actors’ interactions and resource heterogeneity that complements our understanding of intraorganizational relationships, opening opportunities for a new perspective and better comprehension of the influence of socio-political actors in firms’ business networks.

  • Klézl, Vojtech
    Department of Marketing and Business, Faculty of Economics, VŠB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Factors influencing savings from electronic auctions2014Inngår i: Central European Review of Economic Issuer (CEREI), ISSN 1212-3951, Vol. 17, s. 209-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ratio of public procurement undertaken through reverse electronic auctions is increasing rapidly. Czech and Slovak municipalities use this tool to save public funds through fostering direct competition between suppliers and to increase transparency. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the savings achieved through e-auctions and the factors influencing these. Five variables are tested to establish whether they influence the savings: num-ber of participants (potential suppliers) in the e-auction, total value of the e-auction, size and country of origin of the municipality, and category of the procured product or service. Several methods are used to test independence. All of these factors except the country of origin influence the savings gained, which is in accordance with the findings of existing research.

  • Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazil2019Inngår i: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 171-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a business network perspective, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical view for studying service MNEs in ICT (information communication technology) projects centred on the improvement of public services. The four inter-related concepts of cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge are applied in the analysis of two projects. Defining the projects as object-based services, the study manifests how service MNEs manage three types of actors (business, politi-cal and social) having their legitimacy in different systems. The cases illustrate cross-border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join forces in Brazil with local business, social and political actors and cooperate to strengthen their competitive market position. The study concludes that successful cooperation is partially explained by the management’s ability to incorporate business resources into the needs of the socio-political actors. Furthermore, in object-based services, which are not similar to long-term business relationships, the three involved par-ties advance different types of relationships within a loose network structure. A key implication is that extensive public–private relationships are needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haptic communicative functions and their effects on communication in collaborative multimodal virtual environments2017Inngår i: Proceedings 13th SweCog Conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, s. 63-64Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Frid, Emma
    et al.
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bresin, Roberto
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moll, Jonas
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sonification of haptic interaction in a virtual scene2014Inngår i: SMC Sweden 2014 Sound and Music Computing: Bridging science, art, and industry / [ed] Roberto Bresin, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2014, s. 14-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a brief overview of work-in-progress for a study on correlations between visual and haptic spatial attention in a multimodal single-user application comparing different modalities. The aim is to gain insight into how auditory and haptic versus visual representations of temporal events may affect task performance and spatial attention. For this purpose, a 3D application involving one haptic model and two different sound models for interactive sonification are developed.

  • Kiss, Tamás
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predictability in Equity Markets: Estimation and Inference2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three chapters dealing with predictability in equity markets. The first chapter analyses predictive regressions in a predictive system framework, where the predictor is an imperfect proxy for the expected returns. I show that when there are differences between the dynamic structure of the expected return and the predictor, the predictive regression uses predictive information inefficiently. As a solution, I propose a persistence adjustment for the predictive regression. The resulting estimator is a two-stage method, where the expected return and predictor processes are modelled separately, allowing for each to have distinct dynamic properties. Simulations, as well as empirical results, show that the method leads to both better in-sample fit and real-time forecasting performance. In the second chapter we show that the dividend-growth based test of return predictability, proposed by Cochrane [2008, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1533-1575], is similar to a likelihood-based test of the standard return-predictability model, treating the autoregressive parameter of the dividend-price ratio as known. In comparison to standard OLS-based inference, both tests achieve power gains from a strong use of the exact value postulated for the autoregressive parameter. When compared to the likelihood-based test, there are no power advantages for the dividend-growth based test. In common implementations, with the autoregressive parameter set equal to the corresponding OLS estimate, Cochrane's test also suffers from severe size distortions. The third chapter provides an explanation for why predictive regressions may have lost power in recent samples. In a noisy predictor framework, where expected returns are stationary and a non-stationary component masks the information in the regressor, I show that the predictive power of the regression vanishes as the sample size increases. To address vanishing predictability, I propose an estimation method, subsample fixed effects. It involves estimating the predictive relationship locally in subsamples and then pooling the estimates via a fixed effects estimator. Empirically, important predictors of the stock returns exhibit vanishing predictability but applying subsample fixed effects indicates that the underlying predictive relationship between these predictors and returns remains significant.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Industrial policy: Political considerations, payoffs, and peculiar incentives2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent papers. They deal with some aspects of industrial policy, namely public supports to firms that are intended to support innovation and growth at the firm level, using Swedish data. Two papers study the efficiency of current Swedish policies by estimating the effects of subsidies and public loans to firms, respectively.

