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  • Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Swedish Version of the Electronic Health Literacy Scale: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study Including Thresholds Levels2020In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e16316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To enhance the efficacy of information and communication, health care has increasingly turned to digitalization. Electronic health (eHealth) is an important factor that influences the use and receipt of benefits from Web-based health resources. Consequently, the concept of eHealth literacy has emerged, and in 2006 Norman and Skinner developed an 8-item self-report instrument to measure these skills: the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). However, the eHEALS has not been tested for reliability and validity in the general Swedish population and no threshold values have been established.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt eHEALS into a Swedish version; evaluate convergent validity and psychometric properties; and determine threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient eHealth literacy.

    Methods: Prospective psychometric evaluation study included 323 participants equally distributed between sexes with a mean age of 49 years recruited from 12 different arenas.

    Results: There were some difficulties translating the English concept health resources. This resulted in this concept being translated as health information (ie, Halsoinformation in Swedish). The eHEALS total score was 29.3 (SD 6.2), Cronbach alpha .94, Spearman-Brown coefficient .96, and response rate 94.6%. All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. The test-retest reliability indicated an almost perfect agreement, .86 (P<.001). An exploratory factor analysis found one component explaining 64% of the total variance. No floor or ceiling effect was noted. Thresholds levels were set at 8 to 20 = inadequate, 21 to 26 = problematic, and 27 to 40 = sufficient, and there were no significant differences in distribution of the three levels between the Swedish version of eHEALS and the HLS-EU-Q16.

    Conclusions: The Swedish version of eHEALS was assessed as being unidimensional with high internal consistency of the instrument, making the reliability adequate. Adapted threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient levels of eHealth literacy seem to be relevant. However, there are some linguistic issues relating to the concept of health resources.

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    The Swedish Version of the Electronic Health Literacy Scale: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study Including Thresholds Levels
  • Lange, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical presentation, and outcome of infections are affected by host-, and etiology- (focus of infection and pathogen) related factors. The immune response is controlled by a network of regulating pathways.

    This thesis focuses on Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), a protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties, and the previously non-studied soluble isoform of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (sBTLA), a membrane-associated regulatory protein. Plasma concentrations of SLPI and sBTLA were assessed in relation to etiology, severity, mortality, and markers of inflammation and immunosuppression, in i) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (SLPI), ii) intensive care unit (ICU) treated severe sepsis and septic shock (sBTLA), and iii) dynamically in BSI (SLPI and sBTLA).

    Main findings were: higher expression of SLPI in pneumonia, compared to other sources, higher initial concentrations in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus BSI, compared to Escherichia coli BSI, and higher SLPI concentrations in sepsis compared to non-septic BSI. Interestingly, men with pneumonia had higher plasma levels of SLPI, both in CAP and BSI. Likewise, sBTLA was associated with severity, but preferentially at higher organ failure scores. High sBTLA was associated with increased risk of early death (28 days) in ICU-treated septic patients, and with mortality at 90 days and one year in BSI. In particular, failure to normalize sBTLA on day 7, was indicative of worse long-term outcome. SLPI was associated with decreased monocytic HLA-DR expression, and sBTLA with decreased lymphocyte count, which might indicate a connection to sepsis-associated immunosuppression.

    In conclusion, SLPI and sBTLA show association with severity, and markers of immune dysfunction, in sepsis and BSI. SLPI differs depending on etiology, while sBTLA may have prognostic implications. Our results propose that the pathobiological role of sBTLA, and the possible utility of SLPI and sBTLA in sepsis immune-profiling, should be further addressed in future studies.

    List of papers
    1. Antimicrobial peptide plasma concentrations in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial peptide plasma concentrations in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 432-437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe. Methods: Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects. Results: In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively), but less markedly increased in patients with non-RTI (68 ng/ml, p = 0.06 and 41 ng/ml, p = 0.43). LL-37 and human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP 1-3) levels were not increased in subjects with CAP. Levels of BPI and SLPI did not correlate to severity of disease, and AMP levels did not differ depending on the causative agent. Interestingly, male subjects with CAP displayed increased concentrations of SLPI compared to females. This was not observed in subjects with non-RTI and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Subjects with CAP showed increased plasma concentrations of SLPI and BPI compared to healthy control subjects. The finding of higher SLPI levels in male subjects with CAP implies that there are sex-dependent immunological differences in SLPI turnover.

    Keywords
    Community-acquired pneumonia, antimicrobial peptides, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI)
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56572 (URN)10.3109/00365548.2012.760844 (DOI)000318940400003 ()23317166 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Soluble B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Correlates to Disease Severity in Sepsis and High Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Mortality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soluble B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Correlates to Disease Severity in Sepsis and High Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Mortality
    2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0169176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims: B- and T-lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA), Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) are co-inhibitory receptors that regulate T cell activation. In the present study of ICU-treated patients we measured plasma concentrations of their soluble isoforms, with the aim to evaluate their potential as sepsis biomarkers and utility as prognostic indicators.

    Methods: 101 patients with sepsis, 28 patients with non-infectious critical illness (ICU controls) and 31 blood donors (healthy controls, HC) were included in the study. Plasma concentrations of soluble BTLA (sBTLA), CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) and PD-1 (sPD-1) were measured with ELISA in serial blood samples. Comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test and correlations were assessed with Spearman's Rank correlation test. Cox proportional hazard models, with sBTLA and sPD-1 as fixed and sBTLA as time-varying covariates, were used to determine association with 28-day mortality.

    Results: sBTLA levels were significantly higher in the sepsis cohort (median 14 ng/mL, IQR 8-29) compared to ICU controls (9 ng/mL, IQR 5-26, p = 0.048) and HC (2.9 ng/mL, IQR 0.9-9.1, p<0.01), and correlated to SOFA score. sBTLA levels were higher in 28 day sepsis non-survivors than in survivors (baseline median 28 ng/mL, IQR 13-41 vs 13 ng/mL, IQR 8-23, p = 0.04). After adjustment for age and comorbidities, the relative risk of 28 day mortality was nearly 5-fold higher in sepsis patients with a baseline sBTLA > 21 ng/mL, compared to those with a level below this threshold. sBTLA was even more associated with mortality in the time-varying analysis. sPD-1 levels were lower in the sepsis cohort compared to HC but not compared to ICU controls and were not associated with mortality. sCTLA-4 was detectable in only one subject.

    Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of soluble BTLA were increased early in sepsis/septic shock and correlated to severity of disease. A baseline concentration >21ng/mL was associated with a poor prognosis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    San Francisco: Public Library of Science, 2017
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54384 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0169176 (DOI)000391639100023 ()28056053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85008970210 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee Region Örebro County

    Nyckelfonden Region Örebro County

    Olle Engkvist fund

    Signe and Olof Wallenius trust

    ALF

    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Research Foundation

    Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) differ depending on etiology and severity in community-onset bloodstream infection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) differ depending on etiology and severity in community-onset bloodstream infection
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    2019 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1425-1434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The severity of bloodstream infections (BSI) depends on pathogen, source, and host factors. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) counteracts tissue damage, balances inflammation, and is increased in pneumonia and sepsis. We aimed to evaluate whether SLPI production differs depending on etiology, disease severity, and sex in BSI and to correlate SLPI with markers of inflammation and immunosuppression. Of the adult patients with BSI, 109 were included and sampled repeatedly, from hospital admission through day 28. Controls (blood donors) were sampled twice. SLPI in plasma was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus etiology were associated with higher SLPI than Escherichia coli on days 1-2 and 3. On day 1-2, subjects with sepsis had higher SLPI concentrations than those with non-septic BSI. Pneumonia was associated with higher SLPI than a non-pulmonary source of infection. SLPI co-varied with inflammatory markers. SLPI concentrations did not differ with regard to sex in the full cohort, but men with pneumonia had higher SLPI than women on day 1-2. S. pneumoniae and S. aureus BSI were associated with higher SLPI, when compared to E. coli. Severity and pneumonia, as well as male sex in the pneumonia sub-cohort, were factors independently associated with higher SLPI.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2019
    Keywords
    Bloodstream infection, SLPI, Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, Sepsis, Sepsis immunology
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74324 (URN)10.1007/s10096-019-03567-2 (DOI)000476492200005 ()31089838 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065985128 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee of Region Örebro County

    Nyckelfonden Region Orebro County

    Signe and Olof Wallenius trust

    ALF project funding

    Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Sustained elevation of soluble B- and T- lymphocyte attenuator predicts long-term mortality in patients with bacteremia and sepsis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustained elevation of soluble B- and T- lymphocyte attenuator predicts long-term mortality in patients with bacteremia and sepsis
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81440 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
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    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections
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  • Saju, Jolly M.
    et al.
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Hossain, Mohammad Sorowar
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Liew, Woei Chang
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Thevasagayam, Natascha May
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tan, Lydia Shun En
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Anand, Amit
    Bioimaging and Biocomputing, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Orbán, László
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Frontline Fish Genomics Research Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, Keszthely, Hungary; Centre for Comparative Genomics, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.
    Heat Shock Factor 5 Is Essential for Spermatogenesis in Zebrafish2018In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 3252-3261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are transcription factors that regulate responses to heat shock and other environmental stimuli. Four heat shock factors (Hsf1-4) have been characterized from vertebrates to date. In addition to stress response, they also play important roles in development and gametogenesis. Here, we study the fifth member of heat shock factor family, Hsf5, using zebrafish as a model organism. Mutant hsf5(-/-) males, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technique, were infertile with drastically reduced sperm count, increased sperm head size, and abnormal tail architecture, whereas females remained fertile. We show that Hsf5 is required for progression through meiotic prophase 1 during spermatogenesis as suggested by the accumulation of cells in the leptotene and zygotene-pachytene stages and increased apoptosis in post-meiotic cells. hsf5(-/-) mutants show gonadal misregulation of a substantial number of genes with roles in cell cycle, apoptosis, protein modifications, and signal transduction, indicating an important role of Hsf5 in early stages of spermatogenesis.

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    Heat Shock Factor 5 Is Essential forSpermatogenesis in Zebrafish
  • Karlsson, Sune
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige2020In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 7-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel analyseras sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige under en period där inflationsmålspolitiken kan ses som etablerad. Resultaten indikerar att sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation – vilket ofta benämns phillipskurvan – inte nödvändigtvis har varit stabilt över tiden. Vi finner dock inget stöd för att inflationen under de senaste åren skulle ha blivit mindre känslig för förändringar i arbetslösheten. Analysen pekar också på vikten av att överväga huruvida makroekonomiska samband samt de störningar som drabbar ekonomin bör modelleras som tidsvarierande, såväl för att kunna besvara akademiska frågeställningar som att ha policymodeller med relevanta empiriska egenskaper.

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    Sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige
  • Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Svensson, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fransson, Dan
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Techno-challenge: Implications of technology on sports coaching in Sweden2019In: Svensk förening för beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforsknings (SVEBI) årliga konferens 2019: (Idrotts)tendenser i tiden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduktion/Introduction: Over the past century, we have seen technology and applied science contribute to increasing performance levels in sports (e.g. Haake 2009, Park 2011, Fouché 2017). While the use of technologies is part of a broader sportification process (e.g. Guttmann 1978, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019), the types of technologies used has changed over time. At present, global positioning systems, microtechnology sensors and video- and computer-assisted performance analysis (PA) has gained prominence (Cummins et al. 2013, Rein & Memmert 2016). British football clubs have been driving the techno-scientific development, a development which is currently starting to establish itself in Sweden. The use of PA methods has been found to benefit training, performance, and safety (esp. injury prevention) and to create positive effects on coach-athlete relations and athlete learning and agency (Cronin et al. 2018, Kerr 2014). However, uses of PA technologies also have negative consequences for coaches and athletes. For instance, research demonstrates that PA technologies monitor athletes (Williams & Manley 2016); depend on effective communication between stakeholders (i.e., performance analyst and coach; coach and athlete) (Baerg 2017) and generate unrealistic training and performance expectations (Kohe & Purdy 2018). Despite these emerging insights, many research gaps exist. Knowledge on how governing bodies understand and implement PA and how PA affects the coaching process and practice are currently key questions that remain unanswered.

    Syfte och teoretisk ram/Aim and theoretical framework: We use historical sociology (e.g. Abrams 1982) to critically reflect over the development, use and consequences of PA methods in sport. Specifically, we (1) demonstrate that a number of historical, contextual, and situational factors indicate that PA is about to become implemented on a large scale in Sweden; and (2) critically reflect on what this upcoming change means. Our theoretical framework will consist of the sportification model (Guttmann 1978, Yttergren 1996, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019) to historicize the increasing role of technology in elite sport and to predict its current and future role in Sweden.

    Metod/Method: The empirical material included in our presentation is taken from existing research on the sportification in Swedish elite sport (e.g. Andersson 2019, Svensson 2019, Svensson 2016a, Yttergren 1996), existing literature that documents the use and consequences of technologies in elite sport in the UK (e.g. Williams & Manley 2016, Cummins et. al 2013), and our own insider observations of the developments and current situation of PA in Sweden. To make sense of this material, the authors met on several occasions to discuss meanings and draw out implications for science, education, and practice.

     

    Resultat/Results

    The interest for and impact of PA methods in Swedish elite sports coaching is growing. Scientific production has increased incredibly since 2015, courses and lectures on PA are popular among students, and more clubs are buying (into) these new technologies. Historical examples analyzed through the sportification model suggest that this development will accelerate. Despite the rising interest in techno-scientific PA, critical discussion is lacking about how potential risks (e.g. for personal integrity, coaching) can be managed.

     

    Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions

    The uses of new technology in PA has implications for elite sports in general and coaching in particular. Experiences from British football suggest that there are potential risks with uncritically adopting new technologies. We argue that these risks can be addressed through adopting a more reflective approach. One area where this could be done is within coach education.

