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  • Stenlund, Jörgen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Travelling through time: Students’ interpretation of evolutionary time in dynamic visualizations2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna förstå och ta ställning till utmaningar i form av exempelvis klimatförändringar, förlust av biodiversitet och antibiotikaresistens krävs kunskap om evolution. För att förstå evolution är det i sin tur viktigt att inse betydelsen av de tidsskalor som evolutionära processer omfattar. Detta utgör inte sällan ett problem vid undervisning om evolution eftersom det rör sig om tidsskalor som sträcker sig långt bortom vad vi själva kan erfara. Tidsskalor ingår i en grupp av begrepp som kallas tröskelbegrepp. Tröskelbegrepp utmärks av att de är svåra att ta till sig, men när väl förståelse uppnås så innebär det en radikal och permanent förändring av hur ett ämnesinnehåll, exempelvis evolution, betraktas. Av den anledningen är de också ”enkelriktade” i meningen att den nya förståelsen är bestående

    Ett sätt att bemöta problemen med att förstå tidsskalor av varierande storlekar är att använda dynamiska visualiseringar. Denna avhandling handlar just om hur elevers förståelse av evolution med avseende på tiden kan underlättas genom visualiseringar i undervisning.

    Avhandlingen baseras på två studier som var och en belyser evolutionär

    tid på olika sätt beträffande såväl innehåll som form.

    I den första studien undersöktes hur olika varianter av en tidsrepresentation i form av animerade tidslinjer påverkade 144 studenters förståelse av olika tidsaspekter. Representationen av tid hade två variabler, nämligen antal tidslinjer (en tidslinje respektive 3 tidslinjer med olika skalor) och hastighet för animationen av tidsförloppet (konstant hastighet respektive avtagande hastighet när animationen närmade sig nutid). De två variablerna kombinerades för att ge fyra olika varianter av tidsrepresentation. I studien jämfördes varianterna genom att undersöka studenters förmåga kring olika tidsaspekter; hitta händelser vid specifika tider, uppfatta ordning på händelser, uppfatta samtidiga händelser, uppfatta längden på ett tidsintervall och jämföra längden av två tidsintervall.

    I den andra studien undersöktes uppfattningar och förståelse av tidsmässiga aspekter hos 10 gymnasieelever med utgångspunkt från det interaktiva multi-touch-bordet ”DeepTree”. Det är en interaktiv visualisering av livets träd, det vill säga de fylogenetiska sambanden mellan organismer på jorden. I denna studie fokuserades de interaktiva aspekterna av visualiseringen, särskilt kring hur zoomfunktionen uppfattades av elever men också vilka missuppfattningar som var kopplade till interaktioner. Även tidsaspekterna från den första studien undersöktes.

    Resultaten från den första studien visar att det under vissa omständigheter kan vara en fördel att variera det animerade tidsflödet, till exempel genom att hastigheten på tidsflödet i animationen avtar under en speciellt händelserik period som behöver granskas noggrannare. Under andra omständigheter kan det däremot vara olämpligt att variera hastigheten för den animerade tiden eftersom det försvårar bedömningen av storleken på, och jämförelsen av, tidsintervall. Det är alltså viktigt att lärare är medvetna om vilken, eller vilka, tidsaspekter som är centrala i den specifika lärandesituationen.

    Resultaten från den andra studien visar två olika sätt att uppfatta zoomfunktionen när den används i applikationen DeepTree; antingen som en rörelse i tid eller som en rörelse i det metaforiska trädet. Flera missuppfattningar av interaktionen observerades hos eleverna. Till exempel tolkade en del elever den tid det tog att zooma i trädet som att det motsvarade hur lång tid som förflöt mellan olika evolutionära händelser. Ett antal elever verkade anta att det finns en implicit linjär tidslinje längs y-axeln på trädet, och att ju fler grendelningar som fanns längs en gren desto längre tid motsvarade grenen. Generellt är de flesta tidsaspekter svåra att uppfatta för användare av DeepTree. Evolutionära träd av denna typ är dock främst gjorda för att illustrera släktskapsförhållanden, men de tidsmässiga aspekterna skulle kunna förbättras. Applikationer av den typ som DeepTree utgör har potential att erbjuda goda möjligheter till lärande även beträffande evolutionär tid men hänsyn behöver då tas just till hur tidsaspekter beskrivs.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Pontara, Tobias
    Musikalisering och medialisering2019Ingår i: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, s. 263-283Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel undersöks det fenomen som vi valt att kalla musikalisering. Som en ständigt ökande närvaro av musik i kultur och vardagsliv innefattar musikaliseringen både en diskursivoch en dramaturgiskdimension. Med musikens diskursiva dimension avser vi medierepresentationer och medierade diskurser ”om” musik och musikrelaterade frågor. När musik framförs åtföljs den så gott som alltid av kommentarer, personliga reflektioner, recensioner, åsikter, analyser, tolkningar, förklaringar, kontextualiseringar och mer eller mindre metaforiska beskrivningar. På samma sätt – i visuellt baserade medier som film, tv och internet – åtföljs musik av fotografiska bilder, målningar eller andra visuella gestaltningar, för att inte tala om film och rörliga bilder. Således är det inte bara "själva musiken" (dess klingande dimension, om än en sådan knappast kan särskiljas annat än analytiskt) som avses, utan också dess verbala och visuella bestämningar, vilka utgör icke-reducerbara aspekter av det vi kallar musik.

    Med musikens dramaturgiska dimension avses (till skillnad från dess diskursiva dimension) ett ökande inflytande av vad som bäst kan beskrivas som ett slags musikaliskt soundtracking av kultur och vardagsliv. Det är en process som är oupplösligt kopplad till musikens ökande närvaro i olika slags medierade berättelser, fiktiva såväl som icke-fiktiva – från fictionfilmer till dataspel, dokumentärer, nyhetssändningar, barnprogram, naturprogram, tv-sportevenemang, politiska tal på internet, hemsidor och annonser – en process där tillvaron blir alltmer strukturerad och organiserad i enlighet med en musikaliskt medierad medvetenhet. Resultatet är en tillvaro där musik inte bara ingår som en naturlig komponent utan också bidrar med att strukturera och organisera uppfattningar om, erfarenheter av och förväntningar på den levda verkligheten.

  • Pontara, Tobias
    et al.
    Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Allmänna teknologier och privata rum: förutsättningar för den digitala tidsålderns  solipsistiska ljudkultur2019Ingår i: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, s. 187-205Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lyssna på musik i avskildhet, solitärt lyssnande, är en av de mest utbredda formerna av musiklyssnande i vår digitala tidsålder. Men i nästan ett halvt sekel av ljudåtergivningstekniken var olika former av socialt lyssnande normen. I den här artikeln diskuterar vi vad vi ser som de viktigaste förutsättningarna för solitärt lyssnande som det utvecklades under det tjugonde århundradet. Mer specifikt argumenterar vi för att solitärt lyssnande blev den dominerande formen att lyssna vid mitten av seklet som ett resultat av tre olika men sammanhängande faktorer i det moderna samhället: (1) uppkomsten av det moderna vardagsrummet; (2) ankomsten av nya och alltmer sofistikerade teknologier för ljudåtergivning och (3) en ständigt växande individualism i samhället som helhet, vilken främjade en estetisk individualism där solitärt lyssnande fann en naturlig plats. Med internet, digital teknik och moderna ljudavskiljande hörlurar har utvecklingen lett till vad som kan beskrivas som en solipsistisk ljudkultur. Men samtidigt, genom att t.ex. dela musik och musikaliska spellistor på sociala medier, verkar äldre tiders sociala aspekter av musikaliskt lyssnande åter ha kommit till heders.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Vardagslivets fonografi: Grammofonspelande i Sverige 1903–19452019Ingår i: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige mediehistoriskt arkiv / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, s. 25-55Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar om användningen av fonografer och grammofoner under första hälften av 1900-talet. I stället för att fokusera på Storbritannien eller USA, som tidigare forskning ofta har gjort, ligger fokus på det i förhållandevis perifera Sverige. Mer specifikt är frågan hur fonografi förvandlades från att betraktas som vetenskaplig kuriosa till att bli en vardaglig medieteknologi och hur den påverkat kultur och musikalisk kommunikation. Källmaterialet består av dags- och veckotidningar, musiktidskrifter, kataloger över tidiga bostads- och hemutställningar, samt ett etnografiskt frågeformulär från 1962 med nationell räckvidd som ber om personliga minnen av grammofonen från åren runt sekelskiftet 1900. Kommersiell reklam (som utgör källmaterial för en stor del av tidigare forskning) kompletteras därmed och jämförs med andra typer av journalistiskt, vetenskapligt och populärvetenskapligt innehåll, från nyheter till korta romaner och offentliga policyplaner, till personliga minnen. Genom att undersöka medier som riktar sig till icke-specialister och amatörlyssnare (och som det visar sig, även icke-lyssnare), samt med inriktning på vardagsrummet i hemmets privatsfär, balanseras det vardagliga och prosaiska mot det åtrådda och prestigefyllda - ett brett spektrum inom vilket vardagslivet utspelade sig för en stor del av befolkningen. Resultatet av undersökningen visar två distinkta sätt att förhålla sig till inspelad musik, som beskrivs som utilitaristisktrespektive solipsistiskt.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Inledning: Medialisering och musikalisering i Sverige2019Ingår i: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, 1, s. 5-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Musiken har genomgått en medialisering utan like de senaste hundra åren. Elektrifiering och digitalisering av musikmedierna har inneburit att musik kan höras så gott som överallt och när som helst. Vid sidan av medialisering introducerar föreliggande antologi begreppet musikalisering. Medan medialisering handlar om mediernas långsiktiga påverkan på vardagspraktiker och kommunikation, handlar musikalisering om förändringar i musikens roll. Förutom att vara en naturlig komponent i allt fler vardagssammanhang bidrar musik i allt högre grad till att strukturera och organisera uppfattningar om, erfarenheter av och förväntningar på den levda verkligheten.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Fantasy control: Implications for distributed imagination and affect attunement in music and sound2019Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Imagination, Volume 1 / [ed] Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mads Walther-Hansen & Martin Knakkergaard, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, 1, s. 229-249Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with the control of imagination. Three thematically distinct aspects of sonic imagination are investigated – archive, context, and identification – together with two modes of connection with the environment – metaphorical projection and affect attunement. It is argued that much of the available work on sonic imagination, music perception, and embodied cognitive science suffers from a one-person perspective, unable to explain either the difference between environmental sound and culture-specific music, or the dominant role of feelings in our musical experiences. In its stead an approach is suggested that assigns central importance to affect attunement in our encounters with sound and music. Through a case study, different types of sonic control are exemplified, showing that control of sonic imagination may be both negative and positive for the listener.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    A technology and its vicissitudes: playing the gramophone in Sweden 1903–19452019Ingår i: Popular Music, ISSN 0261-1430, E-ISSN 1474-0095, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 219-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This inquiry deals with the changing role of the technology and the use of phonographs and gramophones during the first half of the 20th century. Rather than looking at the UK or USA, which much previous research has done, the focus is on peripheral Sweden. More specifically the question is how phonography turned from being a scientific curiosity into becoming an everyday media technology, and how it thereby influenced culture and everyday musical communication. The findings show two distinct approaches to recorded music, which intermingle in today’s unprecedented musicalisation of culture and everyday life around the globe – approaches respectively described as utilitarian and solipsistic.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tools for Structured Matrix Computations: Stratifications and Coupled Sylvester Equations2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing theory, algorithms, and software tools for analyzing matrix pencils whose matrices have various structures are contemporary research problems. Such matrices are often coming from discretizations of systems of differential-algebraic equations. Therefore preserving the structures in the simulations as well as during the analyses of the mathematical models typically means respecting their physical meanings and may be crucial for the applications. This leads to a fast development of structure-preserving methods in numerical linear algebra along with a growing demand for new theories and tools for the analysis of structured matrix pencils, and in particular, an exploration of their behaviour under perturbations. In many cases, the dynamics and characteristics of the underlying physical system are defined by the canonical structure information, i.e. eigenvalues, their multiplicities and Jordan blocks, as well as left and right minimal indices of the associated matrix pencil. Computing canonical structure information is, nevertheless, an ill-posed problem in the sense that small perturbations in the matrices may drastically change the computed information. One approach to investigate such problems is to use the stratification theory for structured matrix pencils. The development of the theory includes constructing stratification (closure hierarchy) graphs of orbits (and bundles) that provide qualitative information for a deeper understanding of how the characteristics of underlying physical systems can change under small perturbations. In turn, for a given system the stratification graphs provide the possibility to identify more degenerate and more generic nearby systems that may lead to a better system design.

