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  • Månsson, Emeli
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis in prosthetic joint infections2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is ubiquitous in the human microbiota, but also an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections, such as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). In this thesis, aspects of the molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis in PJIs were investigated with the aim of improving our understanding of the pre- and perioperative measures required to reduce the incidence of S. epidermidis PJIs.

    In Paper I, S. epidermidis retrieved from air sampling in the operating field during arthroplasty was characterized by multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility testing. No isolates belonging to sequence types (STs) 2 and 215, previously associated with PJIs, were found in the air of the operating field. During air sampling, several Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates were identified, and as a spin-off of Paper I, the genomic relatedness of these isolates to S. pettenkoferi isolates from blood cultures was described in Paper II.

    In Paper III, genetic traits distinguishing S. epidermidis isolated from PJIs were determined using genome-wide association study accounting for population effects after whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a population- based 10-year collection of S. epidermidis isolates from PJIs and of nasal isolates retrieved from patients scheduled for arthroplasty. Genes associated with antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis in arthroplasty, i.e., beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and chlorhexidine, were associated with PJI origin. S. epidermidis from PJIs were dominated by the ST2a, ST2b, ST5, and ST215 lineages.

    In Paper IV, selective agar plates were used to investigate colonization with methicillin resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) in patients scheduled for arthroplasty. MRSE were further characterized by WGS. A subset of patients was found to harbour PJI-associated S. epidermidis lineages in their microbiota before hospitalization, but no isolates belonging to the ST2a lineage nor any rifampicin-resistant isolates were retrieved.

    List of papers
    1. Sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infections are not present in the laminar airflow during prosthetic joint surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infections are not present in the laminar airflow during prosthetic joint surgery
    2015 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 123, no 7, p. 589-595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) has demonstrated a predominance of healthcare-associated multi-drug resistant sequence types (ST2 and ST215). How, and when, patients acquire these nosocomial STs is not known. The aim was to investigate if sequence types of S. epidermidis associated with PJIs are found in the air during prosthetic joint surgery. Air sampling was undertaken during 17 hip/knee arthroplasties performed in operating theaters equipped with mobile laminar airflow units in a 500-bed hospital in central Sweden. Species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Isolates identified as S. epidermidis were further characterized by MLST and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Seven hundred and thirty-five isolates were available for species identification. Micrococcus spp. (n = 303) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 217) constituted the majority of the isolates. Thirty-two isolates of S. epidermidis were found. S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated a high level of allelic diversity with 18 different sequence types, but neither ST2 nor ST215 was found. Commensals with low pathogenic potential dominated among the airborne microorganisms in the operating field during prosthetic joint surgery. Nosocomial sequence types of S. epidermidis associated with PJIs were not found, and other routes of inoculation are therefore of interest in future studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
    Keywords
    Staphylococcus epidermidis, ST2, ST215, prosthetic joint infections, airborne transmission
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine Immunology in the medical area
    Research subject
    Immunology; Microbiology; Pathology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44704 (URN)10.1111/apm.12392 (DOI)000356972400007 ()25951935 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84932196136 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Örebro County Council Research Committee, Örebro Sweden

    Centre for Clinical Research, Västerås

    County Council of Västmanland Research Fund

    Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates of different origins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates of different origins
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 601-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to characterize clinical and environmental Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates with regard to genomic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and core genome phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data verified the presence of distinct clades comprising closely related S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins.

    Methodology: Phylogenetic relationships between 25 S. pettenkoferi isolates collected from blood cultures and intra-operative air sampling were determined by repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing and analysis of similar to 157 000 SNPs identified in the core genome after WGS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and tests for biofilm production (microtitre plate assay) were performed.

    Results: Repetitive-sequence-based PCR as well as WGS data demonstrated the close relatedness of clinically significant blood culture isolates to probable contaminants, as well as to environmental isolates. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing demonstrated a low level of antimicrobial resistance. The mecA gene was present in two cefoxitin-resistant isolates. No isolates were found to produce biofilm.

    Conclusion: Close genomic relatedness of S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins were found within clades, but with substantial genomic difference between the two major clades. The ecological niche of S. pettenkoferi remains unconfirmed, but the presence of S. pettenkoferi in the air of the operating field favours the suggestion of a role in skin flora. Identification of S. pettenkoferi in clinical samples should, in a majority of cases, most likely be regarded as a probable contamination, and its role as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised hosts remains to be clarified.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Microbiology Society, 2017
    Keywords
    Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, genotypic relatedness, repetitive-sequence based PCR typing, whole-genome sequencing
    National Category
    Microbiology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58000 (URN)10.1099/jmm.0.000472 (DOI)000401984900007 ()28530888 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019900525 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Örebro County Council Research Committee, Örebro, Sweden

    Centre for Clinical Research, Västerås  

    County Council of Västmanland Research Fund 

    Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Genomic traits in Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomic traits in Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infections
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77834 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis lineages in the nasal and skin microbiota of patients scheduled for arthroplasty surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis lineages in the nasal and skin microbiota of patients scheduled for arthroplasty surgery
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77835 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
  • Fägerstad, Anida
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    No-shows in dental care: perspectives on adolescents' attendance pattern2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All children and adolescents living in Sweden have free dental care with regular check-ups. Yet, missed and cancelled dental appointments are not unusual. The overall aim was to explore potential explanatory factors associated with non-regular dental care and to seek a deeper understanding of why some adolescents fail to attend their dental appointments.

    An integrative review (Paper I) identified and summarized different sets of environmental, individual and situational factors that could be associated with dental avoidance or non-attendance. Paper II found similar levels of dental fear between children and adolescents (8-19 yrs) with a Swedish or a non-Swedish background. The occurrence and patterns of missed dental appointments among 16–19-year-olds were investigated in Paper III, where we report that 13.1% of 23 522 booked dental appointments were missed in 2012. Boys had more missed appointments than girls, while no age differences were found. In a case-control design, adolescents with missed appointments more often had sociodemographic load, dental fear or dental behaviour management problems, poor oral health, emergency visits, tooth extractions, operative treatments, and over the past years, more missed and cancelled appointments. A history of missed and cancelled dental appointments predicted future missed and cancelled appointments. Twelve adolescent girls with missed appointments were interviewed in Paper IV and described several potential barriers or facilitators to accessing dental care. They highlighted that knowing what will happen during the dental visit was decisive to whether or not they would attend their appointments.

    In conclusion, factors specifically associated with dental avoidance still need to be investigated. Dental fear should still be seen as potential causal factor for dental avoidance. Missed and cancelled dental appointments should never be ignored since they could predict future missed and cancelled appointments. The results indicate that missed dental appointments among adolescents remain a challenge for Swedish dental care.

    List of papers
    1. Understanding avoidance and non-attendance among adolescents in dental care: an integrative review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding avoidance and non-attendance among adolescents in dental care: an integrative review
    2016 (English)In: Community Dental Health, ISSN 0265-539X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To review articles exploring manifestations of avoidance of or non-attendance to dental care, to identify background and concomitant factors specifically associated with dental avoidance among adolescents.

    Methods: PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO were searched using MeSH terms and keywords covering dental avoidance, non-attendance and non-utilization. Searches were limited to peer-reviewed studies in English, published in 1994– 2014. Twenty-one research articles were included. Data were extracted, ordered, coded, categorized, and summarized according to the integrative review method.

    Results: The identified factors formed three common major themes: Environmental, Individual and Situational factors. Only seven studies, all from Sweden or Norway, investigated factors associated with dental avoidance. The remaining 14 studies were geographically widespread. Regarding avoidance, the main focus was found to be on individual and situational factors, while environmental factors were more often investigated for the outcome non-attendance.

