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  • Skargren, Fredric
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    What is the point of benchmarking e-government? An integrative and critical literature review on the phenomenon of benchmarking e-government2020Inngår i: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 67-89, artikkel-id IP-190131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review looks at research conducted on the phenomenon of benchmarking e-government during theyears 2003 to 2016 and entails 27 articles. The review shows how this field has changed over time, its main findings and whatthe potential benefits are for the public sector in using the results from benchmarks. The findings reveal how initial researchcreated taxonomies of benchmarks and criticised them for being too focused on measuring online services. This research wasfollowed by even more criticism on how benchmarks can have a negative impact on e-government policy and development.During the same time-period there is research giving methodological support on how to improve ways of benchmarking. Laterresearch offer theoretically and conceptually informed critique of benchmark-studies. The review finds that there are mainlyimplicit assumptions about the potential benefits in using benchmarks for improving e-government. The article concludes bydiscussing the implications of the findings in terms of the lack of context and relevance in benchmarks for e-government inrelationship to the nature of public administration and makes suggestions for ways forward.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Berg, Monika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Cold Science Meets Hot Weather: Environmental Threats, Emotional Messages and Scientific Storytelling2020Inngår i: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 118-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Science is frequently called upon to provide guidance in the work towards sustainable development. However, for science to promote action, it is not sufficient that scientific advice is seen as competent and trustworthy. Such advice must also be perceived as meaningful and important, showing the need and urgency of taking action. This article discusses how science tries to facilitate action. It claims that the use of scientific storytelling—coherent stories told by scientists about environmental trajectories—are central in this; these stories provide meaning and motivate and guide action. To do this, the storylines need to include both a normative orientation and emotional appeals. Two different cases of scientific storytelling are analyzed: one is a dystopic story about a world rushing towards ecological catastrophe, and the other is an optimistic story about a world making dramatic progress. These macrosocial stories offer science-based ways to see the world and aim to foster and guide action. The article concludes by stating that using storylines in scientific storytelling can elicit fear, inspire hope, and guide action. The storylines connect cold and distant scientific findings to passionate imperatives about the need for social transformation. However, this attachment to emotions and values needs to be done reflexively, not only in order to create engagement with an issue but also to counteract a post-truth society where passionate imperatives go against scientific knowledge.

  • Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Flygare, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Bryggan: En processutvärdering av en social investering med fokus på elever med destruktivt normbrytande beteende och problematisk skolfrånvaro2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Öberg, Jacob
    Faculty of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trust in the Law? Mutual Recognition as a Justification to Domestic Criminal Procedure2020Inngår i: European Constitutional Law Review, ISSN 1574-0196, E-ISSN 1744-5515, Vol. 16, s. 1-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article closely analyses mutual recognition as a justification for EU legislative activity in the field of domestic criminal procedure. By looking at the structure, wording and purpose of the Treaties, the article first discusses the proper interpretation of the mutual recognition criterion in Article 82(2) TFEU. It argues for a narrow construction of Article 82(2) TFEU, suggesting that the expression ‘enabling mutual recognition’ is capable of substantially confining EU action on criminal procedure. The article challenges the justification for having EU competence in domestic criminal procedure on the basis that it enables mutual recognition. It advances the proposition that it is very difficult to defend on a conceptual and empirical basis that harmonisation has a positive effect on the operation on mutual recognition.

  • Hugelius, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Semrau, Maya
    Center for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    HESPER web - development and reliability evaluation of a web-based version of the humanitarian emergency settings perceived needs scale2020Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER) assesses a wide range of physical, psychological and social perceived needs across 26 questions, and can be used in humanitarian emergencies and disasters for needs assessment or research studies. The original HESPER collects data through individual interviews. Today, a large number of people have access to the internet, including in humanitarian emergencies and disasters. Therefore, this paper aimed to report the development, reliability evaluation and feasibility evaluation of the HESPER Web.

    Methods: First, the original HESPER was developed into a web based survey. Thereafter, alternate forms reliability between the HESPER and HESPER Web, and test-retest reliability for the HESPER Web, was evaluated using a study sample of 85 asylum seekers in Sweden in total.

    Results: The alternate forms reliability evaluation showed that the HESPER Web was a reliable instrument to assess perceived needs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for total number of serious needs was 0.96 (CI 0.93–09.98, p < 0.001). Cohen’s κ was used to analyse the alternate forms reliability between the HESPER and HESPER Web item per item; the correspondence between HESPER and HESPER Web varied between 0.54 and 1.0 for the 26 questions. There was a strong nominal association in first priority need between the HESPER and HESPER Web (Cramer’s V 0.845, p < 0.001). In the test-retest reliability evaluation of HESPER Web, ICC was 0.98 (CI 0.97–0.99, p < 0.001), and Cohen’s κ varied between 0.53 and 1.0. There was a strong nominal association in first priority need between test and re-test (Cramer’s V 0.93, p < 0.001). The HESPER Web was experienced as easy and safe to use and was found less time consuming than the original HESPER interview, according to the study participants.

    Conclusion: The HESPER Web is a reliable and usable instrument to assess perceived needs. It can reduce a number of practical challenges both for needs assessment in disasters or humanitarian emergencies as well as in research.

  • Kurtser, Polina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Department of Computing science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rotstein, Nati
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems.
    PointNet and geometric reasoning for detection of grape vines from single frame RGB-D data in outdoor conditions2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the Northern Lights Deep Learning Workshop, NLDL , 2020, Vol. 1, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the usage of PointNet, a deep neural network that consumes raw un-ordered point clouds, for detection of grape vine clusters in outdoor conditions. We investigate the added value of feeding the detection network with both RGB and depth, contradictory to common practice in agricultural robotics of relying on RGB only. A total of 5057 pointclouds (1033 manually annotated and 4024 annotated using geometric reasoning) were collected in a field experiment conducted in outdoor conditions on 9 grape vines and 5 plants. The detection results show overall accuracy of 91% (average class accuracy of 74%, precision 53% recall 48%) for RGBXYZ data and a significant drop in recall for RGB or XYZ data only. These results suggest the usage of depth cameras for vision in agricultural robotics is crucial for crops where the color contrast between the crop and the background is complex. The results also suggest geometric reasoning can be used for increased training set size, a major bottleneck in the development of agricultural vision systems.

  • Jämte, Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Antirasismens många ansikten2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the knowledge and understanding of the anti-racist movement in Sweden by describing its development from the early 1930s to the mid-2000s. It pays special attention to mapping and analyzing the ideas that have motivated anti-racist activities and their importance for mobilizing support and movement activity. Using the theoretical toolbox of the framing perspective, the strengths, weaknesses, possibilities and limitations of different anti-racist frames are discussed, as are the consequences of different types of intra-movement frame disputes and frame contests with external actors.

    By tracing and describing the historical development of the movement and different types of anti-racist frames, I create a typology of different anti-racist actors - what I call pragmatic, radical and moderate anti-racists. The activities of these types of actors are described throughout the long and winding history of the movement. In the thesis, the movement’s history is divided into four waves of protest. The movement’s roots stretch back to the 1930s and the struggle against Fascism and Nazism. It continues during the 1960s and onwards with the anti-apartheid movement, the 1980s mass mobilizations against domestic racist groups and the intensified struggles of the last decades against racist extremism, right-wing populism and various aspects of structural racism. Based on the typology, three cases are selected for further scrutiny. Pragmatic anti-racism is studied through the activities of Stoppa rasismen (Stop racism) in the 1980s, radical anti-racism through Antifascistisk aktion (Antifascist action, also known as AFA) during the 1990s and moderate anti-racism through Samling mot rasism och diskriminering (Gathering against racism and discrimination) at the turn of the millennium. By gaining access to extensive empirical material I have been able to follow each case from its first steps to its downfall. The material has been gathered from a variety of sources using different qualitative techniques. I have conducted semi-structured interviews with activists and analyzed protocols, pamphlets, journals, internal bulletins, mails, posters, speeches, web pages that have been disbanded, pictures, films and books.