    The results on subsidized firms suggests that there are some positive effects on profits and productivity, but these diminish and disappear over time. The results of public loans are more positive with long lasting effects on productivity and sales but only for smaller firms. Public loans do not lead to an increase in the number of employees in the firms that receive them.

    The third paper studies the selection of firms for subsidies and the incentives firms have to seek them. By modeling the decision to seek subsidies as a trade off between producing in the market and seeking grants, the results suggest that firms with low market productivity might self-select into seeking grants. The empirical results are in line with the theoretical predictions.

    The final paper studies the incentives that politicians have to implement programs and policies that they know will be inefficient. Since a lack of political action can make the politicians look incompetent, incumbentens have incentives to implement policies even though they know that these will be ineffective, to signal competence towards the voters.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School; The Ratio Institute.
    Statens roll för företagsstöd och då särskilt innovationsstöd2015Inngår i: Tillväxt genom stöd: En bok om statligt stöd tillnäringslivet / [ed] Gustavsson Tingvall, P., Östersund: Tillväxtanalys , 2015, s. 13-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet diskuter argument för och emot statlig intervention och selektiva stödåtgärder. Under vilka förutsättningar är det motiverat att stötta företag och FoI-verksamhet, och vilka utmaningar möter en sådan politik? Argument för statligt stöd är att staten kan lösa marknadsproblem. Exempelvis kan staten behöva stötta innovativa företag som annars har svårt att få finansiering. Det är ofta svårt för banker och andra finansiärer att bedöma dessa företags lönsamhet, vilket gör dem mindre benägna att låna ut pengar. Riskkapitalbolag kan ta större risker, men stödjer sällan nya företag eftersom det blir för dyrt att utvärdera om de är värda att satsa på. Ett annat argument är att ny kunskap har positiva effekter på andra än de företag som får stöd. Därför bör staten stötta innovativa företag och projekt som ännu inte är lönsamma nog för marknaden. Dessutom kan staten ta en aktiv roll för att samordna och effektivisera innovationssystemet och samverkan mellan stat, näringsliv, akademi och finansiärer. Argument emot statligt stöd är att företag ägnar sig åt att söka stöd i stället för åt produktivt arbete. Stödet kan också gå till företag som är bra på att söka stöd och ägnar sig åt ”rätt” saker, snarare än de företag som bäst behöver det. Ett annat motargument är att det kan vara svårt att motivera varför staten skulle vara bättre på att hitta lönsamma företag än marknaden. Statliga selektiva stöd kan också leda till att ett mindre produktivt företag konkurrerar ut ett som är mer produktivt. Andra utmaningar som stödpolitiken har att brottas med är bland annat att det kan vara dyrt att administrera stöden, att stöden inte generar nya investeringar utan bara ses som en alternativ finansiering till en åtgärd som skulle gjorts i alla fall och att de kan hindra nödvändig strukturomvandling. Men statligt stöd kan också handla om att stötta företag i utsatta regioner och sektorer. Här handlar det om medmänsklighet och valfrihet för medborgarna. Vi menar dock att även om stöden är av denna karaktär bör de användas så effektivt som möjligt.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige; Ratio, stockholm, Sverige.
    Den borgerliga kulturen skapade den industriella revolutionen2017Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 83-85Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó.
    CKS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping Business School, Jönköping, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    IAS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Municipally Owned Enterprises as Danger Zones for Corruption?: How Politicians Having Feet in Two Camps May Undermine Conditions for Accountabilit2019Inngår i: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 320-352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The market-inspired reforms of New Public Management have been particularly pronounced in Swedish local government. Notably, municipally owned enterprises (MOEs) have rapidly grown in numbers. Principal-agent theory gives rise to the hypothesis that the massive introduction of MOEs has impacted negatively on the conditions for accountability in Swedish local government. To study this, social network analysis was employed in mapping networks for 223 MOEs in 11 strategically chosen municipalities, covering a total of 732 politicians. The analysis reveals substantial overlaps between principals (representatives of the ultimate stakeholders, citizens) and agents (the boards of the MOEs). Hence, corporatization of public services seems to imply worrisome entanglements between the politicians who are set to steer, govern, and oversee MOEs on the one hand, and the board members of MOEs on the other. The increasing numbers of MOEs may therefore have adverse effects on accountability in important and growing parts of Swedish local government.