    Conclusions: Although a wide variety of environmental, individual and situational factors could be summarized in this review, factors specifically associated with dental avoidance in a context of free dental care still need to be investigated. The possible impacts of cultural background, of tobacco, alcohol or drug use and of psycho-social circumstances deserve further research. Clinical implications of today’s knowledge may be to pay attention to the adolescents’ individual background and everyday life situation, to offer agreed and individualized treatment, taking fears and attitudes into consideration, to avoid painful treatments, and to be alert for early signs of avoidance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Suffolk, United Kingdom: FDI World Dental Press Ltd., 2016
    Keywords
    Dental health services, health care utilization, adolescent, review
    National Category
    Dentistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47374 (URN)10.1922/CDH_3829Fagerstad13 (DOI)000390932100005 ()
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Public Dental Service, Region Orebro County, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Dental fear among children and adolescents in a multicultural population: a cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dental fear among children and adolescents in a multicultural population: a cross-sectional study
    2015 (English)In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 109-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore dental fear in a multicultural population of child and adolescent dental patients, with background, gender, age, and socioeconomic status taken into account. A specific aim was to investigate whether the level of DF differed between patients with a non- Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background.

    In conjunction with a routine visit to the dental clinic, 301 patients (8-19 years old) assessed their dental fear on the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale, using self-ratings. Following an interview protocol, patients' and their parents' country of birth, and parents' education and occupation/employment were registered. An interpreter was present when needed.

    Self-rated dental fear was almost equal among patients coming from a non-Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. Girls scored higher than boys and younger children scored slightly higher compared to older children, but the pattern of dental fear variation was inconsistent. Socioeconomic status differed between the groups with a non- Swedish vs. a Swedish background, but no impact on dental fear was revealed. When children and adolescents with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background were modelled separately, female gender and younger age had an impact on dental fear only in the group with a Swedish background.

    No differences in dental fear were found between children and adolescents from non-Swedish vs. Swedish backgrounds. Dental fear variations according to gender and age were more pronounced in the group with a Swedish background compared to the group with a non-Swedish background. No impact of socioeconomic status could be revealed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: Swedish Dental Journal, 2015
    Keywords
    Dental fear, questionnaires, cultural diversity
    National Category
    Dentistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51417 (URN)000377057900006 ()26529836 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937907216 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Public Dental Service of Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-07-27 Created: 2016-07-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Dental avoidance among adolescents: a retrospective case–control study based on dental records in the public dental service in a Swedish county
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dental avoidance among adolescents: a retrospective case–control study based on dental records in the public dental service in a Swedish county
    2019 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of missed dental appointments among 16–19-year-old adolescents in a Swedish county. A second aim was to explore associations between background and concomitant factors and missed appointments and to investigate if these associations differed between areas with different sociodemographic profiles.

    Materials and methods: A list of booked, and missed, appointments for 10,158 individuals during 2012 was used for assessments. Based on the total sample, 522 cases with, and 522 matched controls without, dental avoidance behavior in 2012 were identified. Data on previous missed and cancelled appointments, oral health status, dental treatment, fear or behavior problems, and medical, and, where available, psychosocial or lifestyle factors were extracted from the dental records using a preset protocol covering the period 2009–2012.

    Results: In 2012, 13.1% of 23,522 booked appointments were missed, with a higher proportion of missed appointments among boys than girls. Cases with avoidance behavior more often had a record of sociodemographic load and dental fear or behavior management problems. They also had more oral health problems, more invasive dental treatments, and, in the past, more missed and canceled appointments.

    Conclusion: To enable good oral health and continued regular dental care, we need to pay more attention to adolescents’ individual situation and be observant of early signs of avoidance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Dental care, utilization, adolescent
    National Category
    Dentistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68444 (URN)10.1080/00016357.2018.1489978 (DOI)000455890400001 ()30022701 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050359378 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro University, Örebro  

    Swedish Dental Hygienist Association (SDHA), Sweden 

    Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Barriers and facilitators for adolescent girls to take on adult responsibility for dental care: a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers and facilitators for adolescent girls to take on adult responsibility for dental care: a qualitative study
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1678971Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to explore and describe experiences of the dental care system among adolescent dental patients with a recent history of missed dental appointments at public dental clinics (PDCs) in a Swedish county.

    Methods: Twelve adolescent girls participated in the study. Data were collected by individual, semi-structured, open-ended interviews and analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The study findings could be summed into the theme ?Triggers for adolescent girls to take on or not take on adult responsibility for dental care?. The experience of free dental care could be summarized in five main categories: Pain and discomfort; Attractive and healthy teeth; Feeling safe and secure; Taking on the responsibility; and Free of charge. These five categories consisted of 15 subcategories.

    Conclusions: The results of this study should increase the knowledge on how to meet and treat adolescent girls in dental care. Knowing what will happen during the dental visit was highlighted by the participants as decisive to whether or not they would attend their dental appointments. Therefore, we should as far as possible ensure that our patients feel safe at their dental visits and by trying to avoid painful treatments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Dental care, dental attendance, adolescent, content analysis
    National Category
    Nursing Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77601 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2019.1678971 (DOI)000490054100001 ()31608818 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073161662 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Sweden  

    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden 

    Available from: 2019-10-25 Created: 2019-10-25 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
  • Kremel, Anna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Slutrapport: Följeforskning av MISTEL, Mötesplats för Innovation i Samverkan TEstbädd för Livskvalitet2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet MISTEL har byggt upp en väl fungerande struktur och metod för hur tester kan genomföras. Nu när projektet överförs till Västerås stad som en del i Sociala nämndernas förvaltning tar staden ett betydelsefullt utökat steg i utvecklingen för att profilera sig inom området innovationer, vård och omsorg och för att underlätta för äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning möjlighet till ett självständigt liv.

  • Wallentin, Jennie
    et al.
    Sundin, Sofi
    Hagerberg, Anna
    Andersson, Mari
    Dahlberg, Charlotta
    Enghag, Olof
    Jakowlew, Gwidon
    Waldner, Johan
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Översvämning!: Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektorn2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektornNaturolyckor såsom översvämning, torka och skogsbrand kan få allvarliga konsekvenser för jordbrukssektorn och trädgårdsnäringen. För fisket och vattenbruket kan till exempel stormar orsaka problem. I ett framtida förändrat klimat kommer de extrema väderhändelserna att bli mer omfattande och frekventa. Detta innebär att samhället behöver öka sin förmåga att bedöma konsekvenserna av översvämningar för jordbrukssektorn i ett brett perspektiv och hur konsekvenserna av extrema väderhändelser, som till exempel översvämningar, ska hanteras. Jordbruksverket har därför under åren 2013-2015 drivit ett projekt - ”Ökad förmåga att hantera konsekvenser av allvarliga väderhändelser - översvämningar som modell” - som finansierats av Jordbruksverket och Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB). Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat och slutsatser från projektet.

  • Lööv, Helena
    et al.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Sköld, Olof
    Livsmedelskonsumtionen i siffror: Hur har konsumtionen utvecklats de senaste femtio åren och varför?2015Report (Other academic)
  • Andersson, Mari
    et al.
    Ekman, Sonne
    Lannhard Öberg, Åsa
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Fungerar konkurrensen på marknaden för slaktdjur?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beror de minskade marknadsandelarna för svenskt gris-, kyckling- och nötkött till någon del på att den svenska marknaden för slaktdjur inte fungerar så bra som den kunde göra? I den här utredningen undersöker vi hur prisbildningen fungerar och hur affärsförhållandet mellan lantbrukare och slakteri ser ut. Vi kartlägger vi också strukturen i primärproduktionen och i slakterinäringen samt granskar slakteriföretagens lönsamhet. För att bättre kunna bedöma hur väl den svenska slaktdjursmarknaden fungerar görs även en internationell utblick.

  • Hansson, Anne
    et al.
    Karlsson, Arne
    Nilsson, Fabian
    Olsson, Magnus
    Widell, Lars M
    Trafikverket.
    Nya exportmarknader på livsmedelsområdet: Vilka länder utanför EU vill företagen satsa på och kan vi mäta hur det går?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har givit Jordbruksverket i uppdrag att kartlägga vilka länder utanför EU som kan anses ha stor potential för svensk export av livsmedel samt göra en analys av möjligheterna att utveckla en mer informativ handelsstatistik som bl.a. tar hänsyn till vidareexport.

    Jordbruksverkets kartläggning och analys grundas bl.a. på en enkätundersökning, djupintervjuer av livsmedelsföretag, dialog med berörda myndigheter samt information i officiella databaser.