    The analysis shows that the different types of actors face different challenges, and have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to mobilizing consensus and fostering participation. However, the three actors have also faced common challenges when trying to mobilize against racism given the national context, the self-image of Sweden as a tolerant, open and egalitarian country and the dominant views of racism, which taken together has turned racism into a serious but fairly marginal problem. The analysis also shows the effects of frame disputes and frame contests with regard to diagnostic, prognostic and motivational aspects of framing. At times the dividing lines have led to a broadening of the movement and its work, creating a wide mobilization potential and a strong multitudinous movement. During other periods the differences have contributed to long and profound conflicts that have drained the organizations and activists of time, resources and energy. Instead of focusing on combating their opponents, the anti-racist groups have been engulfed in internal strife, which has severely fragmented, divided and weakened the movement and hindered mobilization – contributing to turning the movement into a dispersed “milieu” by the mid-2000s. The thesis concludes with a chapter discussing how the empirical applicability of the framing perspective can be improved.

  • Garcia-Ptacek, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine, Section for Neurology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contreras Escamez, Beatriz
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatrics, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain.
    Zupanic, Eva
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Religa, Dorota
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    von Koch, Lena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Euler, Mia
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset and Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Aging Research Network -Jönköping (ARN-J), Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prestroke Mobility and Dementia as Predictors of Stroke Outcomes in Patients Over 65 Years of Age: A Cohort Study From The Swedish Dementia and Stroke Registries2018Inngår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 154-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between prestroke mobility dependency and dementia on functioning and mortality outcomes after stroke in patients>65 years of age.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study based on SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry and Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Registry.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1689 patients with dementia >65 years of age registered in SveDem and suffering a first stroke between 2007 and 2014 were matched with 7973 controls without dementia with stroke.

    MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for intrahospital mortality, and functioning and mortality outcomes at 3 months were calculated. Functioning included level of residential assistance (living at home without help, at home with help, or nursing home) and mobility dependency (independent, needing help to move outdoors, or needing help indoors and outdoors).

    RESULTS: Prestroke dependency in activities of daily living and mobility were worse in patients with dementia than controls without dementia. In unadjusted analyses, patients with dementia were more often discharged to nursing homes (51% vs 20%; P < .001). Mortality at 3 months was higher in patients with dementia (31% vs 23% P < .001) and fewer were living at home without help (21% vs 55%; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, prestroke dementia was associated with higher risk of 3-month mortality (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.18-1.52), requiring a higher level of residential assistance (OR 4.07; 3.49-.75) and suffering from more dependency in relation to mobility (OR 2.57; 2.20-3.02). Patients with dementia who were independent for mobility prestroke were more likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared with patients without dementia with the same prestroke mobility (37% vs 16%; P < .001), but there were no differences in discharge to geriatric rehabilitation (19% for both; P = .976). Patients, who moved independently before stroke, were more often discharged home (60% vs 28%) and had lower mortality. In adjusted analyses, prestroke mobility limitations were associated with higher odds for poorer mobility, needing more residential assistance, and death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mobility impairments and/or dementia present a high burden of disability after a stroke. There is a need for research on stroke interventions among these populations.

  • Fröberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Elisson, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Korsettkriget – om modeslaveri och kvinnokamp vid förra sekelskiftet: en utvärdering2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Afanasyev, Ilya
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Zhuchkov, Nikita
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Maksatbek, Aizhan
    Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Kassab, Mohamad
    Pennsylvania State University, PA, United States.
    Distefano, Salvatore
    University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Towards the Internet of Robotic Things: Analysis, Architecture, Components and Challenges2019Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) and robotics cannot be considered two separate domains these days. Internet of Robotics Things (IoRT) is a concept that has been recently introduced to describe the integration of robotics technologies in IoT scenarios. As a consequence, these two research fields have started interacting, and thus linking research communities. In this paper we intend to make further steps in joining the two communities and broaden the discussion on the development of this interdisciplinary field. The paper provides an overview, analysis and challenges of possible solutions for the Internet of Robotic Things, discussing the issues of the IoRT architecture, the integration of smart spaces and robotic applications.

  • Afanasyev, Ilya
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Kolotov, Alexander
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Rezin, Ruslan
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Danilov, Konstantin
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Kashevnik, Alexey
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Chechulin, Andrey
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Kapitonov, Aleksandr
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Jotsov, Vladimir
    University of Library Studies and Information, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Topalov, Andon
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Shakev, Nikola
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Ahmed, Sevil
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Towards Blockchain-based Multi-Agent Robotic Systems: Analysis, Classification and Applications2019Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralization, immutability and transparency make of Blockchain one of the most innovative technology of recent years. This paper presents an overview of solutions based on Blockchain technology for multi-agent robotic systems, and provide an analysis and classification of this emerging field. The reasons for implementing Blockchain in a multi-robot network may be to increase the interaction efficiency between agents by providing more trusted information exchange, reaching a consensus in trustless conditions, assessing robot productivity or detecting performance problems, identifying intruders, allocating plans and tasks, deploying distributed solutions and joint missions. Blockchain-based applications are discussed to demonstrate how distributed ledger can be used to extend the number of research platforms and libraries for multi-agent robotic systems.

  • Bhattacharyya, Subhajit
    et al.
    ECE Department, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, West Bengal, India.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    CSE Department, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, West Bengal, India.
    Reconstruction of Human Faces from Its Eigenfaces2014Inngår i: International Journal of Advanced Research In Computer Science and Software Engineering, ISSN 2277-6451, E-ISSN 2277-128X, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 209-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eigenface or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methods have demonstrated their success in face recognition, detection and tracking. In this paper we have used this concept to reconstruct or represent a face as a linear combination of a set of basis images. The basis images are nothing but the eigenfaces. The idea is similar to represent a signal in the form of a linear combination of complex sinusoids called the Fourier Series. The main advantage is that the number of eigenfaces required is less than the number of face images in the database. Selection of number of eigefaces is important here. Here we investigate what is the number of minimum eigenface that is required for faithful production of a face image.

  • Thapaliya, Ananga
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Elambo Atonge, Daniel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Afanasyev, Ilya
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Ahmad, Muhammad
    University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Digital Image Forgery2019Inngår i: ITTCS 2019: Information Technologies, Telecommunications and Control Systems / [ed] Artem V. Kruglov & Konstantin A. Aksyonov, CEUR-WS.org , 2019, Vol. 2525, artikkel-id 36Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Image control has disintegrated our trust of computerized pictures, with progressively unobtrusive fraud techniques representing a regularly expanding test to the integrity of images and their legitimacy. With the progress of advanced image controlling software and modifying tools, an electronic picture can be successively controlled. Checking the decency of pictures and recognizing indications of modifying without requiring extra pre-inserted data of the image is the basic field of inspection. In this paper, a study of such research commitments has been directed by following a well-defined and systematic procedure. There are different paths for modifying an image, for instance, copy-move, splicing, and re-sampling. This paper focuses on two types of digital image forgery detection which are copy move and splicing of image.

  • Bhattacharyya, Subhajit
    et al.
    Mallabhum Istitute of Technology Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    Chand, Nisarga
    Department at Mallabhum Institute of Technology, Campus Braja-Radhanagar, West Bengal, India.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Mallabhum Istitute of Technology Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    A Modified Encryption Technique using Playfair Cipher 10 by 9 Matrix with Six Iteration Steps2014Inngår i: International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, ISSN 2278-1323, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 307-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the well-known digraph substitution cipher is the Playfair Cipher. It secures information mathematically by mangling message with key. The privacy of intended sender and receiver information is protected from eavesdropper. However the original 5 x 5 Playfair Cipher can support only 25 uppercase alphabets. Here we have implemented a new technique which includes a rectangular matrix having 10 columns and 9 rows and six iteration steps for encryption as well as decryption purpose. This 10 x 9 rectangular matrix includes all alphanumeric characters and some special characters. Cryptanalysis is done to show that the modified cipher is a strong one. Finally we have implemented this concept with the help of MATLAB.