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    Techno-challenge: Implications of technology on sports coaching in Sweden
  • Köckemann, Uwe
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Morberg, Daniel
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Open-Source Data Collection and Data Sets for Activity Recognition in Smart Homes2020In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 3, article id E879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As research in smart homes and activity recognition is increasing, it is of ever increasing importance to have benchmarks systems and data upon which researchers can compare methods. While synthetic data can be useful for certain method developments, real data sets that are open and shared are equally as important. This paper presents the E-care@home system, its installation in a real home setting, and a series of data sets that were collected using the E-care@home system. Our first contribution, the E-care@home system, is a collection of software modules for data collection, labeling, and various reasoning tasks such as activity recognition, person counting, and configuration planning. It supports a heterogeneous set of sensors that can be extended easily and connects collected sensor data to higher-level Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning modules. Our second contribution is a series of open data sets which can be used to recognize activities of daily living. In addition to these data sets, we describe the technical infrastructure that we have developed to collect the data and the physical environment. Each data set is annotated with ground-truth information, making it relevant for researchers interested in benchmarking different algorithms for activity recognition.

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    Open-Source Data Collection and Data Sets for Activity Recognition in Smart Homes
  • Hansson-Nylund, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Siegel, Aki
    Östlund, Karl
    Retoriska budskap vid sanering efter kärnteknisk olycka2020Report (Other academic)
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    Retoriska budskap vid sanering efter kärnteknisk olycka (REKO)
  • Edholm, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in physical function, accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, leading to loss of independency. In this respect, physical activity and healthy diet represent key lifestyle factors with potential to delay onset of age-related physical disability. The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore the effects of physical activity behaviours in general and resistance training (RT) in particular, with or without addition of a healthy diet (HD), on muscle mass and physical function in older community-dwelling women. A main finding was that physical activity of at least moderate intensity at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a previously sedentary lifestyle. Additionally, engagement in exercise-related activities during middleage years is linked to better physical function and higher muscle massat old age, regardless of present physical activity level. This thesis further highlights that in older women RT combined with HD rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elicits significant gains in muscle mass, whereas no corresponding gain was induced by RT alone. Likewise, larger improvements in muscle strength and physical function were evident in response to combined effects by RT and HD compared to RT alone. Taken together, findings from this thesis support public health efforts aiming to promote physical activity of at least moderate intensity together with a healthy diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to combat age-related decline in muscle mass and physical function.

    List of papers
    1. Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
    Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80862 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-26 Created: 2020-03-26 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2015
    Keywords
    aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
    Research subject
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

    Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2017
    Keywords
    aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
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    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet
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  • Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Research and Outcome, Mumbai, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information frictions make non-simultaneous exchange risky, particularly across borders. Therefore, many countries insure cross-border exchange. We investigate the effects on firm trade, jobs, value added and productivity, using uniquely detailed, comprehensive and longitudinal transaction-level Swedish data on insurance and granular data on exporters and foreign buyers. For identification, we employ matching and differencein-difference and fuzzy regression discontinuity estimators and exploit a quasi-natural experiment. We find strikingly heterogeneous effects across firm size and response variables. The strongest positive effects are for small traders and new users. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from export insurance to firm performance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance
  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Utvärdering av utvecklingsprojektet: Kompetenslyftet för läkarsekreterare2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    UTVÄRDERING AV UTVECKLINGSPROJEKTET: Kompetenslyftet för läkarsekreterare
  • Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Gadolin, Christian
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Stockhult, Helen
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Samverkan i komplexitet: Resultat från utvärdering av samverkansmodell social hållbarhet/folkhälsa2019Report (Other academic)
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    SAMVERKAN I KOMPLEXITET: Resultat från utvärdering av samverkansmodell social hållbarhet/folkhälsa
  • Sakellari, Marianthi
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Functional analysis of the proteasome in eukaryotic organisms2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteasome degradation machinery is responsible for the turnover of a huge variety of normal and abnormal proteins, thus regulating a plethora of cellular processes. Aging is an inevitable biological process that is characterized by reduced proteasome function that leads to proteotoxic stress. Compound-related interventions, that ameliorate proteasome system collapse, retard aging process. In the present thesis, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), a natural compound with known proteasome activating properties in cells, was indicated to activate proteasome also in the multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Evaluation of the antiaging and protein anti-aggregation effects of this bioactive compound indicated that 18α-GA promoted longevity in nematodes through proteasome-and SKN-1-mediated activation and decelerated Alzheimer’sdisease progression and neuropathology both in nematodes and neuronal cells. Additionally, the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation was analyzed in eukaryotic organisms under various cellular conditions. Protein synthesis inhibition was observed to increase proteasome function and assembly in human primary embryonic fibroblasts, with heat shock protein chaperone machinery to contribute to the elevated proteasome assembly. Alternatively, protein synthesis inhibition increased the protein levels of specific proteasome subunits without influencing the proteasome activity in C. elegans. Furthermore, proteasome activation by means which have also pro-longevity effects decreased the protein synthesis rate both in human fibroblast cellsand nematodes. This thesis suggests: 1) that a diet-derived compound could act as a pro-longevity and anti-aggregation agent in the context of amulticellular organism and 2) the existence of a complex interplay between anabolic and catabolic processes under different cellular conditions, across species.

    List of papers
    1. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 855-869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.

    Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment.

    Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2016
    Keywords
    Proteasome activation, lifespan extension, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, aggregation, proteostasis
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49639 (URN)10.1089/ars.2015.6494 (DOI)000388262600001 ()26886723 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    U.S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources

    Thales GenAge QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    MAESTRO by the European Union (European Social Fund)

    Operational Program, Education and Lifelong Learning, of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)

    European Union 266486

    IKYDA fellowship

    Empirikion Foundation Scientific Project

    John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation

    Academy of Finland 259797

    COST Actions PROTEOS-TASIS BM1307

    GENiE BM1408

    COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

    Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    2019 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 514, no 1, p. 224-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Protein synthesis and degradation balance have a crucial role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis and function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the major cellular proteolytic machineries responsible for the removal of normal, abnormal, denatured or in general damaged proteins. Proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme that consists of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complexes giving rise to multiple active forms. In the present study we investigated the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Pharmacological protein synthesis inhibition led to increased proteasome function and assembly of 30S/26S proteasome complexes, in human primary embryonic fibroblasts. The enhancement in proteasome function counted for the degradation of ubiquitinated, misfolded and oxidized proteins. Additionally, it was found that heat shock proteins 70 and 90 are probably involved in the elevated proteasome assembly. Our results provide an insight on how the mechanisms of protein synthesis, protein degradation and heat shock protein chaperones machinery interact under various cellular conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Proteasome, Proteasome activation, Protein synthesis inhibition, Hsp70, Hsp90
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79901 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.114 (DOI)000469406800033 ()31029420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064700180 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Funding Program: Thales "GenAge" - European Union  QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 

    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80902 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80903 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
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    Functional Analysis of the Proteasome in Eukaryotic Organisms
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  • Stockhult, Helén
    Högskolan Skövde, Skövde.
    Nyföretagande och inkubatorverksamhet: En studie av entreprenörers syn på företagande och inkubatorverksamhet2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Nyföretagande och inkubatorverksamhet: En studie av entreprenörers syn på företagande och inkubatorverksamhet
  • Sun, Da
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Liao, Qianfang
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Single Master Bimanual Teleoperation System with Efficient Regulation2020In: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new single master bimanual teleoperation (SMBT) system with an efficient position, orientation and force regulation strategy. Unlike many existing studies that solely support motion synchronization, the first contribution of the proposed work is to propose a solution for orientation regulation when several slave robots have differing motions. In other words, we propose a solution for self-regulated orientation for dual-arm robots. A second contribution in the paper allows the master with fewer degrees of freedom to control the slaves (with higher degrees of freedom), while the orientation of the slaves is self-regulated. The system further offers a novel force regulation that enables the slave robots to have a smooth and balanced robot-environment interaction with proper force directions. Finally, the proposed approach provides adequate force feedback about the environment to the operator and assists the operator in identifying different motion situations of the slaves. Our approach demonstrates that the forces from the slaves will not interrupt the operator’s perception of the environment. To validate the proposed system, experiments are conducted using a platform consisting of two 7-Degree of Freedom (DoF) slave robots and one 3-DoF master haptic device. The experiments demonstrated good results in terms of position, orientation and force regulation.