    We develop the stratification theory for Fiedler linearizations of general matrix polynomials, skew-symmetric matrix pencils and matrix polynomial linearizations, and system pencils associated with generalized state-space systems. The novel contributions also include theory and software for computing codimensions, various versal deformations, properties of matrix pencils and matrix polynomials, and general solutions of matrix equations. In particular, the need of solving matrix equations motivated the investigation of the existence of a solution, advancing into a general result on consistency of systems of coupled Sylvester-type matrix equations and blockdiagonalizations of the associated matrices.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skew-symmetric matrix pencils: stratification theory and tools2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating the properties, explaining, and predicting the behaviour of a physical system described by a system (matrix) pencil often require the understanding of how canonical structure information of the system pencil may change, e.g., how eigenvalues coalesce or split apart, due to perturbations in the matrix pencil elements. Often these system pencils have different block-partitioning and / or symmetries. We study changes of the congruence canonical form of a complex skew-symmetric matrix pencil under small perturbations. The problem of computing the congruence canonical form is known to be ill-posed: both the canonical form and the reduction transformation depend discontinuously on the entries of a pencil. Thus it is important to know the canonical forms of all such pencils that are close to the investigated pencil. One way to investigate this problem is to construct the stratification of orbits and bundles of the pencils. To be precise, for any problem dimension we construct the closure hierarchy graph for congruence orbits or bundles. Each node (vertex) of the graph represents an orbit (or a bundle) and each edge represents the cover/closure relation. Such a relation means that there is a path from one node to another node if and only if a skew-symmetric matrix pencil corresponding to the first node can be transformed by an arbitrarily small perturbation to a skew-symmetric matrix pencil corresponding to the second node. From the graph it is straightforward to identify more degenerate and more generic nearby canonical structures. A necessary (but not sufficient) condition for one orbit being in the closure of another is that the first orbit has larger codimension than the second one. Therefore we compute the codimensions of the congruence orbits (or bundles). It is done via the solutions of an associated homogeneous system of matrix equations. The complete stratification is done by proving the relation between equivalence and congruence for the skew-symmetric matrix pencils. This relation allows us to use the known result about the stratifications of general matrix pencils (under strict equivalence) in order to stratify skew-symmetric matrix pencils under congruence. Matlab functions to work with skew-symmetric matrix pencils and a number of other types of symmetries for matrices and matrix pencils are developed and included in the Matrix Canonical Structure (MCS) Toolbox.

  • Broch Ålvik, Jon Mikkel
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Touching from A Distance: Imagining Marit Larsen in Queer Spaces2019Ingår i: Radical Musicology, ISSN 1751-7788, E-ISSN 1751-7788, Vol. 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates into how Norwegian pop artist Marit Larsen's music and persona may be open to queer readings. Via close readings of songs and media appearances, I wish to show the possibility of meanings in the work of an artist whose music, on a superficial level, comes across as contingent on the artist’s own, heteronormative version of events.

  • Svensson, Robert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    From tracksuit to trench coat: The changing position of the Swedish male elite soccer coach between the 1960s and the 2010s2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Rukanova, Boriana
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Tan, Yao-Hua
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gasco, Mila
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Identifying mechanisms for achieving voluntary data sharing in cross-sector partnerships for public good2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, ACM Digital Library, 2019, s. 227-236Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been advocated that sharing business data can generate public value. Still this information sharing often needs to be done on voluntary basis and that often poses major challenges. The main research question addressed in this paper is: How is voluntary information sharing to create publicvalue achieved and what are the drivers and mechanisms to achieve that? While voluntary information sharing to achieve public value is recognized in the eGovernment literature, this literature is limited to understand how such information sharing can be achieved. To address the research question, we borrow a framework of platforms for cross sector social partnerships from organization studies and use it as a conceptual lens to structure the analysis of three case studies where voluntary information sharingwas achieved in different domains. Building on the framework and our case analysis, we distinguish three types of information sharing collaborations, namely Resource-dependence platform, Social Issue platform, and Societal Sector platform which allow to distinguish the motivations why parties enter into voluntary information sharing collaborations. Our analysis suggests that while the higher goal of the voluntary information sharing may be the same (i.e. to create public value), parties are driven by different motivations of why they enter into the information sharing collaborations. Furthermore, in each of these different types of collaborations the mechanisms of how the information sharing was achieved, as well as the role the government can play, differ.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Structure preserving stratification of skew-symmetric matrix polynomials2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how elementary divisors and minimal indices of a skew-symmetric matrix polynomial of odd degree may change under small perturbations of the matrix coefficients. We investigate these changes qualitatively by constructing the stratifications (closure hierarchy graphs) of orbits and bundles for skew-symmetric linearizations. We also derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a skew-symmetric matrix polynomial with prescribed degree, elementary divisors, and minimal indices.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dopico, Froilán M.
    Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Generic matrix polynomials with fixed rank and fixed degree2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå. University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå. University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kågström, Bo
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå. University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Codimension computations of congruence orbits of matrices, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrix pencils using Matlab2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Matlab functions to work with the canonical structures for congru-ence and *congruence of matrices, and for congruence of symmetricand skew-symmetric matrix pencils are presented. A user can providethe canonical structure objects or create (random) matrix examplesetups with a desired canonical information, and compute the codi-mensions of the corresponding orbits: if the structural information(the canonical form) of a matrix or a matrix pencil is known it isused for the codimension computations, otherwise they are computednumerically. Some auxiliary functions are provided too. All thesefunctions extend the Matrix Canonical Structure Toolbox.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kågström, Bo
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Van Dooren, Paul
    Universite catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Geometry of spaces for matrix polynomial Fiedler linearizations2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how small perturbations of matrix polynomials may change their elementary divisors and minimal indices by constructing the closure hierarchy graphs (stratifications) of orbits and bundles of matrix polynomial Fiedler linearizations. We show that the stratifica-tion graphs do not depend on the choice of Fiedler linearization which means that all the spaces of the matrix polynomial Fiedler lineariza-tions have the same geometry (topology). The results are illustrated by examples using the software tool StratiGraph.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kågström, Bo
    Department of Computing Science and HPC2N, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Orbit closure hierarchies of skew-symmetric matrix pencils2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how small perturbations of a skew-symmetric matrix pencil may change its canonical form under congruence. This problem is also known as the stratification problem of skew-symmetric matrix pencil orbits and bundles. In other words, we investigate when the closure of the congruence orbit (or bundle) of a skew-symmetric matrix pencil contains the congruence orbit (or bundle) of another skew-symmetric matrix pencil. This theory relies on our main theorem stating that a skew-symmetric matrix pencil A-λB can be approximated by pencils strictly equivalent to a skew-symmetric matrix pencil C-λD if and only if A-λB can be approximated by pencils congruent to C-λD.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kågström, Bo
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Canonical structure transitions of system pencils2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the changes under small perturbations of the canonical structure information for a system pencil (A B C D) − s (E 0 0 0), det(E) ≠ 0, associated with a (generalized) linear time-invariant state-space system. The equivalence class of the pencil is taken with respect to feedback-injection equivalence transformation. The results allow to track possible changes under small perturbations of important linear system characteristics.

  • Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mariana
    Linköping University , Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Seyferin, Johanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Whilborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A Digital Society For All?: Meanings, Practices and Policies for Digital Diversity2019Ingår i: 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-52): Emerging Topics in Digital Government, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2019, s. 3067-3076Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The concept of digital divides has been on the agenda in research and policy making for at least the last 20 years. But it is still, a challenge to grasp this concept that is so elusive and transforming. Inclusion, access and equality are still key values for democraticgovernance and must be addressed in particular whenforming and contributing to a digital government. This paper seeks to intervene in current debates on digital divides and digital inclusion by analyzing two cases of responses among street-level public administration in relation to e-government services in Sweden. The case studies are strategically chosen and conducted in national agencies and in local public libraries. Three lines of contributions are discussed, firstly theimportance to care for equality secondly the need to see the non-users, and thirdly to discuss the potential of putting focus on digital diversity.

  • Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Medborgarna och automatiserat beslutsfattande2019Ingår i: Storm och Stiltje: SOM-institutets 74:e forskarantologi / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Björn Rönnerstrand, Patrik Öhberg och Annika Bergström, Göteborg: SOM-institutet , 2019, 1, s. 183-196Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I allt större utsträckning införs automatiserat beslutsfattande i offentlig sektor. Det innebär att datorer ersätter handläggare som beslutsfattare. Flera av de ärenden som avgörs med automatiserat beslutsfattande berör medborgarna. Detta kapitel undersöker om medborgarna är medvetna om denna förändring och hur de tror att besluten förändras när datorer ersätter handläggare som beslutsfattare. Resultaten visar att det är en minoritet (20 procent) som har kännedom sedan tidigare om automatiserat beslutsfattande i offentlig sektor. En majoritet tror att besluten förvisso blir mer opartiska när datorer istället för handläggare fattar beslut, men inte att besluten blir mer tillförlitliga. De tror också att automatiska beslut kommer att ta mindre hänsyn till människornas situation och minska insynen i beslutsfattandet. De som har kännedom om automatiserat beslutsfattande är mer positiva när det gäller beslutens opartiskhet och tillförlitlighet, men anser i samma utsträckning som de utan kännedom att besluten medför mindre hänsynstagande till människors situation och minskad insyn i beslutsfattandet.

  • Chen, Ariel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Göran
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The mythologization of protein: a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of snacks packaging2019Ingår i: Food, Culture and Society, ISSN 1528-9796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how protein snacks are marketed as good food choices through their packaging and how these packages reproduce a discourse – what we see as a myth – of the benefits of high protein intake. Research shows that consumers believe high protein food has a positive impact on physical performance and body composition, although there is very little evidence of this. Protein foods and beverages are nevertheless one of the fastest growing sectors in the food market and we now see food companies exploit peoples beliefs by adding protein to food that was formerly seen as unhealthy. Adopting a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA) we look in detail at the packaging of a group of snacks that are usually high in fat and sugar but now appear as good food options, particularly through accentuating the protein content. The analysis shows that the packages market these products as an outcome of scientific modern technology, but this is done in playful and comforting ways. This goes along with neoliberal ideas about wellness and demands of an active lifestyle. From these findings, we discuss the limitations of existing regulations as marketing shape and capitalize on discourses of health.

  • Aspenberg, David
    et al.
    DYNAmore Nordic AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Topology optimization of a U-bend tool using LS-TaSC2019Ingår i: Proc. of the 12th European LS-DYNA Conference 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal additive manufacturing of stamping tool and die has a potential of reducing the lead time of forming processes, while at least not increasing the cost. As a part of a research project exploring the possibilities to use this type of tool manufacturing techniques, topology optimization using LS-TaSC has been utilized and one example case is presented in this paper, namely a U‑bend tool. This paper looks at the possible benefits from using nonlinear simulations in topology optimization, the effect of chosen target mass fraction value, the interpretations needed of optimal results and the effects on the formed specimen after using an optimized tool. Results show that accounting for the time dependent pressure on the tool, rather than applying a form of equivalent static load, gives a different optimal topology. Some manual interpretations of the optimal results are also recommended, as well as studying the effects on the specimen from removing material on the tool side.

  • Svensson, Tomas
    Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden; Institutionen för nordiska språk, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skriftbruk på en bilverkstad: En studie av en fordonsmekanikers användning av text under en arbetsdag2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Sataøen, Hogne L.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Sub-sector branding and nation branding: the case of higher education2019Ingår i: Corporate Communications. An International Journal, ISSN 1356-3289, E-ISSN 1758-6046Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper concerns public sub-sector branding within the higher education (HE) system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how public sub-sector branding within HE is organized and how it is influenced by the use of national values, traits and characteristics.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study relies on two data sources: first, the paper benefits from a data set of one-stop web-portals for HE from the 23 countries listed in Times Higher Education’s top-60 universities ranking. Second, it builds on a sample and brief overview of Norway’s sub-sector branding of its HE sector.

    Findings: Expert authorities within the HE sector are legally and organizationally responsible for sub-sector branding, and they establish coordinated and coherent web-portals. In practice, however, nation-branding concerns are influencing on how the HE sub-sector is branded. The paper concludes with a discussion of democratic implications, and points to paradoxes arising from the use of national clichés and characteristics in this highly international sub-sector of the public realm.

    Originality/value: The paper informs discussions about public sub-sector branding within HE, a phenomenon that thus far has not been systematically studied. The practical applications of such a study are evident, as branding is becoming more important in the public sector in general, and in HE in particular.

  • Disputation: 2019-09-06 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Sundin, Per-Ola
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    A life-course approach to chronic kidney disease: risks and consequences2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful primary prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) relies on understanding the pathways leading to established disease, including how they extend over the life-course. Projects in this thesis examine risk factors for CKD and consequences of impaired kidney function from a life-course perspective using routinely collected health-data in Swedish registers and research cohort data from the United Kingdom.

    The main findings regarding risk factors for CKD are, that markers of health and development determined at conscription assessment in adolescence, independently predict diagnosis of end-stage renal disease in middle age. We also identified a persistent increased risk of CKD following hospital admission with pneumonia in adulthood with highest magnitude risks in years immediately following infection, but still statistically significantly raised more than 15 years after the pneumonia episode. Our main findings relevant to predicting the consequences of impaired kidney function are that creatinine and cystatin C used clinically to estimate kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) have associations with increased mortality risk independent of GFR measured with an exogenous filtration marker (mGFR). If cystatin C and creatinine are combined, adding mGFR does not improve mortality risk prediction. Another important finding is that moderately reduced eGFR is only associated with a statistically significant increased mortality risk among individuals in the lowest third of the distribution of grip strength in a general population sample followed for 4-5 years, after adjustment for potential confounding factors.

    These results highlight the importance of adopting a life-course perspective when studying risk factors for CKD, since these associations can extend over different stages in the life-course. When assessing increased mortality risk associated with measures of GFR, combining cystatin and creatinine improves risk prediction. Potential effect modification across subgroups, including by grip strength, should be considered.

    Delarbeten
    1. Predictors in Adolescence of ESRD in Middle-Aged Men
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predictors in Adolescence of ESRD in Middle-Aged Men
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, ISSN 0272-6386, E-ISSN 1523-6838, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 723-729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Identification of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adolescence could provide intervention targets and improve understanding of the cause.

    Study Design: Register-based nested case-control study.

    Setting & Participants: A cohort of all Swedish male residents born from 1952 through 1956 who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence was used to identify 534 cases and 5,127 controls matched by birth year, county, and vital status.

    Predictor: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence.

    Outcomes: ESRD (defined here as dialysis therapy, kidney transplantation, surgical procedures creating long-term access for dialysis therapy, or chronic kidney disease stage 5) from 1985 through 2009.

    Measurements: Physical working capacity and cognitive function score in late adolescence. Head of household's occupation and household crowding measured as person-per-room ratio from the 1960 census when participants were children.

    Results: Proteinuria is associated notably with future ESRD, with an adjusted OR of 7.72 (95% CI, 3.94-15.14; P < 0.001) for trace or positive dipstick findings. ESR has a dose-dependent association with ESRD with an adjusted OR of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.14-3.75; P = 0.02) for ESR > 15 mm/h. Hypertension is associated strongly with future ESRD with an OR of 3.97 (95% CI, 2.08-7.59; P < 0.001) for grade 2 hypertension and higher. Elevated BMI is associated statistically significantly with increased ESRD risk with an OR of 3.53 (95% CI, 2.04-6.11; P < 0.001) for BMI >= 30 compared with 18.5-<25kg/m(2).