  • Chakraborty, Subham
    et al.
    Department of CSE Mallabhum, Institute of Technology, Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    Sayan, Das
    Dept. of CSE, Camellia Institute of Technology, Madhyamgram, West Bengal, India.
    Syamal, Patra
    Dept. of CSE, Camellia Institute of Technology, Madhyamgram, West Bengal, India.
    A Brief Study To Cloud2017Inngår i: International Journal of Scientific & Engineering, ISSN 2229-5518, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 50-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing is a versatile technology that can support a broad-spectrum of applications. The low cost of cloud computing and its dynamic scaling renders it an innovation driver for small companies, particularly in the developing world. Cloud deployed enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management applications (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM) applications, medical applications and mobile applications have potential to reach millions of users. In this paper, we explore the different concepts involved in cloud computing. Leveraging our experiences on various clouds, we examine clouds from technical, and service aspects. We highlight some of the opportunities in cloud computing, underlining the importance of clouds and showing why that technology must succeed. Finally, we discuss some of the issues that this area should deal with.

  • Piepenburg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Arensmeier, Cecilia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Demokratiutbildningens didaktik: internalisering, tänkande och handlande2020Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 115-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses democratic and citizenship education with the ambition of linking theoretical insights from several fields of research to practical teaching. Perspectives on education, citizenship, politische Bildung, democratic theory and power, provides theoretical input. These perspectives are combined into three ideal-typical approaches to democratic education, emphasizing different aspects: democratic internalization, democratic acting and democratic thinking. We argue that practical teaching should utilize all three positions. Ultimately, a comprehensive didactic model is developed in order to visualize the relationship between the approaches. The model provides a bridge between theoretical and practical aspects of democratic education, which is useful for both teaching and research.

  • Janemalm, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice: a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving2020Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How teachers enact policy has been of significant interest to educational scholars. In physical education research, scholars have identified several factors affecting the enactment of policy. These factors include but are not limited to: structural support available for teachers, provision of professional development opportunities, the nature of the policy, and the educational philosophies of the teachers. A recurring conclusion drawn in this scholarship is that official documentation and teachers’ work often diverge, sometimes in profound ways.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how physical education teachers in Sweden describe their enactment of policy regarding the concept complex movement, which features in the latest Swedish curriculum.

    Methods: Interview data were generated with six specialist physical education teachers. Three questions guided the interviews: What is complex movement? What is not complex movement? And, can you give examples from your teaching of complex movement? Data were analyzed using a discourse analytic framework. Meaning was understood as a production of dialectical relationships between individuals and social practices. Two key concepts were utilized: intertextuality, which refers to the condition whereby all communicative events, not merely utterances, draw on earlier communication events, and interdiscursivity, which refers to discursive practices in which discourse types are combined in new and complex ways.

    Results: We identified three discourses regarding the teachers’ enactment of policy: (1) Complex movement as individual difficulty, (2) Complex movement as composite movements, and (3) Complex movement as situational adaptation. Several features were common to all three discourses: they were all related to issues of assessment; they suggested that complex movement is something students should be able to show or perform, and; they left open room for practically any activity done in physical education to be considered complex.

    Discussion: Three issues are addressed in the Discussion. The first concerns the intertextual nature of the teachers’ statements and how the statements relate to policy and research. The second concerns the way that knowledge, and specifically movement knowledge, becomes problematic in the teachers’ statements about complex movement. The third concerns more broadly the language used to describe the relationship between policy and practice.

    Conclusions: We propose that modest levels of overlap between teachers’ discursive resources, policy, and research is unsurprising. In line with earlier research, we suggest that the notion of ‘enactment’ is a more productive way to describe policy-oriented practice than notions such as ‘implementation’ or ‘translation’, which imply a uni-directional, linear execution of policy.

  • Jämte, Jan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Örebro universitet.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Sociologi.
    Brottsförebyggande åtgärder mot radikala vänsterrörelser: effekter och erfarenheter2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har lokala myndigheter utvecklat brottsförebyggande åtgärder för att motverka politiskt motiverad våldsanvändning och ”våldsbejakande extremism”. I detta projekt undersöks hur lärare, socialarbetare och poliser på lokal nivå tolkar och utför sitt uppdrag inom det specifika arbetet mot ”vänsterextremism” samt hur vänsterradikala aktivister uppfattar och påverkas av dessa åtgärder.

  • Stampfl, Jürgen
    et al.
    Institute for Materials Science and Technology, TU Vienna, Austria.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hribernik, Bruno
    The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, Austria.
    Hackl, Gerhard
    The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, Austria.
    AM’s industrial impact celebrated as Sweden hosts ASMET’s fourth Metal Additive Manufacturing Conference2020Inngår i: METAL AM, ISSN 2055-7183, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 159-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth Metal Additive Manufacturing Conference (MAMC 2019), organised by the Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET), took place in Örebro, Sweden, from November 25–27, 2019. The event, which attracted an international audience, covered a broad range of metal AM technologies and considered the technical challenges that need to be overcome to make the industry more economically competitive with conventional manufacturing. Prof Dr Jürgen Stampfl, Prof Nader Asnafi, Dr Bruno Hribernik, and Dr Gerhard Hackl review the event for Metal AM magazine.

  • Lopez Valladares, Gloria
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Human listeriosis: Grouping of human Listeria monocytogenes isolates with PFGE and AscI restriction enzyme2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Delarbeid
    1. Division of Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Types Belonging to Lineage I (Serovar 4b, 1/2b, and 3b) into PFGE Groups
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Division of Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Types Belonging to Lineage I (Serovar 4b, 1/2b, and 3b) into PFGE Groups
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 447-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types identified among 427 clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes that were characterized in a previous study by serotyping and PFGE (AscI) could be further divided into 17 PFGE groups. While the 63 PFGE types, all part of lineage I, were established based on the number and distribution of all bands in each DNA profile, the 17 PFGE groups were based on the configuration of small bands with sizes L. monocytogenes serovar 4b isolates (n=334) were divided into 8 PFGE groups; the 32 PFGE types of serovar 1/2b isolates (n=90) and the serovar 3b isolates (n=3, 1 PFGE type) were divided into 9 PFGE groups. An association was observed between PFGE groups and serovars. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups I, J, Q, R, X, Z, o-4, and o-5 all shared serovar 4b, whereas isolates from PFGE groups D, G, O, P, T, U, o-1, o-2, and o-3 shared serovar 1/2b. Small fragments L. monocytogenes isolates. From the results of the present study, a procedure for accelerating the identification of PFGE types when analyzing new PFGE profiles can be suggested. Therefore, we propose a stepwise procedure to PFGE profiling by first identifying the PFGE group using the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then determining PFGE types based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Mary Ann Liebert, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Måltidskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44674 (URN)10.1089/fpd.2014.1880 (DOI)000353777800010 ()25803595 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Stiftelsen Grythytte Akademi Stipendiefond

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-22 Laget: 2015-05-22 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 8-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Among 504 clinical lineage II isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during 1958-2010 in Sweden, 119 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (AscI) have been identified based on the number and distribution of all banding patterns in each DNA profile. In this study, these types were further divided into PFGE groups based on the configuration of small bands with sizes <145.5 kb. The 504 isolates included 483 serovar 1/2a isolates distributed into 114 PFGE types and 21 serovar 1/2c isolates distributed into 9 PFGE types; these were further divided into 21 PFGE groups. PFGE group, that is, configuration of small bands below 145.5 kb, and serovars were correlated. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, M, S, V, W, Y, and Ö-6 to Ö-12 shared serovar 1/2a, with one exception. PFGE group E also included two PFGE types sharing serovar 1/2c and four PFGE types belonging to either serovar 1/2a or 1/2c. Isolates belonging to PFGE group N shared serovar 1/2c. In contrast to lineage I isolates, small fragments <33.3 kb were visible in all L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to lineage II. In the results from both the present and previous studies, the genomic region of small bands was genetically more conservative than in large bands. The distribution of these small bands established the relatedness of strains and defined a genetic marker for both lineages I and II, while also establishing their serogroup. The division of L. monocytogenes PFGE types into PFGE groups is advantageous as the profile of every new isolate can be identified easily and quickly through first studying the PFGE group affiliation of the isolate based on the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then identifying the PFGE type based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2017
    Emneord
    PFGE type, PFGE group, Listeria monocytogenes, serovar, lineage II
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53597 (URN)10.1089/fpd.2016.2173 (DOI)000391818800002 ()27860487 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009260194 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Stiftelsen Grythytte Akademi Stipendiefond

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-11-21 Laget: 2016-11-21 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010)
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, s. 2251-2260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n=932) isolated in Sweden during 1958–2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.