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    Single Master Bimanual Teleoperation System With Efficient Regulation
  • Lernborg, Clara My
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The case of [partial] organising for CSR: Bridging the responsibility gap for SMEs2017In: Sustainable development and business / [ed] Markus Kallifatides and Lin Lerpold (eds.), Stockholm: SSE and the Stockholm School of Economics Institute for Research (SIR) , 2017, 1, p. 285-308Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    The case of [partial] organising for CSR: Bridging the responsibility gap for SMEs
  • Isenström, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching children about human rights is an important step towards strengthening human rights internationally and schools are considered primary sites for children to develop human rights understandings, attitudes and behaviours. This dissertation explores the teachers’ role in educating children about their human rights. Focusing on the everyday school life of young children, a holistic approach to rights-learning is applied that includes not only learning about human rights but also developing rights-conscious values, attitudes and behaviours. Also included in the concept rights-learning is the formation of a self-conception as a rights-holder. Against this background the aim of this dissertation is to clarify the impact of teachers’ actions on the construction of young children’s rights-learning, and their self-conceptions as rights-holders.

    Theoretically, the dissertation combines: (i) rights theorisation; (ii) theorisation of differing discourses of children and childhood; and (iii) Foucauldian governmentality. From these, analytical concepts of rights-learning situations, teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities and privileged rightssubject positions are constructed. The data used in the study derives from classroom observations and interviews with teachers, as well as drawing on previous research.

    The findings highlight that in everyday school practice the teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities will privilege different rights-subject positions for the children and thereby construct children’s rights-learning in different ways. With a holistic approach to rights-learning, as something that occurs in various interactions and situations in everyday school life, the findings presented in this dissertation can provide new perspectives and enrich discussions on teaching and learning children’s human rights.

    List of papers
    1. Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80552 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80553 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80554 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras
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  • Hou, Hui-Rang
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Meng, Qing-Hao
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 7227-7235, article id 8945323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas source localization (including gas source declaration) is critical for environmental monitoring, pollution control and chemical safety. In this paper we approach the gas source declaration problem by constructing a tetrahedron, each vertex of which consists of a gas sensor and a three-dimensional (3D) anemometer. With this setup, the space sampled around a gas source can be divided into two categories, i.e. inside (“source in”) and outside (“source out”) the tetrahedron, posing gas source declaration as a classification problem. For the declaration of the “source in” or “source out” cases, we propose to directly take raw gas concentration and wind measurement data as features, and apply a median value filtering based extreme learning machine (M-ELM) method. Our experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed method, yielding accuracies of 93.2% and 100% for gas source declaration in the regular and irregular tetrahedron experiments, respectively. These results are better than that of the ELM-MFC (mass flux criterion) and other variants of ELM algorithms.

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    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine
  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bader, Eveline
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Florian
    TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Schabmann, Alfred
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students with Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study2019In: Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, ISSN 1937-6928, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity recognition in whole number representations is a fundamental skill children need to acquire in their mathematical development. Despite the observed correlation to mathematics achievement, however, the abil-ity to recognize quantities in structured whole number representations has not been studied extensively. In this article, we investigate how stu-dents with mathematical difficulties (MD) differ from typically develop-ing (TD) students in quantity recognition in structured whole number representations. We use eye tracking (ET), which can help to identify stu-dents’ quantity recognition strategies. In contrast to methods that include collecting verbal answers and reports, ET avoids an additional verbal-ization step, which may be affected by poor language skills and by low meta-cognitive abilities or memory issues when monitoring, recalling,and explaining one’s thoughts. We present an ET study with 20 students of which ten were found to have MD in initial tests (using qualitative and quantitative diagnostics). We used ET glasses, which allow seeing the students’ view of the scene with an augmented visualization of the gaze point projected onto the scene. The obtained gaze-overlaid videos also include audio data and records of students’ answers and utterances. In our study, we did not find significant differences between the error rates of MD and TD students. Response times, however, were longer for students with MD. The analysis of the ET data brought students’ quantity recogni-tion strategies to light, some of which were not found in previous research. Our analyses revealed differences in the use of these quantity recognition strategies between MD and TD students. Our study illustrates the power of ET for investigating students’ quantity recognition strategies and the potential of ET to support MD students.

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    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students With Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study
  • Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Scheuschner, Nils
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model2019In: 2019 IEEE SENSORS, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors mounted on mobile robotsenable the mapping of gas distributions in large or hardlyaccessible areas. A challenging task, however, is the generation ofthree-dimensional distribution maps from the gas measurements.Suitable reconstruction algorithms can be adapted, for instance,from the field of computed tomography (CT), but both theirperformance and strategies for selecting optimal measuring posesmust be evaluated. For this purpose simulations are used, since, incontrast to field tests, they allow repeatable conditions. Althoughseveral simulation tools exist, they lack realistic models of remotegas sensors. Recently, we introduced a model for a Tunable DiodeLaser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor taking intoaccount the conical shape of its laser beam. However, the novelmodel has not yet been validated with experiments. In this paperwe compare our model with a real sensor device and show thatthe assumptions made hold.

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    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model
  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modeling in Human-Robot Navigation2019In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence: Volume 1 (FCTA), SciTePress, 2019, p. 296-305Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the crossings of the trajectories of humans and robots. We discuss the intersection calculation and its fuzzy version in the context of human-robot navigation with respect to noise information. Based on known parameters of the Gaussian input distributions at the orientations of human and robot the parameters of the output distributions at the intersection are to be found by analytical and fuzzy calculation. Furthermore the inverse task is discussed where the parameters of the output distributions are given and the parameters of the input distributions are searched. For larger standard deviations of the orientation signals we suggest mixed Gaussian models as approximation of nonlinear distributions.

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    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modelingin Human-robot Navigation
  • Vintr, Tomas
    et al.
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Molina, Sergi
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems (L-CAS), University of Lincoln.
    Senanayake, Ransalu
    Stanford University.
    Broughton, George
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Yan, Zhi
    Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Laboratory (CIAD), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), France.
    Ulrich, Jiri
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Kucner, Tomasz P.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Swaminathan, Chittaranjan Srinivas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Majer, Filip
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Stachova, Maria
    University of Matej Bel, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Krajnik, Tomas
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, article id 8870909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a human-centric spatio-temporal model for service robots operating in densely populated environments for long time periods. The method integrates observations of pedestrians performed by a mobile robot at different locations and times into a memory efficient model, that represents the spatial layout of natural pedestrian flows and how they change over time. To represent temporal variations of the observed flows, our method does not model the time in a linear fashion, but by several dimensions wrapped into themselves. This representation of time can capture long-term (i.e. days to weeks) periodic patterns of peoples’ routines and habits. Knowledge of these patterns allows making long-term predictions of future human presence and walking directions, which can support mobile robot navigation in human-populated environments. Using datasets gathered by a robot for several weeks, we compare the model to state-of-the-art methods for pedestrian flow modelling.