    Limitations: The study was limited to men, with no initial estimation of glomerular filtration rate, and information on smoking was unavailable.

    Conclusions: ESR, proteinuria, BMI, and blood pressure in late adolescence are independent predictors of ESRD in middle-aged men. This highlights the long natural history and importance of adopting a life-course approach when considering the cause of chronic kidney disease. (C) 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Saunders Elsevier, 2014
    Nyckelord
    End-stage renal disease (ESRD), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, adolescence, inflammation, disease trajectory, risk factor, etiology, kidney disease progression
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Urologi och njurmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39453 (URN)10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.06.019 (DOI)000344237900012 ()25124945 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84908479380 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    UK Economic and Social Research Council RES-596-28-0001  ES/J019119/1

    Research Committee of Orebro County Council OLL-213581  OLL-333371

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-10 Skapad: 2014-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 663-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR. A secondary aim was to evaluate the utility of combining cystatin C and creatinine to predict mortality risk.

    Methods: Cox regression was used to assess the associations of cystatin C and creatinine with mortality in 1157 individuals referred for assessment of plasma clearance of iohexol.

    Results: Since cystatin C and creatinine are inversely related to mGFR, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 were used. After adjustment for mGFR, lower cystatin C - 1 (higher cystatin C concentration) and higher creatinine - 1 (lower creatinine concentration) were independently associated with increased mortality. When nested models were compared, avoiding the potential influence of multicollinearity, the independence of the associations was supported. Among models combining the markers of GFR, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 combined explained the largest proportion of variance in associations with mortality risk ( R 2  = 0.61). Addition of mGFR did not improve the model.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that both creatinine and cystatin C have independent associations with mortality not explained entirely by mGFR and that mGFR does not offer a more precise mortality risk assessment than these endogenous filtration markers combined.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxford University Press, 2017
    Nyckelord
    GFR, creatinine, cystatin C, epidemiology, prognosis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Urologi och njurmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57361 (URN)10.1093/ndt/gfx004 (DOI)000401057000013 ()28340079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019091905 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:

    Research Committee of the Örebro County Council (OLL-330601, OLL-408481 and OLL-506561)

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-21 Skapad: 2017-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, s. 971-979Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although acute onset kidney complications associated with severe infections including pneumonia are well characterized, little is known about possible subsequent delayed risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Patients and methods: Associations between hospital admission with pneumonia in adulthood and raised risks of subsequent CKD were evaluated in a cohort of all male residents in Sweden born from 1952 to 1956 (n=284,198) who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence (n=264,951) and were followed up through 2009. CKD and pneumonia were identified using Swedish national registers, and their associations were evaluated using Cox regression. Excluding the first year, the subsequent period was divided into <= 5, > 5-<= 15, and > 15 years after hospital admission with pneumonia. Follow-up ended on the date of first incident diagnosis of kidney disease, death, emigration, or December 31, 2009, whichever occurred first.

    Results: During a median follow-up of 36.7 (interquartile range 35.3-37.9) years from late adolescence, 5,822 men had an inpatient pneumonia diagnosis without contemporaneous kidney disease. Among exposed men, 136 (2.3%) were later diagnosed with CKD compared with 2,749 (1.2%) of the unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first year after the first episode of pneumonia was 14.55 (95% confidence interval, 10.41-20.32), identifying early onset kidney complications and possibly pre-existing undiagnosed CKD. Starting follow-up 1 year after pneumonia to reduce the potential influence of surveillance bias and the risk of reverse causation, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first 5 years of follow-up was 5.20 (95% confidence interval, 3.91-6.93) and then attenuated with increasing time.

    Conclusion: Pneumonia among inpatients is associated with a persistently increased risk for subsequent CKD, with the highest risk during the years immediately after pneumonia. Health care professionals should be aware of this period of heightened risk to facilitate early diagnosis and secondary preventive interventions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2018
    Nyckelord
    pneumonia, kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, inflammation, cohort study
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68653 (URN)10.2147/CLEP.S169039 (DOI)000441779100001 ()30147376 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057756705 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    UK Economic and Social Research Council  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-31 Skapad: 2018-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Grip strength modifies the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and all-cause mortality
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Grip strength modifies the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and all-cause mortality
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Allmänmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75760 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-13 Skapad: 2019-08-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    th Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Department of Pharmacology, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden (.
    Senek, Marina
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A multimodal sensor fusion platform for objective assessment of motor states in Parkinson's disease2019Ingår i: IEEE-EMBS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS (BHI 19), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a platform to objectively assess motor states in Parkinson’s disease (PD) using sensor technology and machine learning. The platform uses sensor information gathered during standardized motor tasks and fuses them in a data-driven manner to produce an index representing motor states of the patients. After investigating clinimetric properties of the platform it was found that the platform had good validity and responsiveness to treatment, which are essential for developing systems to individualize treatments.

  • Zetterqvist, Jenny
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Visibility at risk for women as rights-holders: a study with regard to a refugee camp context2019Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking the recognition of persons as rights-holders in the framework of international human rights into account, this study directs its attention to women in protracted refugee situations, restricted to stay in camps also when their human rights are at risk due to various forms of violence. The question in focus is the following: To what extent may there be a risk that women in a refugee camp context, distinguished by a protracted refugee situation, do not become visible as rights-holders and entrusted to act with regard to international human rights and the problem of violence against women, especially domestic violence?

    The research process has taken the form of a continuous dialogue with the material for the study, a dialogue directing attention to material from an established international human rights system on one hand and material dealing with a local refugee camp context on the other. The study finds its entry-point primarily in the context of the international human rights treaty the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), including the work of the CEDAW Committee as a treaty body, and also the international mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its causes and consequences. Due to the presence of a variety of justice mechanisms in the camps, certain aspects of a local customary law tradition are also addressed. The existence of an unlocked legal door for women to take actions in family law matters, or in cases of gender-based violence is something not to take for granted. The hindrances could lie deep in the legal system practiced. It could be an issue of not being entrusted by the structure of the system to act in person, as woman, with a legal capacity and by own right before the law.

    The study underlines the importance of sharpened awareness and analysis of the presence of a complex legal context and a variety of customary law traditions in the camps. It appears from the study that for women in a refugee camp to be able to act as rights-holders and claim human rights as laid down in human rights conventions, the issue of visibility is not only a matter of training in presenting facts on the ground in front of local authorities. To be visible in addressing the problem of gender-based violence and gaps in protection of human rights in a refugee camp context is first and foremost an issue for women to be recognized the right to act in legal matters. It is an issue of having the freedom of expression and to be recognized the social and legal status to act in their own capacity in front of the local legal structures, including the local customary law context, and to address international human rights monitoring mechanisms, such as the CEDAW Committee or the Special Rapporteur.

  • Englund, Hans
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Gerdin, Jonas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Performative technologies and teacher subjectivities: A conceptual framework2019Ingår i: British Educational Research Journal, ISSN 0141-1926, E-ISSN 1469-3518, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 502-517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical educational literature suggests that an increased reliance upon performative technologies is currently transforming the very foundations from which teacher subjectivities are constructed. Arguably though, the number of studies pointing to this risk or tendency is considerably larger than the ones theorising why this should be the case. Further, in those cases where the relationship between performative technologies and teacher subjectivities is theorised, the psychological mechanisms that the technologies appeal to are seldom brought to the fore. Based on this, the purpose of this article is to theorise the psychological mechanisms that performative technologies appeal to and work through, by means of identifying, systematising and elaborating extant understandings of such mechanisms in the critical educational literature. The results are presented in the form of a conceptual framework (referred to as the CMIS-framework) which suggests that one and the same performative technology may play many different roles, where each such role appeals to and works through a particular psychological mechanism. Importantly, depending on the type of psychological mechanism that is appealed to, the CMIS-framework suggests that this will lead to teachers (un)- consciously conducting particular forms of subjectivising work upon themselves, here referred to as compliance, mirroring, identification and self-realisation (CMIS).

  • Källström, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Gómez Jansson, Sabina
    Från USA till Sverige: Reflektioner över Kids' Club-metodens resa2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Jämlik idrott och funktionsnedsättningar2019Ingår i: Idrotten och (o)jämlikheten: I medlemmarnas eller samhällets intresse? / [ed] Johan R Norberg, Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2019, s. 133-148Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan föreningsidrotten passa alla oavsett förutsättningar? Forskning visar att föreningar måste bli bättre på att anpassa ordinarie aktiviteter, snarare än att skilja grupper åt. En jämlik idrottsrörelse kräver en mångfald av aktiviteter – alla vinner på att all organiserad idrott inte ser likadan ut.

  • Öhman, Anna
    Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, sweden.
    Twist and shape: Feedback practices within creative subject content of hairdressing education2018Ingår i: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 425-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore feedback practices and how such actions of assessment emerge from embodied participation in classroom interactions between teachers and students. Using video recordings of teacher and student interactions in hairdressing education, I look at how feedback practices within creative subject content are produced between the participants as social actions situated in interaction, using conversation analysis. Feedback is contingent upon an embodied moment-to-moment monitoring and collaboration between the teacher and student, and is organized as a trajectory from problem detection through exploration until a final solution is found. Feedback within creative subject content is displayed as a multifarious exploration of embodied as well as materially situated professional knowledge. Overall, the findings show how feedback is mutually produced in a process, making tacit dimensions of hairdressers’ knowing explicit. This allows for improving the quality of the work over time in a trajectory of problem solving phases gradually displaying how to assess creative subject content of the material product worked on.