    Emneord
    Cheese, Listeria monocytogenes, PFGE, serotyping, salmon
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Måltidskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40067 (URN)10.1017/S0950268813003385 (DOI)000344921000003 ()24480252 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84909991349 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Research Foundation of Ivar and Elsa Sandberg 

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-12-30 Laget: 2014-12-30 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon, still a potential source of listeriosis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon, still a potential source of listeriosis
    Vise andre…
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Foodservice, ISSN 1748-0140, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 15-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon are associated with human listeriosis in Sweden. The present investigation of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon was a follow-up of a similar study in the middle of the 1990s. Since our first study, there has been an increasing focus on food hygiene in general and specially on self-inspection and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points from the authorities and food producers. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11 (three manufacturers) of the 56 products analyzed. The highest level of L. monocytogenes was 1500 cfu/g from a cold-smoked salmon product; however, the level was low (<100 cfu/g) in most products. Serovar 1/2a was predominant, followed by 4b. restriction enzyme analysis/ pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of the 56 salmon isolates identified five types of L. monocytogenes. One type was identical to a human type, whereas two other were closely related. These findings suggest that gravad and coldsmoked salmon are still possible sources of listeriosis in Sweden.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2009
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Måltidskunskap; Biomedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2999 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-0159.2008.00118.x (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-09-05 Laget: 2008-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. More than one variant of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from each of two human cases of invasive listeriosis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>More than one variant of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from each of two human cases of invasive listeriosis
    Vise andre…
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 135, nr 5, s. 854-856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two variants of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from blood cultures from each of two patients with listeriosis. Each variant displayed a two-band difference in DNA profile from the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although this difference in profile is insufficient to distinguish clearly between the variants, the possibility of co-infection with different strains of L. monocytogenes needs to be considered. We suggest that more than one colony should be selected for molecular typing to aid interpretation during investigation of the sources and routes of Listeria infection.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Måltidskunskap; Hushållsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6162 (URN)10.1017/S0950268806007503 (DOI)17109771 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-30 Laget: 2009-03-30 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-28bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Nguyen, Hoang
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Bayesian inference for high dimensional factor copula models2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Copulas have been applied to many research areas as multivariate probability distributions for non-linear dependence structures. However, extending copula functions in high dimensions is challenging due to the increase of model parameters and computational intensity. Fortunately, in many circumstances, high dimensional dependence can be explained by a few common factors. This dissertation focuses on using factor copula models to analyze the high dimensional dependence structure of random variables. Different factor copula models are proposed as a solution for the curse of dimensionality. Then, a parallel Bayesian inference or a Variational Inference (VI) is employed to speed up the computation time. Chapter 2 concentrates on a dynamic one factor model for group generalized hyperbolic skew Student-t copulas. Chapter 3 and 4 extend the multi-factor copula models to suit with different high dimensional data sets. These models have applications in a wide variety of disciplines, such as financial stock returns, spatial time series, and economic time series, among others. Chapter 2 develops a class of dynamic one factor copula models for tackling the curse of dimensionality. The asymmetric dependence is taken into account by group generalized hyperbolic skew Student-t copulas. The study is influenced by Creal and Tsay [2015], Oh and Patton [2017b], but instead, the dynamic factor loading equation follows a generalized autoregresive score process which depends on the copula density conditional on the factor rather than the unconditional copula density, as proposed in Oh and Patton [2017b]. As the conditional posterior distributions of parameters in groups can be inferred independently due to model specifications, a parallel Bayesian inference is employed. This reduces the time of computation for a sizable problem from several days to one hour using a personal computer. The model is illustrated for 140 firms listed in v the S&P500 index and the optimal portfolio allocation is obtanied based on minimum Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR). The major content of this chapter resulted into a paper by Nguyen et al. [2019] which had been accepted for publication in Journal of Financial Econometrics. Chapter 3 takes advantage of the static structured factor copula models proposed by Krupskii and Joe [2015a] for the dependence of homogenerous variables in different groups. To extend one factor copula models, Krupskii and Joe [2015a] assume a hierarchical structure for the latent factors and model the dependence of the observables through a serial of bivariate copula links between the observables and the latent variables. This topology stems from vine copulas and becomes very flexible to capture both asymmetric tail dependence as well as correlation among variables. The VI is used to estimate the different specifications of structured factor copula models. VI aims to approximate the joint posterior distribution of model parameters by a simpler distribution which resuls in a very fast inference algorithm in comparison to the MCMC approach. Secondly, an automated procedure is proposed to recover the dependence linkages. By taking advantage of the posterior modes of the latent variables, the initial assumptions of bivariate copula functions are inspected and replaced for better copula functions based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Chapter 3 shows an empirical example where the structured factor copula models help to predict the missing temperatures of 24 locations among 479 stations in Germany. The major content of this chapter resulted into a working paper by Nguyen et al. [2018]. Chapter 4 supplements the factor copula model with a combination of a factor copula model at the first tree level and a truncated vine copula structure at a higher tree level. The model is not only suitable to capture different behaviors at the tail of the distribution but also remains parsimonious with interpretable economic meanings. The truncated factor vine copula models can outperform the multi-factor copula model in cases that there is weak dependence among variables in higher tree levels and the inference of group latent factors becomes inaccurate. The VI strategy is used and the dependence structure can be recovered with a similar copula selection procedure. Chapter 4 compares the statistical criteria of different factor models for the dependence structure of stock returns from 218 companies listed in 10 different European countries.

  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hultgren, Anna
    Örebro universitet. Högskolepedagogiskt centrum.
    Alverland, Vicky
    Student Sjuksköterskeprogrammet.
    Edgren, Gudrun
    Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Förslag till pedagogisk strategi och åtgärder för att stärka genomströmningen i medicinsk vetenskap inom sjuksköterske-programmet2020Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lammgård, Tomas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ringnander, Mats
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Diskussion om styrkor och utvecklingsbehov av färdighetsträning på KTC. Enkät till lärare, extern feedback och workshop.2020Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Henrekson, Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    The Rise and Decline of Industrial Foundations as Controlling Owners of Swedish Listed Firms: The Role of Tax Incentives2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning in the interwar period, industrial foundations became a vehicle for the corporate control of large listed firms in Sweden, but in the 1990s they were replaced by wealthy individuals who either directly own controlling blocks or who own them through holding companies. We study potential explanations for this change and propose two taxation-related candidates: shifts in the relative effective taxation across owner types and the dismantling of the inheritance taxation that prevented the generational transfer of the ownership of large controlling blocks. Our analysis exploits newly computed marginal effective capital income tax rates across capital owners, accounting for all relevant factors, including rules governing tax exemptions. We show that the 1990–91 tax reform, abolition of the wealth tax for controlling owners in 1997, 2003 tax exemption of dividends and capital gains on listed stock for holding companies with a voting or equity share of at least 10 percent, and abolition of the inheritance and gift taxes in 2004 reversed the rules of the game. Recently, control has largely been wielded through direct ownership, and the role of foundations is rapidly declining. These findings point to the importance of tax incentives for the use of foundations as the control vehicles of listed firms.