  • Spinelli, L.
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Botwicz, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Zolek, N.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kacprzak, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Milej, D.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sawosz, P.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Liebert, A.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Weigel, U.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Durduran, T.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Foschum, F.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Kienle, A.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Baribeau, F.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Leclair, S.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Bouchard, J. -P
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Noiseux, I.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Gallant, P.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Mermut, O.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Farina, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Pifferi, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Torricelli, A.
    POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Cubeddu, R.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Ho, H. -C
    ITRI, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan; PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Mazurenka, M.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Wabnitz, H.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Klauenberg, K.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, C.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bénazech-Lavoué, M.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Lesage, F.
    Département de génieélectrique, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Khoptyar, D.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Subash, A. A.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson-Engels, S.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Di Ninni, P.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Martelli, F.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Zaccanti, G.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink2014Inngår i: Biomedical Optics Express, ISSN 2156-7085, E-ISSN 2156-7085, Vol. 5, nr 7, s. 2037-2053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-center study has been set up to accurately characterize the optical properties of diffusive liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Nine research laboratories from six countries adopting different measurement techniques, instrumental set-ups, and data analysis methods determined at their best the optical properties and relative uncertainties of diffusive dilutions prepared with common samples of the two compounds. By exploiting a suitable statistical model, comprehensive reference values at three NIR wavelengths for the intrinsic absorption coefficient of India ink and the intrinsic reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid-20% were determined with an uncertainty of about 2% or better, depending on the wavelength considered, and 1%, respectively. Even if in this study we focused on particular batches of India ink and Intralipid, the reference values determined here represent a solid and useful starting point for preparing diffusive liquid phantoms with accurately defined optical properties. Furthermore, due to the ready availability, low cost, long-term stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of these compounds, they provide a unique fundamental tool for the calibration and performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopy instrumentation intended to be used in laboratory or clinical environment. Finally, the collaborative work presented here demonstrates that the accuracy level attained in this work for optical properties of diffusive phantoms is reliable.

  • Fan, Isaac
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Jens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Kilian, Wolfgang
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Burghoff, Martin
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Stollfuss, Detlef
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Schnabel, Allard
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Wübbeler, Gerd
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Seifert, Frank
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Trahms, Lutz
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Direct measurement of the γHe / γXe ratio at ultralow magnetic field2016Inngår i: 8TH SYMPOSIUM ON FREQUENCY STANDARDS AND METROLOGY 2015 / [ed] Riehle, F., IOP Publishing Ltd , 2016, Vol. 723, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 012045Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A co-located 3He and 129Xe nuclear spin free precession measurement at sub-μT magnetic field was carried out in a magnetically shielded environment. The uncorrected quotient of the gyromagnetic ratios between neutral 3He and 129Xe atoms is determined to be 2.754 082 81(07), accounting for only statistical error. Our measurement shows that this ratio has a stability of 1.4×10-5/ √τ, demonstrating the ability to reach the current precision limit of the quotient in a 10000 s of averaging time τ. This precision is enough for the next-generation EDM search in neutral 129Xe atoms based on a similar comagnetometer scheme.