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    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots
  • Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Submap per Perspective: Selecting Subsets for SuPer Mapping that Afford Superior Localization Quality2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets high-precision robot localization. We address a general problem for voxel-based map representations that the expressiveness of the map is fundamentally limited by the resolution since integration of measurements taken from different perspectives introduces imprecisions, and thus reduces localization accuracy.We propose SuPer maps that contain one Submap per Perspective representing a particular view of the environment. For localization, a robot then selects the submap that best explains the environment from its perspective. We propose SuPer mapping as an offline refinement step between initial SLAM and deploying autonomous robots for navigation. We evaluate the proposed method on simulated and real-world data that represent an important use case of an industrial scenario with high accuracy requirements in an repetitive environment. Our results demonstrate a significantly improved localization accuracy, up to 46% better compared to localization in global maps, and up to 25% better compared to alternative submapping approaches.

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    A Submap per Perspective - Selecting Subsets for SuPer Mapping that Afford Superior Localization Quality
  • Lilienthal, Achim J.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Germany.
    Current Trends in Eye Tracking Research in Mathematics Education: A PME Literature Review: A PME Survey2019In: 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2019, Vol. 4, p. 62-62Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking (ET) is a research method that receives growing interest in mathematics education research (MER). This paper aims to give a literature overview, specifically focusing on the evolution of interest in this technology, ET equipment, and analysis methods used in mathematics education. To capture the current state, we focus on papers published in the proceedings of PME, one of the primary conferences dedicated to MER, of the last ten years. We identify trends in interest, methodology, and methods of analysis that are used in the community, and discuss possible future developments.

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    Lilienthal and Schindler (PME 2019) Current Trends in Eye Tracking in MER
  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaussian Noise and the Intersection Problem in Human-Robot Systems: Analytical and Fuzzy Approach2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6, article id 8858796Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the intersection problem in humanrobot systems with respect to noisy information is discussed. The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the intersections of trajectories. We discuss the intersection problem with respect to noisy information on the basis of an analytic geometrical model and its TS fuzzy version. The transmission of a 2-dimensional Gaussian noise signal, in particular information on human and robot orientations, through a non-linear static system and its fuzzy version, will be described. We discuss the problem: Given the parameters of the input distributions, find the parameters of the output distributions.

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    Gaussian noise and the intersection problem in Human-Robot Systems: Analytical and fuzzy approach
  • Chadalavada, Ravi Teja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany, Cologne, Gemany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implicit intention transference using eye-tracking glasses for improved safety in human-robot interaction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye gaze can convey information about intentions beyond what can beinferred from the trajectory and head pose of a person. We propose eye-trackingglasses as safety equipment in industrial environments shared by humans androbots. In this work, an implicit intention transference system was developed and implemented. Robot was given access to human eye gaze data, and it responds tothe eye gaze data through spatial augmented reality projections on the sharedfloor space in real-time and the robot could also adapt its path. This allows proactivesafety approaches in HRI for example by attempting to get the human'sattention when they are in the vicinity of a moving robot. A study was conductedwith workers at an industrial warehouse. The time taken to understand the behaviorof the system was recorded. Electrodermal activity and pupil diameter wererecorded to measure the increase in stress and cognitive load while interactingwith an autonomous system, using these measurements as a proxy to quantifytrust in autonomous systems.

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    Implicit intention transference using eye-tracking glasses for improved safety in human-robot interaction
  • Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Opportunities for Education for Sustainability through multidimensional preschool science2019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 3, no 15, p. 358-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we exemplify and discuss how preschool science education may contribute to Education forSustainability (EfS). We draw on data from science activities in fourteen Swedish preschools, in which wehave previously identified examples of ‘multidimensional science teaching’, hence, teaching that intertwineschildren’s science learning with multiple dimensions of children’s lives, such as emotions, fantasy,play and aesthetic modes of expressions. By re-analysing these activities through an EfS lense, we showseveral examples of how multidimensional science teaching provide opportunities for children to developagency and empowerment as well as connectedness with the environment, and some examples of creativeproblem solving. Yet, we advocate that teachers’ active participation is crucial for realising multidimensionalscience teaching in a way that contributes to EfS.

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    Opportunities for Education for Sustainability through multidimensional preschool science
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hobson, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing2020In: The New Handbook of Political Sociology / [ed] T. Janoski, C. de Leon, J. Misra and I. Martin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 1, p. 153-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The concept of citizenships, in the plural, reflects different research traditions in citizenship theorizing: citizenship as legal status in a sovereign state, as a bearer of rights and obligations; citizenship as participation (civic republicanism); and citizenship as social membership. Each of these enhance the capabilities of individuals to become participants in political, economic and social spheres of life. Citizenships as a concept also embraces practices: how these aspects of citizenship are experienced in everyday encounters and the relationships of power:  in families, workplaces, welfare offices, social movements and their variations in institutional contexts.

    We focus on how gender has become more salient in theorizing across these citizenship domains, extending the boundaries of social membership and inclusion (Lister 2003; Hobson and Lister 2002). Implicit in the pluralizing of citizenships is the recognition of the need for a dynamic concept that engages with multi-dimensional aspects of gender, citizenships and social memberships within, below and beyond the state. This approach allows us to capture both the diversity in locations and situations of individuals and groups and the multi-scalar structures of governance: by national and transnational institutions and actors, as well as the opportunities and constraints for social movements to transform them. Finally, this chapter engages with the theoretical terrain on intersectionalities, viewing gender through the lens of complex inequalities across age, citizenship/migrant status, class, ethnicity/race, region, and their intersections. Throughout we engage with the dilemmas and challenges in theorizing gender, citizenships and social memberships: if and how gender matters in the framing of citizenship and what processes shape social divisions and citizenship identities.  

    This chapter comprises two main sections and a concluding discussion. The first focuses on feminist theorizing within two main research traditions in citizenship theorizing: first, social membership: T.H. Marshall’s framework, its legacy in welfare regime paradigm, and the dialogues on gender, states and citizenship that arose from them; second, civic republicanism and participatory citizenship, addressing agency (citizenship in practice), frames of gendered citizenship. In the second section, we focus on the changing landscape of feminist theorizing on citizenships emerging from critical analysis of men and masculinities, postcolonial critical race theory, intersectionality, migration and transnationalism. We conclude with Challenges, Dilemmas and Debates, addressing the implications of these complexities and dilemmas and challenges in gendered citizenships, in particular, the fragmentation in solidarities reflected in the widening gap in capabilities and inequalities and polarization across citizenship identities expressed in new forms of nationhood, nationalism and populism.  