  • Kyvik Nordås, Hildegunn
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Is Skype a telecommunications company: and why does it matter?2019Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Telecommunications constitute the core of the digital economy. EU regulation of the sector aims at promoting connectivity and access to very high capacity networks. To that end, and to keep up with technical developments, the regulatory framework is revised from time to time with a view to roll back regulation as competitive markets take hold. Whether or not an activity falls under the regulatory framework for telecommunications, which is the main category under electronic communications services, makes a huge difference as the recent ECJ decision on Skype illustrates. A longer version of this brief was published in Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås (2019), Trade in telecommunications and international trade agreements, Working Paper no. 2019-01, Trade and Investment in Services Associates (TIISA).

  • Disputas: 2020-04-03 13:15 Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the implications of family ownership and perceived growth barriers for firm decision-making and performance. The first article examines the inclusion of family business in economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden, as well as the views of professors and textbook authors and research on family business. It is found that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. The article concludes by discussing the causes of this omission, as well as strategies to overcome them in order to further our understanding of economic action. The second article presents a novel strategy for identifying domiciled family firms using total population data. By applying this strategy to Swedish data, family firms are found to contribute to one-third of Swedish employment and gross domestic product, and a significant share of Sweden’s largest firms are family-owned. In general, family firms are found to be smaller than their non-family equivalents, although they are more profitable. Meanwhile, differences between family firms and nonfamily firms are found to diminish with firm size. The third article examines whether family firms have a comparative employment growth advantage over nonfamily firms in regions with relatively low population density. As a group, family firms are found to be the main source of job creation in rural regions, largely as a result of their large numbers. Nevertheless, the average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm. Meanwhile, in line with the study’s conjecture, this difference is found to decrease across the urban-rural context, i.e., across metropolitan, urban and rural regions. The fourth paper examines the representation of women in top management teams1 in family firms and non-family firms. Moreover, the share of women in a firm’s top management team is found to be positively associated with the additional appointment of female managers. Lastly, kinship bonds between the owning families and prospective managers are found to be positively associated with the appointment of women on top management teams. The fifth paper aims to capture the relationship between perceived growth barriers and firm size, which is achieved by developing a novel data-driven strategy for identifying firm size groups. It is found that smaller firms typically face accessibility constraints on equity financing, whereas larger firms generally face barriers related to competition and accessibility to qualified staff. These results are benchmarked against those using prevailing strategies for measuring firm size, whereby it is suggested that there may be a need for methodological rethinking in the field regarding its treatment of firm size.

    Delarbeid
    1. Family business: A missing link in economics?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Family business: A missing link in economics?
    2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms account for a substantial share of economic activity and deviate from standard economic assumptions on firmbehavior. However, little is known about how these firms are represented in economic theory. This article examines the inclusion of family business in the curricula of economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden as well as professors’ and textbook authors’ views and research on family business. Textbooks, articles and course offerings used in doctoral programs are considered to indicate the state of established knowledge in the field. The findings show that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. This article concludes that family business is excluded from ‘core’ economic theory due to a lack of paradigmatic pluralism, axiomatic incompatibility, path dependency, institutional bias and data constraints. Lastly, it is speculated that integration of family business theory into standard economic modeling is likely to occur outside prestigious universities due to path dependency in research.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2020
    Emneord
    entrepreneurship, family business, family control, family firm, economics, teaching
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79162 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.100306 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-01-14 Laget: 2020-01-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 539-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2018
    Emneord
    Entrepreneur, Family firms, Employment, GDP, Register data
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61172 (URN)10.1007/s11187-017-9947-6 (DOI)000443439100003 ()2-s2.0-85030325971 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Familjeföretagandets betydelse
    Forskningsfinansiär
    The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius FoundationSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-28 Laget: 2017-09-28 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 293-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposition that family firms have comparative employment growth advantages in relation to non-family firms in regions with relatively low population density. This premise is tested across metropolitan, urban and rural regions using total population data on domestically and privately owned, single-plant, non-listed limited liability firms in Sweden. A panel of more than 89,000 firms is followed over a seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm across the urban-rural context. However, in line with the study’s conjecture, these differences are found to decrease across metropolitan, urban and rural regions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2018
    Emneord
    family firms, employment, regional growth, entrepreneur, social capital
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69045 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2018.08.004 (DOI)000454963900006 ()2-s2.0-85057023468 (Scopus ID)
    Konferanse
    The 2016 annual Swedish Graduate Program in Economics (SWEGPEC) workshop, the International Family Enterprise Research Academy (IFERA) 2017 Annual Conference
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-25 Laget: 2018-09-25 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 303-326Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57683 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2018.095903 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055855794 (Scopus ID)
    Prosjekter
    Tillväxthinder i små och medelstora företag
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthThe Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-16 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-03bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80350 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-03 Laget: 2020-03-03 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-03bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Stålnacke, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Fonologisk utveckling hos barn med otitbenägenhet: En longitudinell studie i åldrarna 3;6 – 5;6 år2020Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hearing loss can act as a risk factor to poor linguistic development. One type of hearing loss is caused by fluid in the middle ear, a common consequence of acute otitis media (AOM). A number of children have ≥3 episodes of AOM within a 6-month period and are thus classifiedas otitis prones. Otitis proneness can result in fluctuation of the hearing experience that is believed to create inconsistency of the perceived speech signal and, thus, difficulties for the child to identify, categorize and produce speech sounds.

    Objective: The aims of the current study are to investigate, longitudinally the phonological development, concerning phonological production and phonological awareness, in children with otitis proneness and to compare their results with the results of the children without otitis proneness.

    Method: In total, 25 children with and 21 children without otitis proneness were involved in the study. Tests on phonological production (age 3;6 and 4;6) and phonological awareness (age 5;6) were performed onannual basis.

    Result: The comparisons between the study and the control group at the age 3;6, 4;6 and 5;6 years, reveal few significant results for either phonological production nor phonological development. For phonological production differences were seen at segmental level. The longitudinal development of phonological production indicate typical phonological development between age 3;6 and 4;6 for both test group and control group.

    Conclusion: Otitis proneness before 2;6 years of age does not appear to be an indicator of affected linguistic development at the ages 3;6 to 5;6 years, neither for phonological production nor concerning phonological awareness. However, there are great variations in the results, indicating that some children have greater difficulties than others do.

  • Thomas, Ilias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Dickens, Alex M.
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Posti, Jussi P.
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Departments of Neurosurgery and Rehabilitation and Brain Trauma, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Mohammadian, Mehrbod
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Ledig, Christian
    Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Takala, Riikka S. K.
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Perioperative Services, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Integrative Analysis of Circulating Metabolite Profiles and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury2020Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, nr 4, artikkel-id E1395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have a distinct circulating metabolic profile. However, it is unclear if this metabolomic profile corresponds to changes in brain morphology as observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to explore how circulating serum metabolites, following TBI, relate to structural MRI (sMRI) findings. Serum samples were collected upon admission to the emergency department from patients suffering from acute TBI and metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Most of these patients sustained a mild TBI. In the same patients, sMRIs were taken and volumetric data were extracted (138 metrics). From a pool of 203 eligible screened patients, 96 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Metabolites were summarized as eight clusters and sMRI data were reduced to 15 independent components (ICs). Partial correlation analysis showed that four metabolite clusters had significant associations with specific ICs, reflecting both the grey and white matter brain injury. Multiple machine learning approaches were then applied in order to investigate if circulating metabolites could distinguish between positive and negative sMRI findings. A logistic regression model was developed, comprised of two metabolic predictors (erythronic acid and myo-inositol), which, together with neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), discriminated positive and negative sMRI findings with an area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.85 (specificity = 0.89, sensitivity = 0.65). The results of this study show that metabolomic analysis of blood samples upon admission, either alone or in combination with protein biomarkers, can provide valuable information about the impact of TBI on brain structural changes.