  • Öhman, Anna
    Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Cykler och loopar i Salongen: En studie av återkoppling i frisörklassrummet2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Baksidestext: Cykler och loopar i Salongen handlar om återkoppling i yrkesgymnasiet, närmare bestämt på hantverksprogrammets frisörutbildning. Återkoppling studeras genom videoobservationer av kommunikation mellan lärare och elev under pågående undervisning, där elever arbetar med olika hårvårdsbehandlingar på kunder.

    Återkoppling görs genom olika meningsskapande resurser. Det verbalspråkliga är bara en del av kommunikationen. Kroppsrörelser, blickar och olika redskap används också för att kommunicera av både elev och lärare. Mönster i form av olika återkopplingsfunktioner och cykliska processer kan urskiljas i kommunikationen mellan lärare och elev. I det cykliska uppstår ibland loopar, som utgörs av händelser där något moment blir uppmärksammat i ett gemensamt utforskande. Looparna utgår från elevens frågor och funderingar och betraktas därför som centrala i återkopplingspraktiken.

    Studien bidrar med beskrivningar av den dagliga klassrumskommunikationen, där bedömning och undervisning är sammanvävda förlopp. Den riktar sig till forskare och lärare inom yrkesutbildning och andra skolformer, men också till övriga läsare med intresse för bedömningsfrågor och återkopplingspraktik.

    Licentiatuppsatsen är skriven inom ramen för Lic-forskarskolan i yrkesämnenas didaktik.

  • Öhman, Anna
    Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Återkoppling i interaktion: En studie av klassrumsbaserad bedömning i frisörutbildningen2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här sammanläggningsavhandlingen handlar om återkoppling mellan lärare och elever i frisörutbildning. Med hjälp av videoinspelningar under pågående undervisning utforskas klassrumsbaserad bedömning och återkopplingspraktiker. Eleverna är dels nybörjare som arbetar på övningsdockor, dels elever i slutet av sin utbildning som tar emot kunder i sitt klassrum. Videoanalyserna ger möjlighet att få syn på multimodala aspekter av interaktionen och resultatet visar tydligt hur både kropp och material är viktiga resurser i deltagarnas samspel.

    Avhandlingen visar genomgående hur bedömning och återkoppling utgår både från lärares professionella yrkeskunnande och från elevernas egna initiativ på specifika områden där något problem behöver redas ut i relation till deras pågående arbeten. Studiernas detaljerade analyser av deltagarnas multimodala interaktion synliggör hur bedömning och återkoppling kan förstås som sociala handlingar där tal, kropp och artefakter samordnas för att skapa gemensam förståelse och mening.

    Avhandlingens bidrag riktar sig mot yrkesutbildning men även andra former för utbildning, eftersom bedömning och återkoppling praktiseras i varje klassrum och utbildningskontext. Avhandlingens delstudier ökar kunskapen om hur återkoppling kan förstås som sociala handlingar där varje deltagare bidrar i skapandet av ömsesidig respons. Att förstå interaktion som multimodal, synliggör hur återkoppling i pågående undervisning möjliggörs genom deltagande och samspel mellan lärare och elever.

  • Öhman, Anna
    Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Kameraanvändning i videoobservation2016Ingår i: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 75-85Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Olika kameror ger fler perspektiv och således ett rikare datamaterial. Denna metodartikel beskriver erfarenheter av användning av huvudkamera och handkamera i videoobservationer och diskuterar hur användning av fler kameror kompletterar varandra. Datamaterialet består av 20 timmars film varav 10 timmar även har spelats in med huvudkamera. Sammantaget visar datainsamlingsmetoden hur huvudkameran erbjuder möjligheter att komma nära det som deltagarna talar om och gör. Kameran följer bärarens rörelser och blick på ett sätt som en handkamera inte lyckas fånga. I de studerade aktiviteterna, ger huvudkameran närbilder av materialet deltagarna arbetar med samt av hur de riktar sin uppmärksamhet och vad de talar om. Eftersom inspelning görs samtidigt både med huvudkamera och handkamera, kan materialet i olika filmerna jämföras. Användningen av huvudkamera har inte bara fördelen av att ge närbilder, utan den tillför detaljer från det arbetsmaterial deltagarna interagerar med och i, vilket inte synliggörs med enbart handkameran. Däremot har handkameran fördelen att kunna avbilda fler deltagare samtidigt och den kontext de befinner sig i. Artikeln konkluderar med hur inspelning med fler rörliga kameror är en lämplig metod för videoobservation eftersom det visar studieobjektet ur fler perspektiv.

  • Öhman, Anna
    Institutionen för pedagogiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nyckelkompetenser eller professionellt omdöme?: En kritisk diskussion av nyliberala influenser inom yrkesutbildning2017Ingår i: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 59-73Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln, med sitt utbildningssociologiska perspektiv, har sin bakgrund i empiriska studier där intresset är riktat mot klassrumsbaserad bedömning, närmare bestämt återkoppling som en del av den dagliga undervisningen. Data konstruerades genom videoobservationer i frisörklassrummet. Analyserna av återkopplingspraktikerna synliggör lärares professionella yrkeskunnande steg för steg, koordinerade med och i respons till eleverna. Dessa empiriskt baserade resultat ställs i kontrast till neoliberalt färgad utbildningspolitik, som framkommer ur några centrala dokument och artiklar, där professionellt yrkeskunnande reduceras och yrkesutbildning generaliseras till instrumentella nyckelkompetenser och anställningsbarhet.

  • Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lindqvist, Carl Mårten
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Salonen, Anne
    Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    de Vos, Willem
    Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    König, Julia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    The Effect of Allogenic Versus Autologous Fecal Microbiota Transfer on Symptoms, Visceral Perception and Fecal and Mucosal Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study2019Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikel-id e00034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is suggested as a potential treatment for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to study the effect of allogenic and autologous FMT on IBS symptoms, visceral sensitivity, and compositional changes in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota.

    METHODS: Seventeen patients with IBS were randomized either to receive fecal material from a healthy donor (allogenic) or to receive their own fecal material (autologous). The fecal material was administered into the cecum by whole colonoscopy after bowel cleansing.

    RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the allogenic and the autologous FMT regarding symptom scores. However, symptom scores of patients receiving allogenic fecal material significantly decreased after FMT compared with baseline (P 5 0.02), which was not the case in the autologous group (P50.16). Visceral sensitivity was not affected except for a small beneficial effect on urge scores in the autologous group (P < 0.05). While both fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota of some patients shifted to their respective donor’s fecal microbiota, some patients showed no relevant microbial changes after allogenic FMT. Large compositional shifts in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota also occurred in the autologous group.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a single FMT by colonoscopy may have beneficial effects in IBS; however, the allogenic fecal material was not superior to the autologous fecal material. This suggests that bowel cleansing prior to the colonoscopy and/or processing of the fecal material as part of the FMT routine contribute to symptoms and gut microbiota composition changes in IBS.

  • Björkvall, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anslagstavlan: Vägvisare till det lokala lärandets semiotiska landskap?2019Ingår i: Svenskans beskrivning 36: Förhandlingar vid trettiosjätte sammankomsten. Uppsala 25–27 oktober 2017 / [ed] Bianchi, Marco, Håkansson, David, Melander, Björn, Pfister, Linda, Westman, Maria , Östman, Carin, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2019, s. 37-52Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Between stability and contingency: A case study of the social, political and fantasmatic logics of Swedish history classroom practice2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 132-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the political and ideological workings of history classroom practices enacted in the context of Swedish upper secondary education. Using the post-structuralist logics of critical explanation framework (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the paper reports on a series of video-recorded observations and outlines the discursive logics found to constitute the studied practices. At the heart of the analysis are the socially shared assumptions, political relationships of us-and-them, and ideological narratives that alternately furnish the history classroom practices with stability and contingency. The results encompass three case-specific logics: (I) a social logic demonstrating that the stability of the studied classroom practices rests on shared assumptions about historical idealism and partial progress, (II) a political logic indicating that the classroom practices are unsettled when students establish temporal equivalence between past and present us-and-them relationships, and (III) a fantasmatic logic showing that teachers and students become ideologically invested in said practices through narratives emphasizing the need to prevent the repetition of past injustices.

  • Johansson, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Att etablera ett fält. En emotionell praktik i gränslandet mellan ångest och eufori2018Ingår i: Etnografisk forskning i praktiken: Reflektioner från pågående avhadlingsprojekt / [ed] Gruber, Sabine & Gustafsson, Kristina, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, s. 34-42Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna text identifierar och diskuterar jag några av de utmaningar som kan förknippas med etnografisk forskning. Ambitionen med texten är att utveckla mina subjektiva erfarenheter till mer allmännyttiga lärdomar och därmed röra mig från det specifika till det generella. Läsaren introduceras först kort till den studie som kapitlet bygger på. Därefter följer en etnografisk berättelse och utifrån denna lyfts ett antal utmärkande drag och utmaningar med etnografiskt fältarbete, som på olika sätt kan utmana – och utmatta – forskaren. De teman som är centrala i texten är i) problemet med ”opportunistic sampling”; ii) beroendet av nyckelpersoner eller nyckelrespondenter, det vill säga personer som visar sig särskilt värdefulla för att lotsa en vidare till nya sammanhang och introducera nya kontakter (Atkins & Hammersley, 2007); iii) forskningspersonernas drivkraft och vilja att delta; iv) att härbärgera och balansera i samtalen.