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    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing_Part1
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    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing_Part2
  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency: The role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency2019In: The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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    The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency
  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Differences in Quantity Recognition Between Students with and without Mathematical Difficulties Analyzed Through Eye: Analysis Through Eye-Tracking and AI2019In: Proceedings of the 43rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] M. Graven, H. Venkat, A. Essien & P. Vale, PME , 2019, Vol. 3, p. 281-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties in mathematics learning are an important topic in practice and research. In particular, researchers and practitioners need to identify students’ needs for support to teach and help them adequately. However, empirical research about group differences of students with and without mathematical difficulties (MD) is still scarce. Previous research suggests that students with MD may differ in their quantity recognition strategies in structured whole number representations from students without MD. This study uses eye-tracking (ET), combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular pattern recognition methods, to analyze group differences in gaze patterns in quantity recognition of N=164 fifth grade students.

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    Differences in Quantity Recognition Between Students with and without Mathematical Difficulties Analyzed Through Eye
  • Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Visselblåsare och skatt2019In: Svensk Skattetidning, ISSN 0346-2218, Vol. 8, p. 493-500Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Visselblåsare och skatt
  • Lagriffoul, Fabien
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perceiving and acting out of the box2019In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition / [ed] Angelo Cangelosi, Antonio Lieto, CEUR-WS , 2019, Vol. 2483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses potential limitations in learning in au-tonomous robotic systems that integrate several specialized subsystemsworking at different levels of abstraction. If the designers have antici-pated what the system may have to learn, then adding new knowledgeboils down to adding new entries in a database and/or tuning parametersof some subsystem(s). But if this new knowledge does not fit in prede-fined structures, the system can simply not acquire it, hence it cannot“think out of the box” designed by its creators. We show why learningout of the box may be difficult in integrated systems, hint at some exist-ing potential approaches, and finally suggest that a better approach maycome by looking at constructivist epistemology, with focus on Piaget’sschemas theory.

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    Perceiving and Acting Out of the Box
  • Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Similarity criteria: evaluating perceptual change for visual localization2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, article id 8870962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual localization systems may operate in environments that exhibit considerable perceptual change. This paper proposes a method of evaluating the degree of appearance change using a similarity criteria based on comparing the subspaces spanned by the principal components of the observed image descriptors. We propose two criteria - θmin measures the minimum angle between subspaces and Stotal measures the total similarity between the subspaces. These criteria are introspective - they evaluate the performance of the image descriptor using nothing more than the image descriptor itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these similarity criteria reflect the ability of the image descriptor to perform visual localization successfully, thus allowing a measure of quality control on the localization output.

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    Similarity criteria: Evaluating perceptual change for visual localization
  • Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Petersson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Risk management of Domestic Violence2019In: The EU Mutual Learning Programme in Gender Equality: Preventing domestic violence with Men and Boys: Challenges and Opportunities, European Commission, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Risk Management of Domestic Violence
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Finland; University of South Africa, South Africa.
    Young Working-Class Men in Transition 2019In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 202-204Article, book review (Refereed)
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    Steven Roberts Young Working-Class Men in Transition
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Hanken School of Economics, Finland .
    Thym, Anika
    University of Basel, Switzerland; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Masculinities under Neoliberalism (A. Cornwall, F. G. Karioris and N. Lindisfarne, eds.)2019In: Gender and Development, ISSN 1355-2074, E-ISSN 1364-9221, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 407-409Article, book review (Refereed)
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    Masculinities under Neoliberalism (A. Cornwall, F. G. Karioris and N. Lindisfarne, eds.)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of Huddersfield, UK.
    Howson, Richard
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    The institutionalization of (Critical) Studies on Men and Masculinities: Geopolitical perspectives2019In: Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström and Tamara Shefer, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 19-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    The institutionalization of (Critical) Studies on Men and Masculinities: Geopolitical perspectives
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vasquez del Aquila, Ernesto
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughson, Marina
    Institute of Criminology, Serbia.
    Unsustainable institutions of men: transnational dispersed centres and immanent contradictions2019In: Unsustainable Institutions of Men: Transnational Dispersed Centres, Gender Power, Contradictions / [ed] Jeff Hearn, Ernesto Vasquez del Aquila, Marina Hughson, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Introduction: unsustainable institutions of men: Transnational dispersed centres and immanent contradictions
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hall, Matthew
    Arden University, Coventry, UK.
    New technologies, image distribution and cyberabuse2019In: NOTA News, no 88, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other academic)
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    New Technologies, Image Distribution and Cyberabuse – Jeff Hearn and Matthew Hall
  • Arad, Boaz
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Balendonck, Jos
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Barth, Ruud
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ben-Shahar, Ohad
    Department of Computer Science, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Hellström, Thomas
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hemming, Jochen
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tielen, Toon
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van Tuijl, Bart
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Development of a sweet pepper harvesting robot2020In: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, E-ISSN 1556-4967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development, testing and validation of SWEEPER, a robot for harvesting sweet pepper fruit in greenhouses. The robotic system includes a six degrees of freedom industrial arm equipped with a specially designed end effector, RGB-D camera, high-end computer with graphics processing unit, programmable logic controllers, other electronic equipment, and a small container to store harvested fruit. All is mounted on a cart that autonomously drives on pipe rails and concrete floor in the end-user environment. The overall operation of the harvesting robot is described along with details of the algorithms for fruit detection and localization, grasp pose estimation, and motion control. The main contributions of this paper are the integrated system design and its validation and extensive field testing in a commercial greenhouse for different varieties and growing conditions. A total of 262 fruits were involved in a 4-week long testing period. The average cycle time to harvest a fruit was 24 s. Logistics took approximately 50% of this time (7.8 s for discharge of fruit and 4.7 s for platform movements). Laboratory experiments have proven that the cycle time can be reduced to 15 s by running the robot manipulator at a higher speed. The harvest success rates were 61% for the best fit crop conditions and 18% in current crop conditions. This reveals the importance of finding the best fit crop conditions and crop varieties for successful robotic harvesting. The SWEEPER robot is the first sweet pepper harvesting robot to demonstrate this kind of performance in a commercial greenhouse.

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    Development ofasweetpepper harvesting robot
  • Kurtser, Polina
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Arad, Boaz
    Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Ben-Shahar, Ohad
    Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    van Bree, Milan
    Irmato Industrial Solutions Veghel B.V., Veghel, The Netherlands .
    Moonen, Joep
    Irmato Industrial Solutions Veghel B.V., Veghel, The Netherlands .
    van Tujil, Bart
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Robotic data acquisition of sweet pepper images for research and development2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main problem limiting the development of robotic harvesters is robust fruit detection [5]. Despite intensive research conducted in identifying the fruits and their location [2,3], current fruit detection algorithms have a limited detection rate of 0.87 which is unfeasible from an economic perspective [5]. The complexity of the fruit detection task is due to the unstructured and dynamic nature of both the objects and the environment [4-6]: the fruit have inherent high variability in size, shape, texture, and location; occlusion and variable illumination conditions significantly influence the detection performance[3].