    Av enkätundersökningen framkom att 22 procent av företagen såg länder utanför EU som möjliga framtida exportmarknader. Inom Europa bedöms Norge vara en potentiell marknad. I övriga världen är det Kina, Ryssland och USA som ligger i topp. Flest potentiella exportmarknader ser företagen för alkoholfria/alkoholsvaga drycker. Kött- och charkföretag anger potentiella marknader i bortre Asien men även i Afrika och i vårt direkta närområde såsom Norge och Ryssland. Dessutom finns ett antal bearbetade livsmedel, ofta unika produkter, där företagen ser exportmöjligheter i en rad länder spridda i flera världsdelar.

    Utifrån gjord analys bedöms det finnas en stor potential att öka exporten av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter till framförallt USA, Kina, Japan och Ryssland. Länderna ifråga är mycket stora importörer av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter och har också identifierats av många svenska livsmedelsindustriföretag som intressanta marknader. Exporten försvåras dock i nuläget av bl.a. tillämpningen av regelverket på det sanitära och fytosanitära området. Även Kanada, Sydkorea, Saudiarabien, Indien och Malaysia, med vilka EU nyligen har eller är på gång att förhandla fram frihandelsavtal, bedöms vara kandidater för ökad svensk export. Norge bedöms även fortsättningsvis vara en viktig exportmarknad för Sverige.

    I och med att statistik över import och export ofta används som underlag för beslutsfattare inom olika områden är det önskvärt att handelsstatistiken speglar faktiska förhållanden. I nuläget blåser vidareexport av bl.a. norsk lax upp den svenska handelsstatistiken vilket ger oss en felaktig bild av den faktiska handeln. Hur Sverige redovisar handelsstatistik är reglerat i EU-lagstiftning. Det är därför inte möjligt att korrigera för vidareexport i den officiella statistiken. Däremot är det möjligt för Jordbruksverket att regelbundet publicera en bearbetad handelsstatistik.

    Då SCB i dagsläget samlar in en stor mängd registerbaserad data, bl.a. från Skatteverket, bedöms det finnas underlag för att från befintlig statistik kunna redovisa exportens betydelse för lönsamhet, sysselsättning och tillväxt utan att öka berörda företags administrativa börda.

    För att underlätta exporten till de potentiella marknaderna vill företagen ha en samlad information kring exportfrågor, en effektiv hantering av landgodkännanden och stöd i den internationella affärsutvecklingen. Utifrån dessa önskemål nämns i rapporten ett antal åtgärder kopplade till information, landgodkännande, marknadskännedom och kontaktnät, ekonomi samt handelsstatistik som kan främja svensk livsmedelsexport.

  • Hasund, Knut Per
    et al.
    Jordbruksverket.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Lantbruksekonomen.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordregio.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Vilka sysselsättnings-, miljö- och samhällsekonomiska effekter har jordbruksstöden?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social efficiency and employment effects of the Swedish agricultural policy payments. The investment grants for rural development have environmental effects and the agrienvironmental payments have employment effects. To be able to allocate the CAP budget and design the policy measures optimally, employment effects and social efficiency have to be considered together – including all environmental impacts as well as the costs and market products of agriculture. The study investigates how large these crosswise effects are, and what the overall outcome of the single farm payment and a choice of payments in the Swedish rural development programme is.

  • Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Helander, Anna
    Settergren, Benjamin
    När tilliten prövas: En studie av Studieförbundet Inn Rushds samhällsbidrag2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Seidouvy, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Authority in students’ peer collaboration in statistics: an empirical study based on inferentialism2019In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ peer collaboration efforts in mathematics and statistics is a topic that has increasingly gained attention in research. In any collaboration, authority relations play a role for how meaning is constituted: Whenever things are discussed and decision sare made, authority is involved in a sense that some arguments or persons may be more convincing and powerful than others. In this article, we investigate how authority changes dynamically in type and in distribution as groups of fifth grade students collaborate in data generation processes. We identify and categorize authority using an epistemological framework, which is based on the philosophical theory of inferentialism. The results show that the three different types of authority described in inferentialism are all identifiable in students’ collaborative work. We also find and categorize further types of authority connected to the statistics group work, some of which are hardly addressed in previous research.

  • Seidouvy, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Data generation in statistics – both procedural and conceptual: An inferentialist analysis2018In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11 / [ed] J. Häggström, Y. Liljekvist, J. Bergman Ärlebäck, M. Fahlgren, & O. Olande, Göteborg, Sweden: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2018, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data generation in statistics education is often conducted by the students them-selves; however, the question of what learning opportunities the data generation process offers has only been studied to a small extent. This paper investigates to what extent data generation is an observational and procedural vs. a conceptual activity. We inquire into this question based on an empirical study where eleven year old students measured the jump lengths of paper frogs. Our analysis draws on stu-dents’ discussions in group work, and it uses inferentialism as a background theory. Our results indicate that students’ discussions are conceptual to a certain extent and provide various learning opportunities for the students.

  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wykman, Niklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

  • Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wykman, Niklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

  • Anyadike-Danes, Michael
    et al.
    Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, UK.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Dumont, Michel
    Federal Planning Bureau and Ghent University, Belgium.
    Gottschalk, Sandra
    ZEW, Germany.
    Hölzl, Werner
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO), Austria.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maliranta, Mika
    ETLA, Helsingfors, Finland; University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myrann, Anja
    Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway.
    Nielsen, Kristian
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Zheng, Guanyu
    Productivity Commission, New Zealand.
    An International Comparison of the Contribution to Job Creation by High-growth Firms2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses three simple questions: how should the contribution of HGFs to job creation be measured? how much does this contribution vary across countries? to what extent does the cross-country variation depend on variation in the proportion of HGFs in the business population? The first is a methodological question which we answer using a more highly articulated version of the standard job creation and destruction accounts. The other two are empirical questions which we answer using a purpose-built dataset assembled from national firm-level sources and covering nine countries, spanning the ten three year periods from 2000/03 to 2009/12. The basic principle governing the development of the accounting framework is the choice of appropriate comparators. Firstly, when measuring contributions to job creation, we should focus on just job creating firms, otherwise we are summing over contributions from firms with positive, zero, and negative job creation numbers. Secondly, because we know growth depends in part on size, the ’natural’ comparison for HGFs is with job creation by similar-sized firms which simply did not grow as fast as HGFs. However, we also show how the measurement framework can be further extended to include, for example, a consistent measure of the contribution of small job creating firms. On the empirical side, we find that the HGF share of job creation by large job creating firms varies across countries by a factor of two, from around one third to two thirds. A relatively small proportion of this cross-country variation is accounted for by variations in the influence of HGFs on job creation. On average HGFs generated between three or four times as many jobs as large non-HGF job creating firms, but this ratio is relatively similar across countries. The bulk of the cross-country variation in HGF contribution to job creation is accounted for by the relative abundance (or rarity) of HGFs. Moreover, we also show that the measurement of abundance depends upon the choice of measurement framework: the ’winner’ of a cross-national HGF ’beauty context’ on one measure will not necessarily be the winner on another.

  • Grimbeek, Marinette
    Örebro University, University Library. Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013), Karlstad.
    Wholesale Apocalypse: Brand Names in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake2016In: Names, ISSN 0027-7738, E-ISSN 1756-2279, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 88-98, article id 1159448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coinages pervade Margaret Atwood’s post-apocalyptic novel Oryx and Crake (2003). Most of the neologisms in the novel denote corporations and their products and form part of a thoroughgoing critique of consumerism. The coinages are jarringly hyperbolic and their orthography often evokes contrary connotations. However, in the thematic context of the novel, coining practices follow certain patterns and function as effective, if ambiguous, satirical tools. On one level, the practice of branding is thoroughly satirized. On another, however, the neologisms point to both the limitations and possibilities of satire when dealing with the themes addressed in the novel: commoditization, environmental damage on a planetary scale, and a vision of the imminent end of humanity itself.