    Texten bygger på erfarenheter gjorda i mitt avhandlingsprojekt, i vilket jag studerar hur konflikterna i Syrien och Irak får återverkningar i svenska lokalsamhällen. De konflikter som avses är de som kan sägas ha utbrutit i samband med den arabiska våren, även om de har sina rötter längre bak i tiden. Fältarbetet genomfördes huvudsakligen under 2016, samt delar av 2017.

  • Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Forsberg, Tina
    Sociologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Parding, Karolina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sverige.
    Sehlstedt, Therese
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sverige.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Förberedd för läraryrket? Lärare under 40 år av reformer2018Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 24, nr 1-2, s. 7-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser hur gymnasielärare retrospektivt uppfattar att de förberetts för sitt yrke under lärarutbildningen. Enkätsvar från 1554 gymnasielärare kategoriserades efter den tidsperiod då de examinerades. Frågan om hur väl förberedda de nyexaminerade lärarna var för sitt yrke kopplas till de nationella reformer som styrde lärarutbildningen under den period som läraren studerade. Medan utbildningen i praktisk yrkeskunskap uppfattas ha försämrats över tid, har andra områden förbättrats. Lärosäte hade inte något samband med respondenternas svarsmönster. Slutsatsen är att utbildningsreformerna har samband med förändringar i utbildningens måluppfyllelse, att förbereda lärarstudenter för sitt yrke, samt att utbildningens anpassning till yrkets krav försämrats över tid.

  • Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Lampi, Laura
    Centret för utbildningsevaluering, Helsingfors universitet, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Forsberg, Tina
    Sociologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, stockholm, Sverige.
    Ahtiainen, Raisa
    Centret för utbildningevaluering, Helsingfors universitet, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Björk, Lisa
    Institutet för stressmedicin, Västra Götalandsregionen & Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Hotulainen, Risto
    Centret för utbildningevaluering, Helsingfors universitet, Helsningfors, Finland.
    Parding, Karolina
    Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sverige.
    Sehlstedt, Therese
    Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sverige.
    Wastensson, Gunilla
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nyexaminerade om lärarutbildningen i Sverige och i Finland2018Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 24, nr 3-4, s. 66-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    En professionsutbildning utmärks av en spänning mellan teoretisk kunskap och praktisk yrkeskunskap. Vi vet dock inte mycket om hur en professionsutbildning bäst utformas för att förbereda studenter inför yrket. Utifrån tre enkäter, två i Sverige och en i Finland, analyseras nyexaminerade lärares uppfattning om hur förberedda de var för sitt arbete efter lärarutbildningen. Området metodik och praktik hade tydligast samband med känslan av att vara väl förberedd. I flera områden var de finska respondenterna mer kritiska än de svenska. De många positiva omdömena om den finska lärarutbildningen gjorde att vi förväntat oss ett mer positivt resultat i den finska studien.

  • Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • Jansson, Anton
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    More Than a Shadow: Computed Tomography Method Development and Applications Concerning Complex Material Systems2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of the components fabricated in today's industry is ever increasing. This is partly due to market pressure, but it is also a result from recent progress in fabrication technologies that open up new design possibilities. The increased use of additive manufacturing and multi-material systems, especially, has driven the complexity of parts to new heights. The new complex material systems bring benets in many areas such as; mechanical properties, weight reduction, and multifunctions. However, the increased complexity also makes inspection and dimensional control more dicult. In additive manufacturing, for example, internal features can be fabricated which cannot be seen or measured with conventional tools. There is thus a need for non-destructive inspection methods that can measure these geometries. Such a method is X-ray computed tomography. Computed tomography utilizes the X-rays ability to penetrate material to create 3D digital volumes of components. Measurements and material investigations can be performed in these volumes without any damage to the investigated component. However, industrial computed tomography is still not a fully mature method and there are many uncertainties associated with the investigation technique. In this work, a dual-energy computed tomography tool has been developed with the aim to increase the performance of computed tomography when investigating complex geometries and material combinations. This method has been applied to various phantoms and an industrial case. Also, in this work, complex lattice structures fabricated with additive manufacturing have been investigated and analysed using computed tomography. The results show that the new DECT method improves measurement results and can be utilized to inspect multi-material components. The results also show that computed tomography can be used successfully to gain knowledge about complex lattices.