    A common practice for image processing R&D for complicated problems is the acquisition of a large database (e.g., Labelme open source labeling database [1], Oxford building dataset [2]). These datasets enable to advance vision algorithms development [7] and provide a benchmark for evaluating new algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, to date there is no open dataset available for R&D in image processing of agricultural objects. Evaluation of previously reported algorithms was based on limited data [5]. Previous research indicated the importance of evaluating algorithms for a wide range of sensory, crop, and environmental conditions [5].

    A robotic acquisition system and procedure was developed using a 6 degree of freedom manipulator, equipped with 3 different sensors to automatically acquire images from several viewpoints with different sensors and illumination conditions. Measurements were conducted along the day and at night in a commercial greenhouse and resulted in a total of 1764 images from 14 viewpoints for each scene. Additionally, drawbacks and advantages of the proposed approach as compared to other approaches previously utilized will be discussed along with recommendations for future acquisitions.

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    Robotic Data Acquisition of Sweet Pepper Images for Research and Development
  • Hedbrant, Alexander
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andersson, Lena
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Quartz Dust Exposure Affects NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Plasma Levels of IL-18 and IL-1Ra in Iron Foundry Workers2020In: Mediators of Inflammation, ISSN 0962-9351, E-ISSN 1466-1861, article id 8490908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study the association between inhalation of particulate matter or quartz in Swedish iron foundries and the effects on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 

    Methods: Particle exposure measurements were performed during an eight-hour work day for 85 foundry workers at three Swedish iron foundries. Personal sampling was used for measurement of respirable quartz and dust and stationary measurements to obtain exposure measurements for inhalable dust and PM10. The NLRP3 inflammasome markers, interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-18, and inhibitors IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) were measured in plasma. Inflammasome activation was measured by caspase-1 enzymatic activity in monocytes in whole blood by flow cytometry, and expression of inflammasome-related genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between PM exposures and inflammatory markers. Sex, age, smoking, current infection, BMI, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the inflammasome regulating genes CARD8 (C10X) and NLRP3 (Q705K) were included as covariates. 

    Results: The average exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. A significant exposure-response was found for respirable dust and IL-18 and for inhalable dust and IL-1Ra. Whole blood, drawn from study participants, was stimulated ex vivo with inflammasome priming stimuli LPS or Pam3CSK4, resulting in a 47% and 49% increase in caspase-1 enzymatic activity in monocytes. This increase in caspase-1 activity was significantly attenuated in the higher exposure groups for most PM exposure measures. 

    Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure levels of PM in the iron foundry environment can affect the NLRP3 inflammasome and systemic inflammation.

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    Quartz Dust Exposure Affects NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Plasma Levels of IL-18 and IL-1Ra in Iron Foundry Workers
  • Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Kurtser, Polina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Barth, Ruud
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Operational flow of an autonomous sweetpepper harvesting robot2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced automation is required for greenhouse production systems due to the lack of skilled workforce and increasing labour costs [1]. As part of the EU project SWEEPER, we are working on developing an autonomous robot able to harvest sweet pepper fruits in greenhouses. This paper focuses on the operational flow of the robot for the high level task planning.

    In the SWEEPER project, an RGB camera is mounted on the end effector to detect fruits. Due to the dense plant rows, the camera is located at a maximum of 40 cm from the plants and hence cannot provide an overview of all fruit locations. Only a few ripe fruits at each acquisition can be seen. This implies that the robot must incorporate a search pattern to look for fruits. When at least one fruit has been detected in the image, the search is aborted and a harvesting phase is initiated. The phase starts with directing the manipulator to a point close to the fruit and then activating a visual servo control loop. This motion approach ensures that the fruit is grasped despite the occlusions caused by the stems and leaves. When the manipulator has reached the fruit, it is harvested and automatically released into a container. If there are more fruits that have already been detected, the system continues to pick them. When all detected fruits have been harvested, the system resumes the search pattern again. When the search pattern is finished and no more fruits are detected, the robot base is advanced along the row to the next plant and repeats the operations above.

    To support implementation of the workflow into a program controlling the actual robot, a generic software framework for development of agricultural and forestry robots was used [2]. The framework is constructed with a hybrid robot architecture, using a state machine implementing the following flowchart.

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    Operational flow of an autonomous sweet pepper harvesting robot
  • Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Strategies for selecting best approach direction for a sweet-pepper harvesting robot2017In: Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems (Taros 2017) / [ed] Yang Gao, Saber Fallah, Yaochu Jin, Constantina Lekakou, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 516-525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An autonomous sweet pepper harvesting robot must perform several tasks to successfully harvest a fruit. Due to the highly unstructured environment in which the robot operates and the presence of occlusions, the current challenges are to improve the detection rate and lower the risk of losing sight of the fruit while approaching the fruit for harvest. Therefore, it is crucial to choose the best approach direction with least occlusion from obstacles.

    The value of ideal information regarding the best approach direction was evaluated by comparing it to a method attempting several directions until successful harvesting is performed. A laboratory experiment was conducted on artificial sweet pepper plants using a system based on eye-in-hand configuration comprising a 6DOF robotic manipulator equipped with an RGB camera. The performance is evaluated in laboratorial conditions using both descriptive statistics of the average harvesting times and harvesting success as well as regression models. The results show roughly 40–45% increase in average harvest time when no a-priori information of the correct harvesting direction is available with a nearly linear increase in overall harvesting time for each failed harvesting attempt. The variability of the harvesting times grows with the number of approaches required, causing lower ability to predict them.

    Tests show that occlusion of the front of the peppers significantly impacts the harvesting times. The major reason for this is the limited workspace of the robot often making the paths to positions to the side of the peppers significantly longer than to positions in front of the fruit which is more open.

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    Strategies for selecting best approach direction for a sweet-pepper harvesting robot
  • Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Evaluation of approach strategies for harvesting robots: Case study of sweet pepper harvesting2019In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 149-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic harvesters that use visual servoing must choose the best direction from which to approach the fruit to minimize occlusion and avoid obstacles that might interfere with the detection along the approach. This work proposes different approach strategies, compares them in terms of cycle times, and presents a failure analysis methodology of the different approach strategies. The different approach strategies are: in-field assessment by human observers, evaluation based on an overview image using advanced algorithms or remote human observers, or attempting multiple approach directions until the fruit is successfully reached. In the latter approach, each attempt costs time, which is a major bottleneck in bringing harvesting robots into the market. Alternatively, a single approach strategy that only attempts one direction can be applied if the best approach direction is known a-priori. The different approach strategies were evaluated for a case study of sweet pepper harvesting in laboratorial and greenhouse conditions. The first experiment, conducted in a commercial greenhouse, revealed that the fruit approach cycle time increased 8% and 116% for reachable and unreachable fruits respectively when the multiple approach strategy was applied, compared to the single approach strategy. The second experiment measured human observers’ ability to provide insights to approach directions based on overview images taken in both greenhouse and laboratorial conditions. Results revealed that human observers are accurate in detecting unapproachable directions while they tend to miss approachable directions. By detecting fruits that are unreachable (via automatic algorithms or human operators), harvesting cycle times can be significantly shortened leading to improved commercial feasibility of harvesting robots.