  • Angelo, Elin
    et al.
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Varkøy, Øivind
    Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo, Norway.
    Georgii-Hemming, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Notions of Mandate, Knowledge and Research in Norwegian Classical Music Performance Studies2019In: Journal for Reserach in Arts and Sports Education, E-ISSN 2535-2857, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 78-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy changes and higher education reforms challenge performing musician programmes across Europe. The academisation of arts education means that classical performance programmes are now marked by strong expectations of research paths, publications, and the standardisation of courses, grades and positions. Drawing on interviews with ten teachers and leaders within the field of higher music education, this article discusses notions of mandate, knowledge and research in classical performance music education in Norway. Against the backdrop of academisation, the aim of this article is to illuminate central tensions and negotiations concerning mandate, knowledge and research within higher music education. The problem concerns issues of who should be judged as qualified and who should have the authority to speak on behalf of the performing music expertise community. The study is part of the larger study Discourses of Academisation and the Music Profession in Higher Music Education (DAPHME), conducted by a team of senior researchers in Sweden, Norway and Germany. Through an analytic-theoretical reading of the empirical data, informed by Foucault’s power/knowledge concept, two discourses on mandate are identified (the awakening discourse and the Bildung discourse) as well as three discourses on knowledge (the handicraft discourse, the entrepreneurship discourse and the discourse of critical reflection) and two discourses on research (the collaborative discourse and the ‘perforesearch’ discourse). The latter of the two research discourses pinpoints a subject position as a musician/researcher with knowledge, craft and skills in both music performing and research.

  • Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Annette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andersson, Lena
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Inflammatory and coagulatory markers and exposure to different size fractions of particle mass, number and surface area air concentrations in Swedish iron foundries, in particular respirable quartz2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 8, p. 1087-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and quartz in Swedish iron foundries and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood.

    METHODS: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Stationary measurements were used to study the concentrations of respirable dust and quartz, inhalable and total dust, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, namely interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12), C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in plasma or serum, together with markers of coagulation including fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor and D-dimer. Complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work-free weekend, and follow-up samples were collected 2 days later. A mixed model analysis was performed including sex, age, smoking, infections, blood group, sampling day and BMI as covariates.

    RESULTS: The average 8-h time-weighted average air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 mg/m3 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. Participants in high-exposure groups with respect to some of the measured particle types exhibited significantly elevated levels of SAA, fibrinogen and FVIII.

    CONCLUSIONS: These observed relationships between particle exposure and inflammatory markers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among foundry workers with high particulate exposure.

  • Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Stockholms Handelskammare.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migration och företagens internationalisering: en kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
  • Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Svenska affärsänglar: hur lyckas de med sina investeringar?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 29-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktiebolag som affärsänglar investerar i blir med högre sannolikhet snabbväxande företag, s k gasellföretag, jämfört med ett slumpmässigt valt aktiebolag. Resultatet håller även efter att affärsänglarnas företag jämförts med liknande ”tvillingföretags” tillväxt. Detta kan indikera att det är affärsänglarna som bidrar och hjälper till att utveckla företag i stället för att de enbart väljer ut ”vinnarföretag” att investera i, s k picking cherries-beteende.

  • Samzelius, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Förhandling av hushållsarbete och omsorg om barn i bonusfamiljer2019In: Samhälle i förhandling: Villkor, processer, konsekvenser / [ed] Jenny Alsarve & Erik Löfmarck, Örebro: Örebro Universitet , 2019, p. 124-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Arterial stiffness and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis is a complex, chronic vessel wall disease that often leads to severe and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as myocardial infarction and stroke. CVD are the most common cause of death, both globally and in Sweden. Since most of the risk factors for atherosclerosis are preventable, it is of great importance to highlight the benefits of a healthy lifestyle to young adults who are about to create their own habits.

    A general concern about physical inactivity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and high body mass are supported by reports of an increased incidence and prevalence of obesity worldwide. In addition to this, the proportion of Swedish adults with low CRF almost doubled the last 20 years and the decline in CRF is more pronounced in the youngest age group.

    The scientific work presented in this thesis was carried out to investigate the impact of different lifestyle related factors on vascular status, especially arterial stiffness, in young Swedish adults. In total 840 young adults in the age range 18-25 years were recruited to the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study, to examine vascular status, biomarkers, and lifestyle related factors.

    In the LBA study population of young adults in Sweden, 12% were classified as being at risk of future CVD. A high CVD risk was associated with low CRF and less physical activity. In the total study population 24% had unhealthy food habits, and 24% did not spend the recommended 30 minutes per day at moderate or vigorous intensities of physical activity. Low CRF, less physical activity, and overweight and obesity, were associated with stiffer arteries.

    The results raises concerns about future CVD risk and highlights the health enhancing possibilities of high CRF and physical activity on vascular status in young Swedish adults.

    List of papers
    1. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study
    2017 (English)In: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 13, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO(2)max);2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.

    Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.

    Result: cIMT (mean +/- standard deviation) was 0.50 +/- 0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8 +/- 8.5 and 42.9 +/- 9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: High aerobic fitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2017
    Keywords
    cIMT, cholesterol, insulin resistance, body fat, diet, aerobic fitness
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Research subject
    Cardiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56877 (URN)10.2147/VHRM.S125966 (DOI)000396188000002 ()28352184 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015747630 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    AFA insurance

    Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study
    2017 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 17, p. 1809-1818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults.

    Design: This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample.

    Methods: The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation.

    Results: Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses.

    Conclusions: The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2017
    Keywords
    Arterial stiffness, pulse wave analysis, cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, young adult, atherosclerosis
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62511 (URN)10.1177/2047487317720796 (DOI)000414856300004 ()28696134 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85033405287 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    AFA Insurance
    Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults: the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults: the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study
    2019 (English)In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

    METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

    RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

    CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2019
    Keywords
    Arterial distensibility, Arterial stiffness, Body composition, Carotid artery, Cross-sectional study, Epidemiological, Intima media thickness, Young adults
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76105 (URN)10.1186/s12872-019-1180-6 (DOI)000483032600001 ()31455254 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071644915 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Asset Management Arm (AFA)  130275

    Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-11-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Higher total physical activity is associated with lower arterial stiffness in Swedish, young adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher total physical activity is associated with lower arterial stiffness in Swedish, young adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77488 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
  • Lind, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Salmonsson, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sortering av hushållsavfall: En förstudie om varför människor sorterar eller inte sorterar hushållsavfall som de gör samt om vilka insatser som kan få fler att sortera mer2019Report (Other academic)
  • Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nordic Education in a Democratically Troublesome time: Threats and Opportunities2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • Rostami, Elham
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tailoring policies and involving users in constructing security policies: A mapping study2019In: Proceeding of the Thirteen International Syposium on Human Aspect of Information Security & Assurance, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to survey existing information security policy (ISP) construction research to understand to what extent the concept of tailored ISP and user involvement have been considered by researchers. The results are based on a literature mapping study of ISP construction between 1990 and 2017 in Scopus and Web of Science databases. The findings show that researchers have not given tailoring of ISPs any attention and there are only a few researchers that paid attention to involving users in constructing ISPs. This research has implications for both researchers and practitioners and shows the way for the future researches by focusing on the concept of tailored policy and how it can be achieved as well as involving users in such tailoring.

  • Sugrue, Ciaran
    et al.
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sutphen, Molly
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Fossland, Trine
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    University leaders’ talk about institutional missions and academic developers’ contributions2019In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 743-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are increasing external pressures on 21st-century universities to be engines of economic recovery and growth. In this rapidly altering landscape, how university senior leaders articulate the purpose of university education and the contribution of academic developers to fulfil these education purposes is a matter of empirical interest. Senior leaders and academic developers have particular responsibilities since they impact educational quality at an institutional level. Senior leaders are responsible for orienting their institutions, giving direction to colleagues in the process, while their implicit leadership theories animate effort and interactions. Academic developers are employed to provide educational programmes for academics to develop their pedagogical competence, and are increasingly deployed by university leaders to implement new quality assurance systems. Such responsibilities strongly suggest agency and relative autonomy to forge new alliances and collaborative networks where these did not previously exist; they are simultaneously required to be leaders and followers. Consequently, the portfolios of academic developers have expanded exponentially, strategically walking a tightrope between the potentially coercive message of strategic missions and the relative autonomy of academic staff, brokering new horizons of university education in a collegial, collaborative and horizontal manner. The paper captures the dynamics of leading education in four universities: the brokering responsibilities of academic developers.