    Delarbeten
    1. Effects of X-ray Penetration Depth on Multi Material Computed Tomography Measurements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of X-ray Penetration Depth on Multi Material Computed Tomography Measurements
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: iCT 2016, NDT.net , 2016, s. 143-150Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of today’s products and materials is ever increasing. There is a demand on the industry to produce lighter, stronger, and more precise products. A common practice to achieve such products is to combine different materials to enhance strengths and reduce weaknesses; multi material products. Fabricating complex parts using multi materials does, however, lead to an increased difficulty in metrological verification and material characterisation. The use of computed tomography is today widespread within the industry, providing new possibilities for internal measurements, but there are still many uncertainties associated with the method. It is well known that large variations in density of multi materials greatly affects the contrast obtained by computed tomography, resulting in difficulties to scan and acquire reliable data from certain material setups.In this work the effects on internal measurements as a consequence of differences in X-ray penetration depth have been studied with regards to multi material setups. The main interest was the ability to acquire measurements from internal features of material compositions that are commonly used in the industry. In the result, difficulties and uncertainties associated with computed tomography of multi materials are highlighted and suggestions on how to reduce problems and obtain a more reliable test method are discussed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    NDT.net, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Multi-materials, computed tomography, X-ray penetration depth, dual-energy computed tomography
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47802 (URN)
    Konferens
    6th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography (iCT 2016), Wels, Austria, February 9-12, 2016
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-27 Skapad: 2016-01-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A dual-energy approach for improvement of the measurement consistency in computed tomography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A dual-energy approach for improvement of the measurement consistency in computed tomography
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, nr 11, artikel-id 115013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is increasingly adopted by industries for metrological and material evaluation. The technology enables new measurement possibilities, while also challenging old measurement methods in their established territories. There are, however, uncertainties related with the computed tomography method. Investigation of multi-material components with, in particular, varying material thickness can result in unreliable measurements. In this paper the effects of multi-materials, and differing material thickness, on computed tomography measurement consistency has been studied. The aim of the study was to identify measurement inconsistencies and attempt to correct these with a dual-energy computed tomography approach. In this pursuit, a multi-material phantom was developed, containing reliable measurement points and custom-ability with regards to material combinations. A dual-energy method was developed and implemented using sequential acquisition and pre-reconstruction fusing of projections. It was found that measurements made on the multi-material phantom with a single computed tomography scan were highly inconsistent. It was also found that the dual-energy approach was able to reduce the measurement inconsistencies. However, more work is required with the automation of the dual-energy approach presented in this paper since it is highly operator dependant.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Bristol, United Kingdom: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
    Nyckelord
    Multi-materials, computed tomography, dual-energy, metrology, measurement consistency, varying material thickness
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52976 (URN)10.1088/0957-0233/27/11/115013 (DOI)000385929400008 ()2-s2.0-84992365816 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-14 Skapad: 2016-10-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Non-linear dual-energy method development and evaluation for industrial computed tomography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Non-linear dual-energy method development and evaluation for industrial computed tomography
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 30, nr 6, artikel-id 065006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial computed tomography of multi-material objects can be problematic due to difficulties in optimising the x-ray spectra of the scan. A possible solution to the problem is to use two x-ray spectra when scanning objects. The results from such scans can be fused into a single data-set that contains enhanced information. This practice is known as dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). In this work, the aim was to investigate two DECT methods ability to improve measurements in multi-material phantoms. To determine the performance of the methods three different phantoms containing precision spheres as measurement objects were investigated. To improve measurements in this work was defined as improving the measurement consistency of diameter measurements. The phantoms were also scanned with a single setting for comparison. The fusion of the data-sets was done using two methods, a linear fusion, and a novel non-linear fusion. Both of the methods relies on pre-reconstruction fusion of data-sets. The results show that both of the DECT methods improved measurement results significantly compared to the reference method. Further, the results show that the novel non-linear DECT method produces more accurate measurement results compared to the linear method.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
    Nyckelord
    Industrial computed tomography, dual-energy, metrology, multi-material, measurement consistency
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74031 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/ab10cc (DOI)000466894300001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-03 Skapad: 2019-05-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-19Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Multi-material gap measurements using dual-energy computed tomography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multi-material gap measurements using dual-energy computed tomography
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, Vol. 54, s. 420-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography is a highly versatile investigation method with applications in a wide range ofareas. One of the areas where the technique has seen an increased usage, and an increased interest from industry,is in dimensional metrology. X-ray computed tomography enables the measurement of features and dimensionsthat are difficult to inspect using other methods. However, there are issues with the method when it comes tomeasurements of objects that consist of several materials. In particular, it is difficult to obtain accurate computedtomography results for all materials when the attenuation of materials differs significantly. The aim of this workwas to measure small air gaps between different materials using dual-energy X-ray computed tomography. Thedual-energy method employed in this work uses two energy spectra and fuses the data in the projections spaceusing non-linear fusion. The results from this study show that the dual-energy method used in this work was ableto capture more measurements than regular absorption computed tomography in the case of specimens withhighly different attenuation, enabling, in particular, the measurement of smaller gaps. The contrast-to-noise ratiowas also increased significantly with the use of dual-energy.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Metrology, Computed tomography, Dual-energy, Multi-material measurements
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68991 (URN)10.1016/j.precisioneng.2018.07.012 (DOI)000452579900046 ()2-s2.0-85051065309 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, FP7, Sjunde ramprogrammet, 607817
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-21 Skapad: 2018-09-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Characterisation of additive manufacturing metal: carbon-fibre composite bond by dual-energy computed tomography
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characterisation of additive manufacturing metal: carbon-fibre composite bond by dual-energy computed tomography
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: EUSPEN, Conference Proceedings, Special Interest Group: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, Octrober 2017, KU Leuven, Belgium: EUSPEN , 2017, s. 189-192Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Joining of dissimilar materials is a topic of high interest for the industry. The ability to seamlessly join materials with significant differences in properties would advance the development of efficient designs and concepts within many fields. In this work, bonds between aluminium and carbon-fibre reinforced plastic have been studied. The aluminium side of the bonds were fabricated using classical methods (milling) and additive manufacturing. Two types of bonds were fabricated using additive manufacturing, one flat, relying on the rough surface for adhesion in the bond, and the other with surface features designed to hook into the carbon-fibre plies. All the bonds were fabricated using wet layup of carbon-fibre, the idea was that the aluminium parts would bond to the plastic composite in one step. The bonds were characterised using dual-energy computed tomography. The method used in this work was non-linear and based around fusing of projections acquired with different energy spectra. The mechanical strength of the bonds was also evaluated, both through tensile tests and four-point bending.It was found that the bonds including additive manufactured aluminium was stronger than the milled samples in general. In the computed tomography data, it could be seen that the adhesion in those bonds were better, most likely due to the rough surface. The strongest bonds were those with additive manufacturing surface features. However, the computed tomography data revealed that these bonds have difficulties with integration between the surface features and the carbon-fibre plies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    KU Leuven, Belgium: EUSPEN, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Additive manufacturing, Dual-energy computed tomography, carbon-fibre composite, joining
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61550 (URN)978-0-9957751-1-4 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    EUSPEN, Conference Proceedings, Special Interest Group: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, October 2017
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-16 Skapad: 2017-10-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Dual-energy computed tomography investigation of additive manufacturing aluminium: carbon-fibre composite joints
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dual-energy computed tomography investigation of additive manufacturing aluminium: carbon-fibre composite joints
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, nr 2, artikel-id e01200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, aluminium–carbon-fibre reinforced plastic joints have been studied. Three types of samples were designed as double lap joints where the aluminium inserts were fabricated using both classical methods (milling) and additive manufacturing. Two versions of the joint were fabricated using additive manufacturing, one flat, and the other with small teeth designed to hook into the carbon-fibre plies. The joints were characterised using a non-linear, dual-energy computed tomography method to evaluate the bond between the composite and the metal inserts. The mechanical strength of the bonds was evaluated, both through tensile tests and four-point bending. A simple finite element model was used to discuss the joints behaviour. It was found that the joints fabricated using additive manufactured inserts were more resistant to peel stress than the milled inserts. In four-point bending tests the moment that the joint could withstand was increased by roughly 300% with the use of additive manufacturing and 400% with the use of additive manufacturing and small teeth. However, in tensile tests it was found that the teeth design reduced the maximum load capacity of the joints by roughly 30% due to porosity. Further, it was found that the additive manufactured samples did not add to the capability of withstanding shearstress. The information gained with the dual-energy computed tomography method was highly valuable as the behaviour of the joints would have been difficult to explain without the porosity information.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Mechanical engineering, Materials science
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72142 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01200 (DOI)000460082200023 ()30839940 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061013958 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-05 Skapad: 2019-02-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-19Bibliografiskt granskad
    7. Surface vs Truss lattice networks, benefits and limitations
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Surface vs Truss lattice networks, benefits and limitations
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: NAFEMS nordic: Exploring the Design Freedom of Additive Manufacturing through Simulation, NAFEMS , 2018, s. 217-218Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of additive manufacturing is growing rapidly among industries within many different fields of fabrication. The benefits of applying additive manufacturing can be many and an application that have received special interest is the ability to design lightweight components. Lightweight components can be fabricated with additive manufacturing with the use of lattices that have a high stiffness to weight ratio and topology optimised, complex, designs. The most commonly used lattices today are based on trusses, however, there is also the possibility to generate lattices based around continuous surfaces. In this study, the properties of the popular body-centred-cubic lattice are compared the properties of the lesser known Schwartz diamond surface lattice. The mechanical compression properties, the fabrication processes, and the possibilities of the lattices are discussed and analysed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    NAFEMS, 2018
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier Kompositmaterial och -teknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70704 (URN)
    Konferens
    NAFEMS Nordic 2018, Göteborg, Sweden, 24-25 April, 2018
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-12 Skapad: 2018-12-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    8. In-situ computed tomography investigation of the compression behaviour of strut, and periodic surface lattices
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>In-situ computed tomography investigation of the compression behaviour of strut, and periodic surface lattices
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: iCT 2019 / [ed] Rolf Diederichs, NDT.net , 2019, s. 221-227Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the effects of fabrication errors in the Body Centered Cubic strut lattice, and the periodic surface lattice Schwarz Diamond has been investigated. The lattices were both fabricated as-is and with induced errors to evaluate the lattices response to fabrication errors. The behaviour of the lattices were studied using compression test and in-situ computed tomography investigation. The results show that the Schwarz Diamond lattices in general are stronger than the Body Centered Cubic lattices in all of the measured aspects. Often up to five times stronger. It was also found that the elastic behaviour of the Schwarz Diamond lattices were mainly unaffected by fabrication errors while the Body Centered Cubic lattices experienced severe losses in performance. The behaviour of the lattices under compression could be followed using computed tomography which aided in the understanding of their behaviour.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    NDT.net, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Additive manufacturing, computed tomography, periodic surface lattices, in-situ compression, fabrication error
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier Maskinteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72514 (URN)
    Konferens
    9th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography (iCT) 2019, 13-15 Feb, 2019, Padova, Italy
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-18 Skapad: 2019-02-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13
  • Logotheti, Marianthi
    et al.
    e-NIOS Applications PC, Kallithea, Greece; Laboratory of Biotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis
    e-NIOS Applications PC, Kallithea, Greece; Metabolic Engineering and Bioinformatics Group, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Kolisis, Fragiskos
    Laboratory of Biotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Recent Advancements in Bipolar Disorder studies through Genomic, Epigenomic and Metagenomic Approaches2019Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology Research, ISSN 2640-6136, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 56-66Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar disorder is a complex and highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by severe mood alterations. The precise geneticunderpinnings of the disease have not been identified so far, despite numerous genome-wide association findings. This review describes thecurrent state of genetic studies based on next generation sequencing technologies including whole exome and whole genome sequencing, aswell as RNA-sequencing and highlights the fact that the integration of these studies can reveal novel knowledge such as the functional roleof gene variants. However, due to the complexity of bipolar disorder, it is a compelling candidate for studies beyond DNA and RNAsequencing. Epigenetic alterations, defined as heritable but reversible modifications including DNA methylation, DNAhydroxymethylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs may be the link between genome and environment interactions.Additionally, a possible source of the reported immune activation in bipolar disorder is the micro biome of gastrointestinal tract, due torecent studies that indicate its pivotal role in brain function through the ‘gut-brain’ axis. The identification of methods able to modulate themicro biome emerges as a promising path for novel diagnostic and treatment options in bipolar disorder, thus the number of metagenomicstudies in bipolar disorder has substantially increased the last years. Overall, the paper aims to review the most recent literature ongenomic, epigenomic and metagenomic studies that have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder sofar. The paper also focuses on the exploitation of recent advancements in high-throughput technologies for the elucidation of bipolardisorder through different approaches that may provide complementary knowledge and concludes to the need for merging the gap betweenall the gathered knowledge from the analysis of high-throughput data.

  • Twizeyimana, Jean Damascene
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. College of Science & Technology, University of Rwanda, KN 7 Ave, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    The public value of E-Government: A literature review2019Ingår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 167-178Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study organizes existing research on the public value of e-government in order to investigate the current state and what value e-government is supposed to yield. The two questions that guided the research were: (1) What is the current state of research on the public value of e-government? And (2) What value is e-government supposed to yield? Six, sometimes overlapping, values were found: Improved public services; improved administrative efficiency; Open Government (OG) capabilities; improved ethical behaviour and professionalism; improved trust and confidence in government; and improved social value and well-being. These six public value dimensions were thereafter generalized into three overarching, and also overlapping, public value dimensions of Improved Public Services, Improved Administration, and Improved Social Value. The improved public services dimension influences other dimensions. Hence, this literature study theorizes a descriptive and multidimensional framework that can improve our understanding of the public value of e-government from different viewpoints, and the overlap between them in actual e-government designs and implementations. Regarding the current state of research on the public value this study found a lack of research on the public value of e-government, especially, in the context of developing countries – and more importantly – a total absence of this kind of research in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). There is also a lack of comparative studies at national, regional, and project level; and a lack of research on the generative perspective.

  • Bakunzibake, Pierre
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Improving Implementation of e-Government Services in Rwanda: An Organisational Perspective2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of realising development programmes faster, developing countries have been adopting, from developed ones, modern ICTs and implementing e-government towards better public services. However, efforts of implementation of e-government services have been often resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes and even total failures. This is a big challenge particularly for Least Developed Countries which have fewer resources. Such outcomes are partly due to the lack of addressing organisational issues associated with implementations.

    This thesis addresses the question: How can the implementation of e-government services be improved from an organisational perspective in the context of Rwanda?