  • Bodnar, Olha
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Gremany.
    Link, Alfred
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model2016Inngår i: Bayesian Analysis, ISSN 1936-0975, E-ISSN 1931-6690, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 25-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective Bayesian inference is proposed for the generalized marginal random effects model p(x|μ, σλ) = f((x − μ1) T (V + σ2 λI) −1 (x − μ1))/ det(V + σ2 λI). The matrix V is assumed to be known, and the goal is to infer μ given the observations x = (x1,...,xn) T , while σλ is a nuisance parameter. In metrology this model has been applied for the adjustment of inconsistent data x1,...,xn, where the matrix V contains the uncertainties quoted for x1,...,xn. √ We show that the reference prior for grouping {μ, σλ} is given by π(μ, σλ) ∝ F22, where F22 denotes the lower right element of the Fisher information matrix F. We give an explicit expression for the reference prior, and we also prove propriety of the resulting posterior as well as the existence of mean and variance of the marginal posterior for μ. Under the additional assumption of normality, we relate the resulting reference analysis to that known for the conventional balanced random effects model in the asymptotic case when the number of repeated within-class observations for that model tends to infinity. We investigate the frequentist properties of the proposed inference for the generalized marginal random effects model through simulations, and we also study its robustness when the underlying distributional assumptions are violated. Finally, we apply the model to the adjustment of current measurements of the Planck constant.

  • Larsson, Karl
    Department of Economics, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Reserve Lifetime and Depletion in Exhaustible Resource Extraction Under Uncertainty2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the implications for reserve lifetime and related quantities in a continuous time model of resource extraction under uncertainty. Both the resource price and the extracted amount are assumed to follow stochastic processes. Reserve lifetime is determined by the profit-maximizing firms optimal decision of when to close down production. We derive closed form expressions for the expected value and the probability distribution of reserve lifetime, the expected level of depletion, and the expected streams of discounted revenues and costs until closing.

  • Larsson, Karl
    Department of Economics, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund Sweden.
    An Equilibrium Model for Commodity Prices with Regime Switching Reserve Dynamics2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the implications for asset prices and implied volatilities in an equilibrium model of commodity production. Production of the commodity can be carried out in one of two regimes. In the first regime the reserves are set in constant decline while in the second regime new additions to the reserve base are made. The optimal production rule is to switch regime when the stochastic revenue process of the producer hits certain barrier values. As a consequence of the optimal production rule equilibrium spot prices also become regime switching. The shapes of forward curves and implied volatilities are strongly dependent on the level of the stochastic revenue process.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden; Department of Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; CESifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Inngår i: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, s. 1-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Granskning av ESO-rapporten Dags för omprövning av Per Molander2017Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    ESO-rapporten Dags för omprövning av Per Molander behandlar privatiseringar av välfärdstjänster och näringslivsinspirerade styrmetoder inom offentlig verksamhet. Tyvärr lider ESO-rapporten av flera brister som är så allvarliga att den inte bör ligga till grund för politiskt beslutsfattande. Detta Policy Paper redogör för åtta sådana allvarliga brister.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cherry picking i välfärdsföretag2018Inngår i: I stället för vinstförbud: Bättre reglering av välfärdsföretag, Fores , 2018, s. 22-25Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    London School of Economics, London, UK; Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Heller Sahlgren, Gabriel
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (iFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Lönsamma kunskaper: Sambandet mellan vinst och kvalitet i svenska grundskolor2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten undersöker forskarna Gabriel Heller-Sahlgren, London School of Economics och Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, och Henrik Jordahl, Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, sambandet mellan skolors lönsamhet och utbildningskvalitet. Analysen är gjord på aktiebolag, som är den dominerande organisationsformen för friskolor. Resultaten tyder på att lönsamhet och kvalitet går hand i hand på svenska grundskolor. Det gäller både akademiska kvalitetsmått som baseras på elevernas studieresultat och mjukare mått som baseras på elevernas attityder. För att undersöka om sambanden kan bero på betygsinflation jämförs elevernas slutbetyg med deras betyg på nationella prov. Härvid framkommer ingenting som tyder på att sambandet mellan friskolornas lönsamhet och deras elevers studieresultat skulle bero på betygsinflation. Författarna finner heller inget stöd för att lönsamma friskolor har en mer fördelaktig elevsammansättning. Tvärt emot sådana farhågor verkar elevsammansättningen nästan inte skilja sig alls mellan friskolor med olika lönsamhetsnivåer. Enligt författarna förefaller alltså hög utbildningskvalitet vara lönsam för skolföretagen, precis som kan förväntas på andra marknader.

  • Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel
    et al.
    London School of Economics, London, UK; Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning ((IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    En kunskapsskola för tillväxt2019Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan har länge uppmärksammats i svensk debatt. En växande andel elever går ut grundskolan utan godkänt i kärnämnen och resultaten har över tid varit fallande i internationella kunskapsmätningar (även om den senaste PISA-mätningen visade på en en förbättring). Utöver att en bra utbildning är viktig för den enskilde vet vi att humankapital är viktigt för tillväxten i ett land. En bra fungerande grundutbildning är också en förutsättning för en fungerande kompetensförsörjning.Rapporten går igenom modern forskning om vilken effekt humankapital, mätt med kunskapsresultat i internationella mätningar, har på tillväxt. Det visar sig att resultaten i internationella kunskapsmätningar har mycket stor betydelse för länders tillväxt.Studien går sedan också igenom vilka faktorer som i sin tur påverkar resultaten i internationella kunskapsmätningar.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, IFN, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Vad kännetecknar vår tid?2015Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 91-92Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nyttig introduktion till mänsklighetens främsta ekonomiska fråga2016Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 66-67Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Sundén, David
    Lakeville Economic Cunsulting, Sverige.
    Vinstbegränsning i välfärden2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka är de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av att begränsa välfärdsföretagens vinster? Svenskt Näringsliv har gett docent Henrik Jordahl och ek. doktor David Sundén i uppdrag att söka besvara denna fråga.

    I rapporten granskas först de motiv som regeringen angett för Välfärdsutredningens uppdrag att föreslå vinstregleringar för företagen inom välfärdssektorn. Regeringen har angett tre huvudmotiv. - vinstutdelning innebär ett betydande läckage av skattemedel, - välfärdsföretagen gör mycket höga vinster, - vinstsyfte hämmar kvaliteten hos vinstdrivande företag. En slutsats i rapporten är att det så kallade läckaget av skattemedel är försumbart. En vinstreglering kan återföra resurser som högt räknat motsvarar 6 promille av de totala kostnaderna för välfärden, vilket inte kan ha någon betydande påverkan på de tjänster som kommer brukarna till del.

    En ytterligare slutsats är att företagen inte gör några övervinster. I rapporten anges att rörelsemarginalen är ett lämpligt mått på detta eftersom det anger välfärdsföretagens överskott i förhållande till vad de tilldelas i skattemedel, det vill säga det mäter hur mycket som kan tänkas läcka ut ur välfärden. Den genomsnittliga rörelsemarginalen ligger på cirka 6 procent, vilket är i paritet med jämförbara branscher. I rapporten görs också bedömningen att företagens vinst inte går ut över tjänsternas kvalitet. Det finns inga empiriska belägg för att så skulle ske på ett systematiskt sätt. I rapporten visas också att de mest lönsamma företagen inom äldreomsorgen levererar minst lika hög kvalitet som mindre lönsamma företag.