  • Sandberg, Tommy
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Difference Approach to Narrative Fiction: A Recurring Critique of Narratology and Its Implications for the Study of Novels and Short Stories2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to advance the critical examination of narratology, or the study of storytelling. I analyze four versions of a critique of the dominant theory of narrative fiction in narratology and discuss this critique’s methodological implications. The critics, Sylvie Patron, Lars-Åke Skalin, Richard Walsh, and the proponents of unnatural narratology have, I suggest, similar understandings of narratology’s handling of works like novels and short stories as well as similar alternative approaches. I situate the critique among relevant theories of fiction and salient aspects of narratology, and conclude that the most radical critics have a difference approach to narrative fiction. This means treating this literary practice as following another rule system for creating meaning than other kinds of storytelling. These critics seem to base their reasoning on their readerly intuitions about how novels and short stories function; yet their approach also lends itself to, for instance, discussions on how such works afford life visions or worldviews. In contrast to this approach, I describe narratology, in the critics’ view, as having a sameness approach that treats narrative fiction as a subtype of “narrative” in the sense of the communication of events by a narrator.

    The three opening articles of the thesis comprise a metadiscussion of the critique. I here describe, in part with Greger Andersson, the critics’ ideas, characterize the critique as a whole, and speculate about why it has had no apparent effect on narratology. The two latter articles utilize the difference approach in analyses of Angela Carter’s “The Loves of Lady Purple” and Sara Stridsberg’s Drömfakulteten (The Faculty of Dreams) while discussing narratological concepts and issues. Future studies might continue this discussion or inquire further about, for example, the relations between different narrative practices or what role different intuitions about narrative fiction play in descriptions and analyses.

    List of papers
    1. The critique of the common theory of narrative fiction in narratology: Pursuing difference
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The critique of the common theory of narrative fiction in narratology: Pursuing difference
    2019 (English)In: Frontiers of Narrative Studies, ISSN 2509-4882, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 17-34Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to characterize a commonly misunderstood and neglected critique of narratology and insists that the critique could advance the narratological discussions if taken more seriously. I describe the notions of three individual critics and one group of critics and their suggested alternatives to what they hold to be the dominating description of narrative fiction in narratology. In turn, I take up Sylvie Patron’s linguistic approach, Lars-Åke Skalin’s aesthetic approach, and Richard Walsh’s pragmatic approach, as well as unnatural narratology (which is less radical), and suggest that they have a Difference approach to narrative fiction. The critique is contrasted with what I refer to as a Sameness approach, guiding the dominating description of narrative fiction in narratology. The Sameness approach relates novels and short stories to a notion of a default mode of “narrative” which is based on situated speech about something that has happened. This is, according to the critics, a mistake. The main thrust of the critics, although with some exceptions, is instead that narrative fiction needs to be approached as sui generis in order to be described effectively. Yet how this should be done is still open for debate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2019
    Keywords
    Difference approach, Sylvie Patron, Lars-Åke Skalin, unnatural narratology, Richard Walsh
    National Category
    General Literature Studies
    Research subject
    Literature
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75975 (URN)10.1515/fns-2019-0003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Sameness versus Difference in Narratology: Two Approaches to Narrative Fiction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sameness versus Difference in Narratology: Two Approaches to Narrative Fiction
    2018 (English)In: Narrative (Columbus, Ohio), ISSN 1063-3685, E-ISSN 1538-974X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 241-261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine the critical proposition that common versions of narratology do not provide an accurate description of narrative fiction and analyze why this critique has mostly been disregarded by narratology. The theoreticians we refer to-Sylvie Patron, Richard Walsh, and Lars-Ake Skalin-do not accept the notion that narrative fiction should be understood in terms of non-fictional narratives. We label their position a "difference approach" in contrast to a putative "sameness approach." We find their "difference" arguments convincing and therefore ask why they have had no apparent effect on narratology. As we discuss misreadings that the criticized approach to narrative fiction could be expected to generate and arguments that refute the existence of such misreadings, as well as suggested readings of narrative fiction by Liesbeth Korthals Altes, James Phelan, David Herman, and Gerard Genette, we make the claim, referring to Phelan's rhetorical narratology, that sameness narratology is often presented as a theory but in fact used and defended as a method or toolbox. Our suggestion is that it would be better to rework the theory of narrative fiction commonly adopted by narratologists so that the theoretical assertions become congruent with the analytical practice and with the intuitions about narrative fiction that the analytical practice implies. We thus support the difference approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Ohio State University Press, 2018
    Keywords
    Narratology, sameness, difference, narrative fiction, theory, method
    National Category
    Specific Literatures
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69086 (URN)10.1353/nar.2018.0012 (DOI)000444570400001 ()
    Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
    3. A Reply to Mari Hatavara and Matti Hyvärinen
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Reply to Mari Hatavara and Matti Hyvärinen
    2019 (English)In: Narrative (Columbus, Ohio), ISSN 1063-3685, E-ISSN 1538-974X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 378-381Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Ohio State University Press, 2019
    National Category
    Specific Literatures
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76670 (URN)10.1353/nar.2019.0022 (DOI)000488204000008 ()
    Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
    4. An Evaluation of the Voice Concept(s) in Theories of Literary Fiction: Suggestions by Patron, Walsh, and Genette
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of the Voice Concept(s) in Theories of Literary Fiction: Suggestions by Patron, Walsh, and Genette
    2018 (English)In: From Narrative to Narrativity: Half a Century of Narratology / [ed] Milosavljević Milić, Snežana; Jovanović, Jelena; Bojanić Ćirković, Mirjana, Niš, Serbia: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Niš , 2018, p. 163-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If we are to use narratology as a "toolbox", as some scholars propose, we must test the value of the tools. In this paper I present an understanding of voice based on literary functions in Angela Carter’s "The Loves of Lady Purple", and then I evaluate three notions of voice in narratology. First out are the critical approaches of Sylvie Patron, who wants to abandon the term "voice" completely because of its many incongruent meanings, and Richard Walsh, who pragmatically reformulates the popular Genettean definitions according to his theory of the rhetoric of fictionality. Lastly I discuss how Genette himself would tamper with Carter’s short story. While Patron may be too harsh in her conclusion, Walsh and Genette seem to be able to accommodate voice in "Lady Purple" when they talk about ideology, at least partly. On the negative side, they both miss adequate notions of style.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Niš, Serbia: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Niš, 2018
    Keywords
    Angela Carter, discourse narratology, ideology, rhetoric of fictionality, style, voice
    National Category
    General Literature Studies
    Research subject
    Literature
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65798 (URN)978-86-7379-470-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
    5. A “fucked up” novel, narratology, and the Difference approach to literary fiction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A “fucked up” novel, narratology, and the Difference approach to literary fiction
    2017 (English)In: Frontiers of Narrative Studies, E-ISSN 2509-4890, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 256-272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Drömfakulteten (2006) is an experimental novel by the Swedish writer Sara Stridsberg portraying the life of political activist and writer Valerie Solanas. I read Drömfakulteten as a “literary fantasy” where the forms, the themes, and the atmosphere are foregrounded rather than the biography of Solanas, and suggest that it can be viewed as a deliberate work of art filled with affordances for the reader. Central to my analysis is the recurring idea of “fucking up” as a way of disobeying social, political, and literary (narrative) norms. In relation to narratology, I take on the novel with a Difference approach to fiction, guided by notions from Sylvie Patron, Lars-Åke Skalin, and Richard Walsh. In this approach, fiction is seen as functioning differently in a qualitative sense compared to natural narrative. The Difference approach leads to a reading that lies close to the intuitions of reviewers and highlights the strong literary potential of the novel.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Mouton de Gruyter, 2017
    Keywords
    Affordances, Difference approach, Drömfakulteten, literary fiction, narrativity
    National Category
    General Literature Studies
    Research subject
    Literature
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63380 (URN)10.1515/fns-2017-0017 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
  • Axelsson, Tobias
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att tolka och praktisera jämställdhet i förskola och grundskola: Slutrapport av projektet Forskningsbaserad samverkan – med målet att förbättra jämställdhetsarbetet i Askersunds kommuns förskolor och grundskolor2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva och problematisera hur jämställdhet uppfattas och hur jämställdhetsarbete bedrivs i förskola och grundskola. Rapporten har gjorts i och på uppdrag från Askersunds kommun och behandlar följande forskningsfrågor:

    1. Vilka förståelser och upplevelser av jämställdhet och ojämställdhet har elever?

    2. Hur uppfattar pedagoger sitt jämställdhetsuppdrag?

    3. Hur praktiserar pedagoger sitt jämställdhetsuppdrag?

    4. Vilka förståelser finns av jämställdhet i centrala dokument om förskola och grundskola på kommunal nivå?

    Utifrån 28 observationsdagar (i årskurs två, fem och nio), nitton intervjuer (med arbetslag i grundskola, pedagoger i förskola och grundskola samt elever i årskurs nio) och dokumentanalyser undersöks särskilt hur pedagoger tolkar och praktiserar jämställdhet. Rapportens resultat visar: 1) att elever är positivt inställda till jämställdhet och har erfarenheter av ojämställdhet, 2) att det finns stora skillnader mellan om och hur pedagoger tolkar jämställdhetsuppdraget, 3) att pedoger varierar mellan att använda sig att könsavkodade och reflexiva/synliggörande jämställdhetsstrategier, 4) att jämställdhet förstås dels som en administrativ rutinåtgärd och dels som ett problemorienterat arbete. Rapporten rekommenderar ett intersektionellt jämställdhetsarbete som pendlar mellan att betrakta utbildning som, om respektive för jämställdhet.

  • Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Inquiring into the political dimension of history classroom practices: Suggestions for epistemological criteria and analytical concepts2019In: Historical Encounters: A journal of historical consciousness, historical cultures and history education, E-ISSN 2203-7543, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, three epistemological criteria are suggested against which analytical frameworks for studying the political dimension of history classroom practices can be deemed viable. The suggested criteria - (I) the primacy of practice, (II) the primacy of empirical openness and (III) the primacy of the political - are articulated by conducting critical and affirmative readings of previously established concepts, primarily historical consciousness. To clarify their application, the criteria are positioned in relation to the premises and concepts of a potential framework; namely, the logics of critical explanation (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the viability of which is argued for theoretically and empirically.

  • González-Calvo, Gustavo
    et al.
    Department of Musical, Plastic and Body Expression, University of Valladolid, Palencia, Spain.
    Varea, Valeria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    A Turning Point as an Opportunity to (Re)Think and Give a Voice to One’s Own Body2019In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the intersectionalities of masculinity, fatherhood, and physical activity in relation to a Physical Education teacher who has been diagnosed with an illness. In so doing, we draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into how embodied subjectivities are constructed to advance knowledge on a new embodied way of being a man and a PE teacher that can be accepted and embraced. The results are organised into three main themes: (1) narratives of continuation: the “before” of chronic illness; (2) narratives of disruption: back pain and temporary physical disability; and (3) restitution narratives: damn it, now that I am a father. The results suggest that narratives such as those presented in this article contribute to the continuously changing process of life projects and that illness can assist in redefining and reconstituting the persona of a PE teacher.

  • Flygare, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedlin, Dan
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Empirical Study on the Size of Nonresponse Bias2018In: JSM Proceedings, Survey Research Methods Section, Alexandria, VA, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are expressions for nonresponse bias, all of which require population quantities. In one expression for nonresponse bias, due to Bethlehem (1988, 2009), the bias is approximately equal to a function of the population covariance between the study variable and the response propensity (probability) and the population mean of the propensities. The covariance is hard to estimate (due to nonresponse). To empirically examine the covariance and the nonresponse bias, we have done two studies where the sample values of survey variables are known and the response propensities are estimated.The first study is a mail survey of a population of residents in the city of Solna in Sweden,20-74 years of age. The questionnaire consists of items on marital status and income; we have obtained the true values of those from the Swedish Tax Agency. We also know birth country, the type of area of residents, specific age and gender of each sampled individual.The second study is a web survey at Stockholm University, the population is faculty employees at the department of psychology. This survey is a census and the variables that we regard as our study variables are income from university and total income. The true values of income from university are given by the HR-department and total income from the Tax Agency.

  • Hemberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ethical sensitivity and perceptivness in palliative home care through co-creation2019In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In research on co-creation in nursing, a caring manner can be used to create opportunities whereby the patient’s quality of life can be increased in palliative home care. This can be described as an ethical cornerstone and the goal of palliative care. To promote quality of life, nurses must be sensitive to patients’ and their relatives’ needs in care encounters. Co-creation can be defined as the joint creation of vital goals for patients through the process of shared knowledge between nurses, patients and their relatives.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of caring encounters and co-creation in palliative home care from an ethical perspective.

    Research design, participants, and research context: A hermeneutical approach was used. The material consisted of texts from interviews with 12 nurses in a home care context. The method was inspired by thematic analysis.

    Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought from the participants regarding study participation and the storage and handling of data for research purposes.

    Findings: An overall theme, a main theme and four sub-themes emerged. Through ethical sensitivity and perceptivity, nurses can balance their actions in the moment and change their nursing care actions accordingto the patient’s wishes through co-creation in encounters. Here the time is crucial, as the time needed is unique to each patient.

    Discussion: The themes together can be considered prerequisites for good palliative home care. If nurses fail to be sensitive and perceptive in encounters with dying patients, good palliative home care cannot be achieved. Ethical sensitivity and perceptiveness can also be considered a part of nurses’ ethical competence.

    Conclusion: Patients’ dignity can be preserved through ethical sensitivity and perceptiveness, which is fundamental for good palliative care. Co-creation from patients’ perspectives should be the focus of future research.

  • Mansouri, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lacerda, Bruno
    Oxford Robotics Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Hawes, Nick
    Oxford Robotics Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multi-Robot Planning Under Uncertain Travel Times and Safety Constraints2019In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-19), 2019, p. 478-484Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel modelling and planning approach for multi-robot systems under uncertain travel times. The approach uses generalised stochastic Petri nets (GSPNs) to model desired team behaviour, and allows to specify safety constraints and rewards. The GSPN is interpreted as a Markov decision process (MDP) for which we can generate policies that optimise the requirements. This representation is more compact than the equivalent multi-agent MDP, allowing us to scale better. Furthermore, it naturally allows for asynchronous execution of the generated policies across the robots, yielding smoother team behaviour. We also describe how the integration of the GSPN with a lower-level team controller allows for accurate expectations on team performance. We evaluate our approach on an industrial scenario, showing that it outperforms hand-crafted policies used in current practice.

  • Stenlund, Jörgen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Travelling through time: Students’ interpretation of evolutionary time in dynamic visualizations2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary knowledge is important to understand and address contemporary challenges such as loss of biodiversity, climate change and antibiotic resistance. An important aspect that is considered to be a threshold concept in teaching and learning about evolution is the time it involves. The history of evolution comprises several scales of magnitude, some of which are far from direct human experience and therefore difficult to understand. One way of addressing this issue is to use dynamic visualizations that represent time, for example, to facilitate teaching and learning about evolution.

    This thesis investigates how students’ comprehension of evolution and evolutionary time can be facilitated by visualizations in educational settings. Two different dynamic visualizations were investigated. In paper I different temporal versions of a spatio-temporal animation depicting hominin evolution were explored. The temporal information was expressed as one or several timelines along which an animated cursor moved, indicating the rate of time. Two variables, the number of timelines with different scales, and the mode of the default animated time rate (either constant throughout the animation or decreasing as the animation progressed), were combined to give four different time representations. The temporal aspects investigated were undergraduate students' ability to find events at specific times, comprehend order, comprehend concurrent events, comprehend the length of time intervals, and their ability to compare the lengths of time intervals.

    In paper II, perceptions and comprehension of temporal aspects in an interactive, multi-touch tabletop application, DeepTree, were investigated. This application depicts the tree of life. The focus was on the interactive aspects, especially how the zooming feature was perceived, but also on any misinterpretations associated with the interaction. The same temporal aspects listed for paper I were also implicitly investigated.

    The findings indicate that handling the problem of large differences in scale by altering the rate of time in the visualization can facilitate perception of certain temporal aspects while, at the same time, can hinder a correct comprehension of other temporal aspects. Findings concerning DeepTree indicate that the level of interactions varies among users, and that the zooming feature is perceived in two ways, either as a movement in time or as a movement in the metaphorical tree. Several misinterpretations were observed, for example the assumption that the zooming time in the tree corresponds to real time, that there is an implicit coherent timeline along the y-axis of the tree, and that more nodes along a branch corresponds to a longer time.