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    Evaluation of approach strategies for harvesting robots: Case study of sweet pepper harvesting
  • Harel, Ben
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    van Herck, Liesbet
    Proefstation voor de Groenteteelt, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium .
    Parmet, Yisrael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Sweet pepper maturity evaluation via multiple viewpoints color analyses2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maturity evaluation is an important feature for selective robotic harvesting. This paper focuses on maturity evaluationderived by a color camera for a sweet pepper robotic harvester. Fruit visibility for sweet peppers is limited to 65% andmultiple viewpoints are necessary to detect more than 90% of the fruit. This paper aims to determine the number ofviewpoints required to determine the maturity level of a sweet pepper and the best single viewpoint. Different colorbased measures to estimate the maturity level of a pepper were evaluated. Two datasets were analyzed: images of 54yellow bell sweet peppers and 30 red peppers both harvested at the last fruit setting; all images were taken in uniformillumination conditions with white background. Each pepper was photographed from 5-6 viewpoints: one photo of thetop of the pepper, one photo of the bottom and 3-4 photos of the pepper sides. Each pepper was manually tagged by ahuman professional observer as ‘mature’ or ‘immature’. Image processing routines were implemented to extract colorlevel measures which included different hue features. Results indicates high correlation between the sides to the bottomview, the bottom view shows the best 0.86 correlation in the case of yellow peppers while the side view shows the best0.835 correlation in the case of red peppers (the bottom view yields 0.82 correlation).

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    Sweet pepper maturity evaluation via multiple viewpoints color analyses
  • Rai, Neha
    et al.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    O'Hara, Andrew
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Farkas, Daniel
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Safronov, Omid
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ratanasopa, Khuanpiroon
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Fang
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindfors, Anders V.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jenkins, Gareth I.
    Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary an Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Lehto, Tarja
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Salojärvi, Jarkko
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Morales, Luis O.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The photoreceptor UVR8 mediates the perception of both UV-B and UV-A wavelengths up to 350 nm of sunlight with responsivity moderated by cryptochromes2020In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1513-1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoreceptors UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and CRYPTOCHROMES 1 and 2 (CRYs) play major roles in the perception of UV-B (280–315 nm) and UV-A/blue radiation (315–500 nm), respectively. However, it is poorly understood how they function in sunlight. The roles of UVR8 and CRYs were assessed in a factorial experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and photoreceptor mutants exposed to sunlight for 6 h or 12 h under five types of filters with cut-offs in UV and blue-light regions. Transcriptome-wide responses triggered by UV-B and UV-A wavelengths shorter than 350 nm (UV-Asw) required UVR8 whereas those induced by blue and UV-A wavelengths longer than 350 nm (UV-Alw) required CRYs. UVR8 modulated gene expression in response to blue light while lack of CRYs drastically enhanced gene expression in response to UV-B and UV-Asw. These results agree with our estimates of photons absorbed by these photoreceptors in sunlight and with in vitro monomerization of UVR8 by wavelengths up to 335 nm. Motif enrichment analysis predicted complex signaling downstream of UVR8 and CRYs. Our results highlight that it is important to use UV waveband definitions specific to plants’ photomorphogenesis as is routinely done in the visible region.

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    The photoreceptor UVR8 mediates the perception of both UV-B and UV-A wavelengths up to 350 nm of sunlight with responsivity moderated by cryptochromes
  • Kellgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Affärsrätt.
    IAS 10 Events after the Reporting Period Problematized: Some Questions Regarding the Standard’s (Read by its Letter) Understandability2018In: Skattenytt, ISSN 0346-1254, p. 3-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events after the reporting period is an interesting phenomenon, as they areboth very common and can be tricky to address correctly. Yet, quite surprisingly,not much research has been carried out on how to interpret the rulesregarding events after the reporting period. This article is written from a legalperspective, with the purpose of looking closely at the wording of the IAS 10, inorder to discuss if, or to what extent, it is clear enough to (as far as possible) givethe management of a business (or auditors, courts etc.) sufficient clarity onhow to handle events after the reporting period – or if, and if so how, the rulesare unclear. Some hints de lege ferenda (what improvements could be made inthe standard?) are also given, with the purpose of making the IAS 10 clearer.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • Lugnegård, Tove
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults2019In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 5, no 3, article id e42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism are increasingly recognised in adults. For a diagnostic evaluation, parental information on childhood development is needed. However, no instruments that retrospectively describe neurodevelopmental problems in childhood are validated for evaluating adults. The 181-item parent-report questionnaire Five to Fifteen (FTF) is nevertheless frequently used for assessments in adulthood.

    AIMS: To examine if FTF is reliable for obtaining retrospective neurodevelopmental history among young adults.

    METHOD: Details of parents who had assessed their children with the FTF for neuropsychiatric evaluation were retrieved and they were asked to complete the FTF again 10-19 years later. Agreements between original and retrospective scorings were analysed.

    RESULTS: Long-term reliability for FTF varies considerably between individual items. Several difficulties are reported as more severe at the retrospective scoring than at the original scoring. A selection of 24 items (FTF-Brief) with good agreement over time, is presented for use in adult psychiatry settings.

    CONCLUSION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms may fluctuate over time and become more prominent when demands increase. Informants' recollections of their child's neurodevelopmental symptoms may be a selection of symptoms that are longstanding rather than present at a specific age in childhood.

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    Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults
  • Hesselmark, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Karolinska Institutet; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Clinical features of paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: findings from a case-control study2019In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 5, no 2, article id e25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), an umbrella term that includes PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) is suggested to be a psychiatric disorder of autoimmune aetiology. PANS is characterised by an acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder or restricted eating with multiple comorbid symptoms. The specificity of the PANS criteria is not fully understood.AimsTo describe a cohort of patients with PANS and to determine if PANS features relating to symptoms, onset and course are more common in PANS than in other psychiatric conditions.

    METHOD: A case-control study comparing patients with interview-confirmed PANS with patients with suspected PANS and patients with a psychiatric condition but with no suspicion of PANS. Validated and non-validated measures of symptoms, onset and episodic course were used.

    RESULTS: Illness in patients with interview-confirmed PANS featured an episodic course and multiple symptoms present at onset compared with the psychiatric controls. However, individuals with interview-confirmed PANS did not present a specific symptom profile.

    CONCLUSIONS: PANS may be a distinct clinical entity featuring an acute onset, an episodic course and multiple symptoms at onset.Declaration of interestNone.

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    Clinical features of paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: findings from a case–control study
  • Berggren, Lilian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lindberg, Lene
    Department of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institutet & Center for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glatz, Terese
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Skoog, Therese
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A First Examination of the Role of International Child Development Programme in School Achievement2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the classroomi mplementation of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for secondary school students (grade 9) was linked to better school achievement. The goal of the ICDP is to increase school achievement by promoting positive teacher-student relationships. The study, performed in Sweden, applied a pre–post design (four years) with matched intervention and control schools (N = 148). The post-intervention assessments showed that there were significant differences in school achievement in Grade 9 between the intervention school andthe control school. Specifically, a greater proportion of students at the intervention school demonstrated improvement in school subjects and achieved the competency requirements to enter an upper secondary school programme. Based on the results, the ICDP can be considered an important intervention to promote student learning by promoting positive teacher-student relationships.

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    A First Examination of the Role of the International Child Development Programme in School Achievement