    Välfärdsutredningens utgångspunkter avfärdas därför som falska. I rapporten görs också en bedömning av de samhällsekonomiska effekterna av en vinstreglering. En trolig följd av en vinstreglering är att företagens kostnader av engångskaraktär kan bedömas öka. En annan konsekvens är att kostnadseffektiviteten minskar. Dessutom kan investeringar och nyföretagande bedömas minska genom ett politiskt satt vinsttak.

    Mot bakgrund av att antalet äldre som ska dela på de offentliga välfärdsresurserna blir allt fler är det enligt rapporten angeläget att öka produktiviteten i välfärdssektorn. Försämrade drivkrafter för nyföretagande, investeringar, produktivitet och kostnadseffektivitet är därmed fel väg att gå.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Vad jag skrev2017Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 63-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Bred analys av tjänstesektorn med Sverige i fokus2015Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 95-96Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Promise voters to pad their wallets, and they will listen2015Inngår i: News from IFN, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    En effektivare skola ger mer kunskap2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan behöver ett effektivt kvalitetsarbete. Pisa-resultaten talar sitt tydliga språk, och det är högst angeläget att vidta åtgärder som kan förbättra skolresultaten. Rapporten fokuserar på skolors systematiska kvalitetsarbete och effektiviseringsarbete och hur dessa påverkar elevernas prestationer.

  • Jordahl, Henrik
    IFN - Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Omprövning av en djärv ESO-rapport2017Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 6s. 68-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sveirge.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det blivit möjligt att driva äldreomsorg i privat regi. Förespråkarna för denna utveckling pekar på valfrihet och ökad effektivitet. Kritikerna talar om vanvård och menar att äldreomsorg inte lämpar sig för marknadslösningar. I rapporten analyserar forskarna förutsättningarna för att nå god kvalitet och effektivt resursutnyttjande vid marknadsliknande lösningar i äldreomsorgen. De frågor som diskuteras i rapporten är bl.a.:

    • Hur fungerar den svenska äldreomsorgsmarknaden?
    • Under vilka förutsättningar kan valfrihet och konkurrens förbättra omsorgen?
    • Vilka krav kan och bör ställas på äldreomsorgens utförare?
    • Vilken betydelse har brukarval för omsorgens kvalitet?
  • Jordahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring Digital Time Measurement in the Public Sector: Labor Productivity and Service Quality in Home Care2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure labor productivity in home care using new data from the recent introduction of digital time measurement in Swedish municipalities. By measuring worker utilization (delivered hours as a share of worked hours) we avoid several problems that have plagued previous studies of public sector productivity. The time use measure exposes substantial variation in productivity between home care units, suggesting room for improvement. More productive units deliver a larger share of the hours approved by care managers and have equally satisfied users.

  • Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional, Experimental and Environmental Economics (KIE), University of Economics in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Ifo Institute, Germany; CESifo, Munich, Germany; CReAM, London, UK; IZA, BOnn, Germany.
    The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Since good-looking politicians win more votes, a beauty advantage for politicians on the left or on the right is bound to have political consequences. We show that politicians on the right look more beautiful in Europe, the United States and Australia. Our explanation is that beautiful people earn more, which makes them less inclined to support redistribution. Accordingly, our model predicts that voters use beauty as a cue for conservatism when they do not know much about candidates and that politicians on the right benefit more from beauty in low-information elections. Evidence from real and experimental elections confirms both predictions.

  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Cesifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Josephson, Jens
    IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outsourcing Public Services: Contractibility, Cost, and Quality2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the literature on public sector outsourcing to explore if the theoretical predictions from the incomplete contracts literature hold up to recent empirical evidence. Guided by theory, we arrange services according to the type and magnitude of their contractibility problems. The empirical studies point at rather favourable outsourcing outcomes, in terms of costs and quality, for services without severe contracting problems. The picture is more mixed for services with tougher contracting problems, with the weight of the evidence in favour of public provision. This difference between services is largely in line with the property-rights framework and theories of incomplete contracts.