  • Liao, Qianfang
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sun, Da
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Point Set Registration for 3D Range Scans Using Fuzzy Cluster-based Metric and Efficient Global OptimizationInngår i: IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0162-8828, E-ISSN 1939-3539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a new point set registration method to align 3D range scans. In our method, fuzzy clusters are utilized to represent a scan, and the registration of two given scans is realized by minimizing a fuzzy weighted sum of the distances between their fuzzy cluster centers. This fuzzy cluster-based metric has a broad basin of convergence and is robust to noise. Moreover, this metric provides analytic gradients, allowing standard gradient-based algorithms to be applied for optimization. Based on this metric, the outlier issues are addressed. In addition, for the first time in rigid point set registration, a registration quality assessment in the absence of ground truth is provided. Furthermore, given specified rotation and translation spaces, we derive the upper and lower bounds of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and develop a branch-and-bound (BnB)-based optimization scheme, which can globally minimize the metric regardless of the initialization. This optimization scheme is performed in an efficient coarse-to-fine fashion: First, fuzzy clustering is applied to describe each of the two given scans by a small number of fuzzy clusters. Then, a global search, which integrates BnB and gradient-based algorithms, is implemented to achieve a coarse alignment for the two scans. During the global search, the registration quality assessment offers a beneficial stop criterion to detect whether a good result is obtained. Afterwards, a relatively large number of points of the two scans are directly taken as the fuzzy cluster centers, and then, the coarse solution is refined to be an exact alignment using the gradient-based local convergence. Compared to existing counterparts, this optimization scheme makes a large improvementin terms of robustness and efficiency by virtue of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and the registration quality assessment. In the experiments, the registration results of several 3D range scan pairs demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method, as well as its superiority to state-of-the-art registration approaches.

  • Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, stockholm, Sweden.
    Organising Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Employee Involvement at Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses often refer to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) when asked about their responsibilities toward society. In this view, CSR includes social, environmental, and economic responsibilities, of which the latter is prevalently prioritised. The larger the organisation, the greater public scrutiny and external pressure exist to affect and control such tasks. It remains vague, however, how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) navigate their responsibilities since these are less visible to the public eye. Hence, it may not be surprising that the literature about CSR in SMEs is fragmented and prevalently refers to two extremes: SMEs as forward-thinking actors or SMEs as lacking CSR. This thesis sheds light upon how SMEs organise CSR by endorsing organising as a process of social construction and, thereby, focusing upon micro-foundations of CSR. This unveils specific organising mechanisms on the individual level (i.e. the employee) and on the organisational level (i.e. the SME). Based upon three case studies in the Swedish apparel industry, it is determined that organising CSR is not necessarily dictated by the owner-manager’s ideas and ideals; instead, employees are the ones who propel CSR. These employees exhibit moral motives for CSR as well as demonstrate entrepreneurial spirit by instrumentalising SME peculiarities and, therewith, contribute to shaping their organisational environments’ social and environmental responsibilities

  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar: Ett konceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockhult, H. (2005) Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar. Enkonceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter.(Employee responsibility – a way of expressing values. A conceptual study ofresponsibility and how it is assumed in call center). Written in Swedish. ÖrebroStudies in Business 1. 219 pp.The focus of this study is on responsibility and how it is assumed in call centers.Call centers have developed during the last few decades and they are representinga new way of providing customer service. In scientific management there is asharp division between the planning and the execution of work. This division isalso very evident in most call centers today. But managers today often implicitlyexpect employees to take responsibility for more than the ascribed work task.The employees also expect a working situation where they are trusted with a lotof opportunities to take responsibility. In the light of these facts, the question thatshould be answered in this study is: In what ways are employees takingresponsibility in the call center organization?The knowledge acquired is based on theoretical assumptions aboutresponsibility. It is assumed that responsibility is partly given to the employee bymanagement, but also assumes responsibility on the basis of other criteria, thatcome from within the individual. The theories of responsibility are used forinterpreting actions in the call center organization. Empirically the study includestwo call center organizations. One of the call centers is mostly selling products orservices for other companies. The other call center is a nordic bank that givessupport to and sells products to the customers of its own.The results from the study confirm that besides the responsibility given bymanagement, the employees assume some other responsibilities that they perceiveas their own, self-imposed, responsibilities as employees. These self-imposedresponsibilities include responsibility for the customer, for the colleagues and foronesself. To assume these self-imposed responsibilities, the employees must tosome extent, act in reverse regarding the responsibilities given by the employer.Another conclusion is that the role of the group manager is important for the callcenter operators’ way of assuming responsibility. The last conclusion is thatalthough employers often state that they want the employee to take personalresponsibility, this favourable attitude does not show in the call center practice.

  • Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Swedish Version of the Electronic Health Literacy Scale: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study Including Thresholds Levels2020Inngår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikkel-id e16316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To enhance the efficacy of information and communication, health care has increasingly turned to digitalization. Electronic health (eHealth) is an important factor that influences the use and receipt of benefits from Web-based health resources. Consequently, the concept of eHealth literacy has emerged, and in 2006 Norman and Skinner developed an 8-item self-report instrument to measure these skills: the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). However, the eHEALS has not been tested for reliability and validity in the general Swedish population and no threshold values have been established.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt eHEALS into a Swedish version; evaluate convergent validity and psychometric properties; and determine threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient eHealth literacy.

    Methods: Prospective psychometric evaluation study included 323 participants equally distributed between sexes with a mean age of 49 years recruited from 12 different arenas.

    Results: There were some difficulties translating the English concept health resources. This resulted in this concept being translated as health information (ie, Halsoinformation in Swedish). The eHEALS total score was 29.3 (SD 6.2), Cronbach alpha .94, Spearman-Brown coefficient .96, and response rate 94.6%. All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. The test-retest reliability indicated an almost perfect agreement, .86 (P<.001). An exploratory factor analysis found one component explaining 64% of the total variance. No floor or ceiling effect was noted. Thresholds levels were set at 8 to 20 = inadequate, 21 to 26 = problematic, and 27 to 40 = sufficient, and there were no significant differences in distribution of the three levels between the Swedish version of eHEALS and the HLS-EU-Q16.

    Conclusions: The Swedish version of eHEALS was assessed as being unidimensional with high internal consistency of the instrument, making the reliability adequate. Adapted threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient levels of eHealth literacy seem to be relevant. However, there are some linguistic issues relating to the concept of health resources.

  • Saju, Jolly M.
    et al.
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Hossain, Mohammad Sorowar
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Liew, Woei Chang
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Thevasagayam, Natascha May
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tan, Lydia Shun En
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Anand, Amit
    Bioimaging and Biocomputing, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Orbán, László
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Frontline Fish Genomics Research Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, Keszthely, Hungary; Centre for Comparative Genomics, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.
    Heat Shock Factor 5 Is Essential for Spermatogenesis in Zebrafish2018Inngår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 25, nr 12, s. 3252-3261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are transcription factors that regulate responses to heat shock and other environmental stimuli. Four heat shock factors (Hsf1-4) have been characterized from vertebrates to date. In addition to stress response, they also play important roles in development and gametogenesis. Here, we study the fifth member of heat shock factor family, Hsf5, using zebrafish as a model organism. Mutant hsf5(-/-) males, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technique, were infertile with drastically reduced sperm count, increased sperm head size, and abnormal tail architecture, whereas females remained fertile. We show that Hsf5 is required for progression through meiotic prophase 1 during spermatogenesis as suggested by the accumulation of cells in the leptotene and zygotene-pachytene stages and increased apoptosis in post-meiotic cells. hsf5(-/-) mutants show gonadal misregulation of a substantial number of genes with roles in cell cycle, apoptosis, protein modifications, and signal transduction, indicating an important role of Hsf5 in early stages of spermatogenesis.