    The research reported in this thesis supports the claim that careful choice, and informed use of visualizations matters, and that different visualizations are best suited for different educational purposes

  • Lindblad, Katarina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musical engagement and subjective wellbeing amongst men in the third age2019In: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0803-9828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This article explores the wellbeing benefits of musical engagement for men in the third age. Older men face specific health challenges such as loneliness, isolation and a heightened risk for suicide, tied to gendered norms around emotional control, and a reluctance to seek professional help. There is substantial evidence of the positive health and wellbeing outcomes from older people’s engagement in music, but no studies on older men, music and wellbeing.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish men aged 66–76, with different demographic backgrounds and engagement with music. Interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.

    Results: Analysis resulted in four themes: “emotions and embodiment”, “adjusting to growing older”, “developing and maintaining friendships” and “maintaining contact as a caregiver”. Regardless of musical genre or whether singing, playing, dancing or listening to music, the men used music to come into contact with their bodies and emotions, as well as improving relationships and social contacts. In particular, men as caregivers to sick partners benefited from sharing music with their partner, thus improving the quality of the relationship.

    Discussion: This study shows that engagement with music fills deep psychological and social/emotional needs for the participants, in both “being” with the music and “doing” musical activities, where also talking about music is highlighted as an important part of the musical engagement. The results have implications for the field of music therapy, in that it foregrounds music therapists’ potentially important role in developing opportunities for older men to engage with music.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Pontara, Tobias
    Musikalisering och medialisering2019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 263-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel undersöks det fenomen som vi valt att kalla musikalisering. Som en ständigt ökande närvaro av musik i kultur och vardagsliv innefattar musikaliseringen både en diskursivoch en dramaturgiskdimension. Med musikens diskursiva dimension avser vi medierepresentationer och medierade diskurser ”om” musik och musikrelaterade frågor. När musik framförs åtföljs den så gott som alltid av kommentarer, personliga reflektioner, recensioner, åsikter, analyser, tolkningar, förklaringar, kontextualiseringar och mer eller mindre metaforiska beskrivningar. På samma sätt – i visuellt baserade medier som film, tv och internet – åtföljs musik av fotografiska bilder, målningar eller andra visuella gestaltningar, för att inte tala om film och rörliga bilder. Således är det inte bara "själva musiken" (dess klingande dimension, om än en sådan knappast kan särskiljas annat än analytiskt) som avses, utan också dess verbala och visuella bestämningar, vilka utgör icke-reducerbara aspekter av det vi kallar musik.

    Med musikens dramaturgiska dimension avses (till skillnad från dess diskursiva dimension) ett ökande inflytande av vad som bäst kan beskrivas som ett slags musikaliskt soundtracking av kultur och vardagsliv. Det är en process som är oupplösligt kopplad till musikens ökande närvaro i olika slags medierade berättelser, fiktiva såväl som icke-fiktiva – från fictionfilmer till dataspel, dokumentärer, nyhetssändningar, barnprogram, naturprogram, tv-sportevenemang, politiska tal på internet, hemsidor och annonser – en process där tillvaron blir alltmer strukturerad och organiserad i enlighet med en musikaliskt medierad medvetenhet. Resultatet är en tillvaro där musik inte bara ingår som en naturlig komponent utan också bidrar med att strukturera och organisera uppfattningar om, erfarenheter av och förväntningar på den levda verkligheten.

  • Pontara, Tobias
    et al.
    Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Allmänna teknologier och privata rum: förutsättningar för den digitala tidsålderns  solipsistiska ljudkultur2019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 187-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lyssna på musik i avskildhet, solitärt lyssnande, är en av de mest utbredda formerna av musiklyssnande i vår digitala tidsålder. Men i nästan ett halvt sekel av ljudåtergivningstekniken var olika former av socialt lyssnande normen. I den här artikeln diskuterar vi vad vi ser som de viktigaste förutsättningarna för solitärt lyssnande som det utvecklades under det tjugonde århundradet. Mer specifikt argumenterar vi för att solitärt lyssnande blev den dominerande formen att lyssna vid mitten av seklet som ett resultat av tre olika men sammanhängande faktorer i det moderna samhället: (1) uppkomsten av det moderna vardagsrummet; (2) ankomsten av nya och alltmer sofistikerade teknologier för ljudåtergivning och (3) en ständigt växande individualism i samhället som helhet, vilken främjade en estetisk individualism där solitärt lyssnande fann en naturlig plats. Med internet, digital teknik och moderna ljudavskiljande hörlurar har utvecklingen lett till vad som kan beskrivas som en solipsistisk ljudkultur. Men samtidigt, genom att t.ex. dela musik och musikaliska spellistor på sociala medier, verkar äldre tiders sociala aspekter av musikaliskt lyssnande åter ha kommit till heders.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Vardagslivets fonografi: Grammofonspelande i Sverige 1903–19452019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige mediehistoriskt arkiv / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 25-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar om användningen av fonografer och grammofoner under första hälften av 1900-talet. I stället för att fokusera på Storbritannien eller USA, som tidigare forskning ofta har gjort, ligger fokus på det i förhållandevis perifera Sverige. Mer specifikt är frågan hur fonografi förvandlades från att betraktas som vetenskaplig kuriosa till att bli en vardaglig medieteknologi och hur den påverkat kultur och musikalisk kommunikation. Källmaterialet består av dags- och veckotidningar, musiktidskrifter, kataloger över tidiga bostads- och hemutställningar, samt ett etnografiskt frågeformulär från 1962 med nationell räckvidd som ber om personliga minnen av grammofonen från åren runt sekelskiftet 1900. Kommersiell reklam (som utgör källmaterial för en stor del av tidigare forskning) kompletteras därmed och jämförs med andra typer av journalistiskt, vetenskapligt och populärvetenskapligt innehåll, från nyheter till korta romaner och offentliga policyplaner, till personliga minnen. Genom att undersöka medier som riktar sig till icke-specialister och amatörlyssnare (och som det visar sig, även icke-lyssnare), samt med inriktning på vardagsrummet i hemmets privatsfär, balanseras det vardagliga och prosaiska mot det åtrådda och prestigefyllda - ett brett spektrum inom vilket vardagslivet utspelade sig för en stor del av befolkningen. Resultatet av undersökningen visar två distinkta sätt att förhålla sig till inspelad musik, som beskrivs som utilitaristisktrespektive solipsistiskt.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Inledning: Medialisering och musikalisering i Sverige2019In: Musikens medialisering och musikaliseringen av medier och vardagsliv i Sverige / [ed] Ulrik Volgsten, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, 1, p. 5-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Musiken har genomgått en medialisering utan like de senaste hundra åren. Elektrifiering och digitalisering av musikmedierna har inneburit att musik kan höras så gott som överallt och när som helst. Vid sidan av medialisering introducerar föreliggande antologi begreppet musikalisering. Medan medialisering handlar om mediernas långsiktiga påverkan på vardagspraktiker och kommunikation, handlar musikalisering om förändringar i musikens roll. Förutom att vara en naturlig komponent i allt fler vardagssammanhang bidrar musik i allt högre grad till att strukturera och organisera uppfattningar om, erfarenheter av och förväntningar på den levda verkligheten.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Fantasy control: Implications for distributed imagination and affect attunement in music and sound2019In: The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Imagination, Volume 1 / [ed] Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mads Walther-Hansen & Martin Knakkergaard, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, 1, p. 229-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with the control of imagination. Three thematically distinct aspects of sonic imagination are investigated – archive, context, and identification – together with two modes of connection with the environment – metaphorical projection and affect attunement. It is argued that much of the available work on sonic imagination, music perception, and embodied cognitive science suffers from a one-person perspective, unable to explain either the difference between environmental sound and culture-specific music, or the dominant role of feelings in our musical experiences. In its stead an approach is suggested that assigns central importance to affect attunement in our encounters with sound and music. Through a case study, different types of sonic control are exemplified, showing that control of sonic imagination may be both negative and positive for the listener.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    A technology and its vicissitudes: playing the gramophone in Sweden 1903–19452019In: Popular Music, ISSN 0261-1430, E-ISSN 1474-0095, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 219-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This inquiry deals with the changing role of the technology and the use of phonographs and gramophones during the first half of the 20th century. Rather than looking at the UK or USA, which much previous research has done, the focus is on peripheral Sweden. More specifically the question is how phonography turned from being a scientific curiosity into becoming an everyday media technology, and how it thereby influenced culture and everyday musical communication. The findings show two distinct approaches to recorded music, which intermingle in today’s unprecedented musicalisation of culture and everyday life around the globe – approaches respectively described as utilitarian and solipsistic.