    The thesis adopts a socio-technical perspective and uses both qualitative case study methodology and a literature review approach. Two cases of implementation of e-government services were studied. The first case, an Enterprise Content Management system concerns the sharing and working on digital documents within government agencies. The second case, the onestop e-government is for providing online services by the central and local government agencies to the general public via a single portal, ‘Irembo’. This thesis shows that implementation of e-government services has been focusing on digitalisation of services superimposing ICT over existing structures with less attention to organisational change issues related to processes, organisational structure and policies. The thesis also identifies a deficit in implementation processes in terms of lacking clear goals and formal monitoring in the local government. Those insights on the implementation of e-government services of an LDC pinpoint a need for optimisation between technical and social aspects. This thesis makes an empirical contribution by bringing forth those insights. In order to help tackle a number of challenging issues found, a comprehensive model for improving the process of implementing e-government services, called Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER) was developed as a theoretical contribution based on a literature analysis.

    Delarbeten
    1. E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, s. 251-259Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Government is now on the rise in developing countries. While developing countries can "leapfrog" technology generations, the necessary organizational change is another matter. In industrialized countries technical systems have been developed over long time in parallel with institutional development; developing countries hope to make that journey faster. Most of the e-Government implementation research focuses on developed countries. It is important to explore the relation between the literature and the findings in the context of developing countries as to come up with a gap to reduce. An interview study with 56 people in 10 government organizations involved in implementing a government-wide enterprise content management system was conducted to find out how critical success factors found in literature on implementation of information management systems relate to the situation in the Rwanda public sector to discover the step forward in Rwanda. We find a large gap between expectations and results due to a strong focus on the technical tool and little concerns about issues related to organizational change.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016
    Serie
    Innovation and the Public Sector, ISSN 1871-1073 ; 23
    Nyckelord
    e-Government, Implementation, ECM, Developing countries, Rwanda
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap Statsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53017 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-670-5-251 (DOI)000383380900026 ()978-1-61499-670-5 (ISBN)978-1-61499-669-9 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    15th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV) / 8th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference, Univ Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-18 Skapad: 2016-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One-stop e-government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one-stop e-government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one-stop e-government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to-be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re-design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one-stop e-government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e-government development. For Rwandan e-government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one-stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT-driven institutional reform.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Academic Conferences Limited, 2019
    Nyckelord
    One-stop e-government, e-government organisational challenges, Rwanda
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Informatik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73592 (URN)
    Projekt
    Rwanda e-government project
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-09 Skapad: 2019-04-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the case of the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative in Rwanda, the present study aims to find out how the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative is monitored at different government levels and stages and the extent to which the initiative is monitored. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify potential areas for improvement in the monitoring process. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Rwandana gencies. The findings show that the monitoring of the process of implementing and improving one‐stop e‐government is partly formal at central government level and informal at local government level. Furthermore, the focus of the monitoring at the stage of use and maintenance leans more towards the benefits of end users as service consumers than those of the service providers. Incorporating formal methodological approaches at local government level and in all stages of the implementation and improvement process at central government level, as well as paying increased attention to back‐end process performance aspects, could introduce additional improvements into the monitoring practice and, in turn, increase project benefits.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Nyckelord
    E‐government implementation, evaluation, monitoring, one‐stop e‐government, Rwanda
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70145 (URN)10.1002/isd2.12086 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-12 Skapad: 2018-11-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Business Systems Research Journal, ISSN 1847-8344, E-ISSN 1847-9375, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 53-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Failures in e-government projects to deliver expected results are frequent in the context of developing countries. These are partly attributed to the lack of balanced attention to both technical and social aspects in the implementation. However, there has been limited research on these aspects in the least Developed Countries.

    Objectives: Taking a socio-technical perspective, this study aims at exploring the extent of changes and effects in the implementation of e-government service-oriented initiatives in Rwanda, one of the Least Developed Countries.

    Methods/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted, via interviews at 8 agencies during the period from January 2017 to May 2018. This involved two case projects, an Enterprise Content Management System and a One-Stop e-government system. Furthermore, government documents and online material were analyzed.

    Results: A number of changes in technology, processes and people aspects were faced in both projects. However, those changes are coupled with secondary effects; there is a need for a better fit between technical systems and social systems of organizations implementing e-government; a larger gap was identified in the first case project.

    Conclusions: Addressing the issues as a socio-technical system would contribute to improved work systems of agencies and better services.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    De Gruyter Open, 2019
    Nyckelord
    e-Government implementation, enterprise content management, ‘one-stop’ e-government, Rwanda, socio-technical theory
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
    Forskningsämne
    Informatik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73686 (URN)10.2478/bsrj-2019-0005 (DOI)000467633400005 ()2-s2.0-85065835760 (Scopus ID)
    Projekt
    Rwanda e-government project
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-12 Skapad: 2019-04-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-19Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74297 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-17 Skapad: 2019-05-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-17Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda2019Ingår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One-stop e-government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one-stop e-government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one-stop e-government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to-be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re-design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one-stop e-government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e-government development. For Rwandan e-government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one-stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT-driven institutional reform.

  • Shiraz, A.
    et al.
    Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Khodadad, Davood
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nordebo, S.
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Yerworth, R.
    Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Frerichs, I.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
    van Kaam, A.
    Department of Neonatology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Neonatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kallio, M.
    PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    Papadouri, T.
    Bayford, R.
    Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Demosthenous, A.
    Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Compressive sensing in electrical impedance tomography for breathing monitoring2019Ingår i: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 40, nr 3, artikel-id 034010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a functional imaging technique in which cross-sectional images of structures are reconstructed based on boundary trans-impedance measurements. Continuous functional thorax monitoring using EIT has been extensively researched. Increasing the number of electrodes, number of planes and frame rate may improve clinical decision making. Thus, a limiting factor in high temporal resolution, 3D and fast EIT is the handling of the volume of raw impedance data produced for transmission and its subsequent storage. Owing to the periodicity (i.e. sparsity in frequency domain) of breathing and other physiological variations that may be reflected in EIT boundary measurements, data dimensionality may be reduced efficiently at the time of sampling using compressed sensing techniques. This way, a fewer number of samples may be taken.

    Approach: Measurements using a 32-electrode, 48-frames-per-second EIT system from 30 neonates were post-processed to simulate random demodulation acquisition method on 2000 frames (each consisting of 544 measurements) for compression ratios (CRs) ranging from 2 to 100. Sparse reconstruction was performed by solving the basis pursuit problem using SPGL1 package. The global impedance data (i.e. sum of all 544 measurements in each frame) was used in the subsequent studies. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the entire frequency band (0 Hz–24 Hz) and three local frequency bands were analysed. A breath detection algorithm was applied to traces and the subsequent error-rates were calculated while considering the outcome of the algorithm applied to a down-sampled and linearly interpolated version of the traces as the baseline.

    Main results: SNR degradation was generally proportional with CR. The mean degradation for 0 Hz–8 Hz (of interest for the target physiological variations) was below ~15 dB for all CRs. The error-rates in the outcome of the breath detection algorithm in the case of decompressed traces were lower than those associated with the corresponding down-sampled traces for CR  ⩾  25, corresponding to sub-Nyquist rate for breathing frequency. For instance, the mean error-rate associated with CR  =  50 was ~60% lower than that of the corresponding down-sampled traces.

    Significance: To the best of our knowledge, no other study has evaluated the applicability of compressive sensing techniques on raw boundary impedance data in EIT. While further research should be directed at optimising the acquisition and decompression techniques for this application, this contribution serves as the baseline for future efforts.

  • Quennerstedt, Ann (Redaktör)
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Quennerstedt, Ann (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Tellgren, Britt (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Brantefors, Lotta (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Thelander, Nina (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad.
    Att undervisa om barns mänskliga rättigheter i förskolan och skolan: Utbildningens syften, innehåll och arbetsmetoder2019Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med startpunkt i växthusmetaforen har projektet utforskat utbildning som en plats där barn och unga utvecklas som innehavare och utövare av mänskliga rättigheter. Utifrån en didaktisk forskningsansats har projektets centrala vetenskapliga intresse varit att undersöka syften, innehåll och arbetssätt i undervisning och lärande om barns mänskliga rättigheter, i förskolan och grundskolan. I föreliggande rapport behandlas och besvaras forskningsfrågorna:

    -       Vilka syften vill man nå genom undervisning om barns mänskliga rättigheter? Vad är innehållet i undervisning om, i och genom mänskliga rättigheter och vilka arbetsmetoder används?

     

    För att besvara dessa frågor genomfördes klassrumsforskning i fyra åldersgrupper: förskolan och grundskolans tidiga, mellan- och sena år. Forskarna studerade undervisning om barns mänskliga rättigheter, och data skapades genom intervjuer med lärare och barn samt genom observationer av pågående undervisning. En didaktisk analys gjordes av materialet, med stöd av ett analysredskap som utvecklades ifrån de tre didaktiska frågorna varför, vad och hur.

     

    I rapporten ges först en bakgrund till förskolans och skolans uppdrag att utbilda barn och unga i och om mänskliga rättigheter. Utbildning för mänskliga rättigheter introduceras och placeras i svensk politik- och läroplanskontext. Tidigare utbildningsforskning om barns rättigheter och utbildning för mänskliga rättigheter beskrivs, och studiens teoretiska och metodologiska ramverk redovisas. Därefter presenteras resultaten från projektets fyra delstudier, var och en från en specifik åldersgrupp. I det sista kapitlet görs en sammanfattande analys och det samlade resultatet diskuteras.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Johansson, Johanna
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden’s largest wildfire2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.