  • Karlsson, Sune
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige2020Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 7-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel analyseras sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige under en period där inflationsmålspolitiken kan ses som etablerad. Resultaten indikerar att sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation – vilket ofta benämns phillipskurvan – inte nödvändigtvis har varit stabilt över tiden. Vi finner dock inget stöd för att inflationen under de senaste åren skulle ha blivit mindre känslig för förändringar i arbetslösheten. Analysen pekar också på vikten av att överväga huruvida makroekonomiska samband samt de störningar som drabbar ekonomin bör modelleras som tidsvarierande, såväl för att kunna besvara akademiska frågeställningar som att ha policymodeller med relevanta empiriska egenskaper.

  • Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Svensson, Robert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Fransson, Dan
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Techno-challenge: Implications of technology on sports coaching in Sweden2019Inngår i: Svensk förening för beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforsknings (SVEBI) årliga konferens 2019: (Idrotts)tendenser i tiden, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduktion/Introduction: Over the past century, we have seen technology and applied science contribute to increasing performance levels in sports (e.g. Haake 2009, Park 2011, Fouché 2017). While the use of technologies is part of a broader sportification process (e.g. Guttmann 1978, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019), the types of technologies used has changed over time. At present, global positioning systems, microtechnology sensors and video- and computer-assisted performance analysis (PA) has gained prominence (Cummins et al. 2013, Rein & Memmert 2016). British football clubs have been driving the techno-scientific development, a development which is currently starting to establish itself in Sweden. The use of PA methods has been found to benefit training, performance, and safety (esp. injury prevention) and to create positive effects on coach-athlete relations and athlete learning and agency (Cronin et al. 2018, Kerr 2014). However, uses of PA technologies also have negative consequences for coaches and athletes. For instance, research demonstrates that PA technologies monitor athletes (Williams & Manley 2016); depend on effective communication between stakeholders (i.e., performance analyst and coach; coach and athlete) (Baerg 2017) and generate unrealistic training and performance expectations (Kohe & Purdy 2018). Despite these emerging insights, many research gaps exist. Knowledge on how governing bodies understand and implement PA and how PA affects the coaching process and practice are currently key questions that remain unanswered.

    Syfte och teoretisk ram/Aim and theoretical framework: We use historical sociology (e.g. Abrams 1982) to critically reflect over the development, use and consequences of PA methods in sport. Specifically, we (1) demonstrate that a number of historical, contextual, and situational factors indicate that PA is about to become implemented on a large scale in Sweden; and (2) critically reflect on what this upcoming change means. Our theoretical framework will consist of the sportification model (Guttmann 1978, Yttergren 1996, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019) to historicize the increasing role of technology in elite sport and to predict its current and future role in Sweden.

    Metod/Method: The empirical material included in our presentation is taken from existing research on the sportification in Swedish elite sport (e.g. Andersson 2019, Svensson 2019, Svensson 2016a, Yttergren 1996), existing literature that documents the use and consequences of technologies in elite sport in the UK (e.g. Williams & Manley 2016, Cummins et. al 2013), and our own insider observations of the developments and current situation of PA in Sweden. To make sense of this material, the authors met on several occasions to discuss meanings and draw out implications for science, education, and practice.

     

    Resultat/Results

    The interest for and impact of PA methods in Swedish elite sports coaching is growing. Scientific production has increased incredibly since 2015, courses and lectures on PA are popular among students, and more clubs are buying (into) these new technologies. Historical examples analyzed through the sportification model suggest that this development will accelerate. Despite the rising interest in techno-scientific PA, critical discussion is lacking about how potential risks (e.g. for personal integrity, coaching) can be managed.

     

    Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions

    The uses of new technology in PA has implications for elite sports in general and coaching in particular. Experiences from British football suggest that there are potential risks with uncritically adopting new technologies. We argue that these risks can be addressed through adopting a more reflective approach. One area where this could be done is within coach education.

  • Köckemann, Uwe
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Morberg, Daniel
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Open-Source Data Collection and Data Sets for Activity Recognition in Smart Homes2020Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikkel-id E879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As research in smart homes and activity recognition is increasing, it is of ever increasing importance to have benchmarks systems and data upon which researchers can compare methods. While synthetic data can be useful for certain method developments, real data sets that are open and shared are equally as important. This paper presents the E-care@home system, its installation in a real home setting, and a series of data sets that were collected using the E-care@home system. Our first contribution, the E-care@home system, is a collection of software modules for data collection, labeling, and various reasoning tasks such as activity recognition, person counting, and configuration planning. It supports a heterogeneous set of sensors that can be extended easily and connects collected sensor data to higher-level Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning modules. Our second contribution is a series of open data sets which can be used to recognize activities of daily living. In addition to these data sets, we describe the technical infrastructure that we have developed to collect the data and the physical environment. Each data set is annotated with ground-truth information, making it relevant for researchers interested in benchmarking different algorithms for activity recognition.

  • Hansson-Nylund, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Siegel, Aki
    Östlund, Karl
    Retoriska budskap vid sanering efter kärnteknisk olycka2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2020-04-17 13:15 Örebro universitet, Gymnastik- och idrottshuset, Hörsal G, Örebro
    Edholm, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in physical function, accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, leading to loss of independency. In this respect, physical activity and healthy diet represent key lifestyle factors with potential to delay onset of age-related physical disability. The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore the effects of physical activity behaviours in general and resistance training (RT) in particular, with or without addition of a healthy diet (HD), on muscle mass and physical function in older community-dwelling women. A main finding was that physical activity of at least moderate intensity at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a previously sedentary lifestyle. Additionally, engagement in exercise-related activities during middleage years is linked to better physical function and higher muscle massat old age, regardless of present physical activity level. This thesis further highlights that in older women RT combined with HD rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elicits significant gains in muscle mass, whereas no corresponding gain was induced by RT alone. Likewise, larger improvements in muscle strength and physical function were evident in response to combined effects by RT and HD compared to RT alone. Taken together, findings from this thesis support public health efforts aiming to promote physical activity of at least moderate intensity together with a healthy diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to combat age-related decline in muscle mass and physical function.

    Delarbeid
    1. Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 415-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Emneord
    aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-25 Laget: 2019-02-25 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80862 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-26 Laget: 2020-03-26 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, nr 8, s. 918-925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Physiological Society, 2015
    Emneord
    aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Fysiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-10 Laget: 2015-11-10 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 190-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Physiological Society, 2017
    Emneord
    aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-19 Laget: 2017-09-19 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Research and Outcome, Mumbai, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Information frictions make non-simultaneous exchange risky, particularly across borders. Therefore, many countries insure cross-border exchange. We investigate the effects on firm trade, jobs, value added and productivity, using uniquely detailed, comprehensive and longitudinal transaction-level Swedish data on insurance and granular data on exporters and foreign buyers. For identification, we employ matching and differencein-difference and fuzzy regression discontinuity estimators and exploit a quasi-natural experiment. We find strikingly heterogeneous effects across firm size and response variables. The strongest positive effects are for small traders and new users. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from export insurance to firm performance.

  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Utvärdering av utvecklingsprojektet: Kompetenslyftet för läkarsekreterare2011Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Gadolin, Christian
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Stockhult, Helen
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Samverkan i komplexitet: Resultat från utvärdering av samverkansmodell social hållbarhet/folkhälsa2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Stockhult, Helén
    Högskolan Skövde, Skövde.
    Nyföretagande och inkubatorverksamhet: En studie av entreprenörers syn på företagande och inkubatorverksamhet2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Sun, Da
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liao, Qianfang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Single Master Bimanual Teleoperation System with Efficient Regulation2020Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new single master bimanual teleoperation (SMBT) system with an efficient position, orientation and force regulation strategy. Unlike many existing studies that solely support motion synchronization, the first contribution of the proposed work is to propose a solution for orientation regulation when several slave robots have differing motions. In other words, we propose a solution for self-regulated orientation for dual-arm robots. A second contribution in the paper allows the master with fewer degrees of freedom to control the slaves (with higher degrees of freedom), while the orientation of the slaves is self-regulated. The system further offers a novel force regulation that enables the slave robots to have a smooth and balanced robot-environment interaction with proper force directions. Finally, the proposed approach provides adequate force feedback about the environment to the operator and assists the operator in identifying different motion situations of the slaves. Our approach demonstrates that the forces from the slaves will not interrupt the operator’s perception of the environment. To validate the proposed system, experiments are conducted using a platform consisting of two 7-Degree of Freedom (DoF) slave robots and one 3-DoF master haptic device. The experiments demonstrated good results in terms of position, orientation and force regulation.

  • Lernborg, Clara My
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The case of [partial] organising for CSR: Bridging the responsibility gap for SMEs2017Inngår i: Sustainable development and business / [ed] Markus Kallifatides and Lin Lerpold (eds.), Stockholm: SSE and the Stockholm School of Economics Institute for Research (SIR) , 2017, 1, s. 285-308Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2020-04-03 10:15 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Isenström, Lisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching children about human rights is an important step towards strengthening human rights internationally and schools are considered primary sites for children to develop human rights understandings, attitudes and behaviours. This dissertation explores the teachers’ role in educating children about their human rights. Focusing on the everyday school life of young children, a holistic approach to rights-learning is applied that includes not only learning about human rights but also developing rights-conscious values, attitudes and behaviours. Also included in the concept rights-learning is the formation of a self-conception as a rights-holder. Against this background the aim of this dissertation is to clarify the impact of teachers’ actions on the construction of young children’s rights-learning, and their self-conceptions as rights-holders.

    Theoretically, the dissertation combines: (i) rights theorisation; (ii) theorisation of differing discourses of children and childhood; and (iii) Foucauldian governmentality. From these, analytical concepts of rights-learning situations, teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities and privileged rightssubject positions are constructed. The data used in the study derives from classroom observations and interviews with teachers, as well as drawing on previous research.

    The findings highlight that in everyday school practice the teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities will privilege different rights-subject positions for the children and thereby construct children’s rights-learning in different ways. With a holistic approach to rights-learning, as something that occurs in various interactions and situations in everyday school life, the findings presented in this dissertation can provide new perspectives and enrich discussions on teaching and learning children’s human rights.

    Delarbeid
    1. Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80552 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-11 Laget: 2020-03-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80553 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-11 Laget: 2020-03-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80554 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-11 Laget: 2020-03-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-11bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Hou, Hui-Rang
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Meng, Qing-Hao
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine2019Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 7227-7235, artikkel-id 8945323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas source localization (including gas source declaration) is critical for environmental monitoring, pollution control and chemical safety. In this paper we approach the gas source declaration problem by constructing a tetrahedron, each vertex of which consists of a gas sensor and a three-dimensional (3D) anemometer. With this setup, the space sampled around a gas source can be divided into two categories, i.e. inside (“source in”) and outside (“source out”) the tetrahedron, posing gas source declaration as a classification problem. For the declaration of the “source in” or “source out” cases, we propose to directly take raw gas concentration and wind measurement data as features, and apply a median value filtering based extreme learning machine (M-ELM) method. Our experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed method, yielding accuracies of 93.2% and 100% for gas source declaration in the regular and irregular tetrahedron experiments, respectively. These results are better than that of the ELM-MFC (mass flux criterion) and other variants of ELM algorithms.

  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bader, Eveline
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schindler, Florian
    TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Schabmann, Alfred
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students with Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study2019Inngår i: Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, ISSN 1937-6928, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 5-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity recognition in whole number representations is a fundamental skill children need to acquire in their mathematical development. Despite the observed correlation to mathematics achievement, however, the abil-ity to recognize quantities in structured whole number representations has not been studied extensively. In this article, we investigate how stu-dents with mathematical difficulties (MD) differ from typically develop-ing (TD) students in quantity recognition in structured whole number representations. We use eye tracking (ET), which can help to identify stu-dents’ quantity recognition strategies. In contrast to methods that include collecting verbal answers and reports, ET avoids an additional verbal-ization step, which may be affected by poor language skills and by low meta-cognitive abilities or memory issues when monitoring, recalling,and explaining one’s thoughts. We present an ET study with 20 students of which ten were found to have MD in initial tests (using qualitative and quantitative diagnostics). We used ET glasses, which allow seeing the students’ view of the scene with an augmented visualization of the gaze point projected onto the scene. The obtained gaze-overlaid videos also include audio data and records of students’ answers and utterances. In our study, we did not find significant differences between the error rates of MD and TD students. Response times, however, were longer for students with MD. The analysis of the ET data brought students’ quantity recogni-tion strategies to light, some of which were not found in previous research. Our analyses revealed differences in the use of these quantity recognition strategies between MD and TD students. Our study illustrates the power of ET for investigating students’ quantity recognition strategies and the potential of ET to support MD students.

  • Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Scheuschner, Nils
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model2019Inngår i: 2019 IEEE SENSORS, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors mounted on mobile robotsenable the mapping of gas distributions in large or hardlyaccessible areas. A challenging task, however, is the generation ofthree-dimensional distribution maps from the gas measurements.Suitable reconstruction algorithms can be adapted, for instance,from the field of computed tomography (CT), but both theirperformance and strategies for selecting optimal measuring posesmust be evaluated. For this purpose simulations are used, since, incontrast to field tests, they allow repeatable conditions. Althoughseveral simulation tools exist, they lack realistic models of remotegas sensors. Recently, we introduced a model for a Tunable DiodeLaser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor taking intoaccount the conical shape of its laser beam. However, the novelmodel has not yet been validated with experiments. In this paperwe compare our model with a real sensor device and show thatthe assumptions made hold.

  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modeling in Human-Robot Navigation2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence: Volume 1 (FCTA), SciTePress, 2019, s. 296-305Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the crossings of the trajectories of humans and robots. We discuss the intersection calculation and its fuzzy version in the context of human-robot navigation with respect to noise information. Based on known parameters of the Gaussian input distributions at the orientations of human and robot the parameters of the output distributions at the intersection are to be found by analytical and fuzzy calculation. Furthermore the inverse task is discussed where the parameters of the output distributions are given and the parameters of the input distributions are searched. For larger standard deviations of the orientation signals we suggest mixed Gaussian models as approximation of nonlinear distributions.

  • Vintr, Tomas
    et al.
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Molina, Sergi
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems (L-CAS), University of Lincoln.
    Senanayake, Ransalu
    Stanford University.
    Broughton, George
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Yan, Zhi
    Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Laboratory (CIAD), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), France.
    Ulrich, Jiri
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Kucner, Tomasz P.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Swaminathan, Chittaranjan Srinivas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Majer, Filip
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Stachova, Maria
    University of Matej Bel, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Krajnik, Tomas
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots2019Inngår i: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8870909Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a human-centric spatio-temporal model for service robots operating in densely populated environments for long time periods. The method integrates observations of pedestrians performed by a mobile robot at different locations and times into a memory efficient model, that represents the spatial layout of natural pedestrian flows and how they change over time. To represent temporal variations of the observed flows, our method does not model the time in a linear fashion, but by several dimensions wrapped into themselves. This representation of time can capture long-term (i.e. days to weeks) periodic patterns of peoples’ routines and habits. Knowledge of these patterns allows making long-term predictions of future human presence and walking directions, which can support mobile robot navigation in human-populated environments. Using datasets gathered by a robot for several weeks, we compare the model to state-of-the-art methods for pedestrian flow modelling.