  • Gerdin, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Englund, Hans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Contesting commensuration: Public response tactics to performance evaluation of academia2019In: Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, ISSN 1368-0668, E-ISSN 1758-4205, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1098-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how actors subjected to public performance evaluations may “contest commensuration,” i.e. may seek to influence how such ratings and rankings will be construed among important stakeholders.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study of press releases, and interviews with department heads, is used as a basis for the analysis.

    Findings: The empirically derived taxonomy of public responses to a state-initiated performance evaluation of educational programs shows that actors may mobilize an array of commensuration management tactics so as to maintain or improve one’s relative positional status. Such tactics may have at least three different foci, namely, on the comparison object (i.e. on the new grouping of actors), the comparison dimension (i.e. the standardized format for comparison) and the comparison rate (i.e. the rate received), respectively. The authors also find that not only are threats to positional status likely to spur commensuration management tactics, but also the opportunity to exploit a good rate.

    Originality/value: The paper augments recent research that has problematized the so-called “reactive conformance thesis” by focusing on how evaluated organizations may directly try to influence external stakeholders through public responses. The study is also one of the first that analytically disentangles how they may skillfully exploit different forms of “plasticity” that are inherent in any type of commensuration.

  • Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Höglund, Linda
    School of Business, Society and Engineering (EST), Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Quadruple helix as a network of relationships: creating value within a Swedish regional innovation system2019In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A regional smart specialization initiative is investigated from a quadruple helix framework (industry, government, academia, and users/civil society). Based on a qualitative case study, we examine the interdependencies of actors, resources, and activities from a micro perspective. The aim is to understand the relationships and the value created between the different actors. From the results we conclude that the fourth helix should be viewed as a whole – an arena where triple helix actors in different value adding relationships take on different roles – where they create value to civil society, for example, new jobs or products for improved elderly care. In line with this, we state that the fourth helix is far more complex than limiting it to simply become a fourth separate helix of users or civil society. There is a complexity in that the fourth helix consists of both different users (including triple helix actors) as well as civil society. Users in the quadruple helix framework can also be defined in several ways depending on the context of the arena (the fourth helix) and what value adding activities they bring to civil society. Thus, users can be businesses, organizations, citizens, society, and many more things.

  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    How to Tax The Sharing Economy2019In: Proceedings of the GSRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, World research library , 2019, p. 30-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy refers to online market places that bring sellers and buyers of goods and services together. The sharing economy is rarely taxed, rarely reported to and rarely controlled by the Tax Authorities. In this paper two main problems concerning taxing the sharing economy are identified. Firstly, the sharing economy is difficult to control, since there are many small providers. Secondly, different tax treatment for businesses and private individuals makes it difficult for small providers to know how to comply with tax obligations. The solution is not the introduction of a digital services tax (DST) imposed on the intermediary platforms. Such a tax can contribute to tax the sharing economy, but not replace income tax or VAT/GST.Income tax and VAT/GST systems throughout the world are based on a scenario of businesspeople versus private individuals dating from the 20th century, which is now out of date. A solution could be to tax business persons and private individuals in a uniform way, which would provide a simpler tax system that would be easier to comply with.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tools for Structured Matrix Computations: Stratifications and Coupled Sylvester Equations2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing theory, algorithms, and software tools for analyzing matrix pencils whose matrices have various structures are contemporary research problems. Such matrices are often coming from discretizations of systems of differential-algebraic equations. Therefore preserving the structures in the simulations as well as during the analyses of the mathematical models typically means respecting their physical meanings and may be crucial for the applications. This leads to a fast development of structure-preserving methods in numerical linear algebra along with a growing demand for new theories and tools for the analysis of structured matrix pencils, and in particular, an exploration of their behaviour under perturbations. In many cases, the dynamics and characteristics of the underlying physical system are defined by the canonical structure information, i.e. eigenvalues, their multiplicities and Jordan blocks, as well as left and right minimal indices of the associated matrix pencil. Computing canonical structure information is, nevertheless, an ill-posed problem in the sense that small perturbations in the matrices may drastically change the computed information. One approach to investigate such problems is to use the stratification theory for structured matrix pencils. The development of the theory includes constructing stratification (closure hierarchy) graphs of orbits (and bundles) that provide qualitative information for a deeper understanding of how the characteristics of underlying physical systems can change under small perturbations. In turn, for a given system the stratification graphs provide the possibility to identify more degenerate and more generic nearby systems that may lead to a better system design.

    We develop the stratification theory for Fiedler linearizations of general matrix polynomials, skew-symmetric matrix pencils and matrix polynomial linearizations, and system pencils associated with generalized state-space systems. The novel contributions also include theory and software for computing codimensions, various versal deformations, properties of matrix pencils and matrix polynomials, and general solutions of matrix equations. In particular, the need of solving matrix equations motivated the investigation of the existence of a solution, advancing into a general result on consistency of systems of coupled Sylvester-type matrix equations and blockdiagonalizations of the associated matrices.

  • Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skew-symmetric matrix pencils: stratification theory and tools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating the properties, explaining, and predicting the behaviour of a physical system described by a system (matrix) pencil often require the understanding of how canonical structure information of the system pencil may change, e.g., how eigenvalues coalesce or split apart, due to perturbations in the matrix pencil elements. Often these system pencils have different block-partitioning and / or symmetries. We study changes of the congruence canonical form of a complex skew-symmetric matrix pencil under small perturbations. The problem of computing the congruence canonical form is known to be ill-posed: both the canonical form and the reduction transformation depend discontinuously on the entries of a pencil. Thus it is important to know the canonical forms of all such pencils that are close to the investigated pencil. One way to investigate this problem is to construct the stratification of orbits and bundles of the pencils. To be precise, for any problem dimension we construct the closure hierarchy graph for congruence orbits or bundles. Each node (vertex) of the graph represents an orbit (or a bundle) and each edge represents the cover/closure relation. Such a relation means that there is a path from one node to another node if and only if a skew-symmetric matrix pencil corresponding to the first node can be transformed by an arbitrarily small perturbation to a skew-symmetric matrix pencil corresponding to the second node. From the graph it is straightforward to identify more degenerate and more generic nearby canonical structures. A necessary (but not sufficient) condition for one orbit being in the closure of another is that the first orbit has larger codimension than the second one. Therefore we compute the codimensions of the congruence orbits (or bundles). It is done via the solutions of an associated homogeneous system of matrix equations. The complete stratification is done by proving the relation between equivalence and congruence for the skew-symmetric matrix pencils. This relation allows us to use the known result about the stratifications of general matrix pencils (under strict equivalence) in order to stratify skew-symmetric matrix pencils under congruence. Matlab functions to work with skew-symmetric matrix pencils and a number of other types of symmetries for matrices and matrix pencils are developed and included in the Matrix Canonical Structure (MCS) Toolbox.

  • Broch Ålvik, Jon Mikkel
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Touching from A Distance: Imagining Marit Larsen in Queer Spaces2019In: Radical Musicology, ISSN 1751-7788, E-ISSN 1751-7788, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates into how Norwegian pop artist Marit Larsen's music and persona may be open to queer readings. Via close readings of songs and media appearances, I wish to show the possibility of meanings in the work of an artist whose music, on a superficial level, comes across as contingent on the artist’s own, heteronormative version of events.

  • Broch Ålvik, Jon Mikkel
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Made in Sweden: Studies in popular music2019In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Svensson, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    From tracksuit to trench coat: The changing position of the Swedish male elite soccer coach between the 1960s and the 2010s2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Svensson, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    A valuable contribution to the growing research field of sports coaching history2019In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Rukanova, Boriana
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Tan, Yao-Hua
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gasco, Mila
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Identifying mechanisms for achieving voluntary data sharing in cross-sector partnerships for public good2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 227-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been advocated that sharing business data can generate public value. Still this information sharing often needs to be done on voluntary basis and that often poses major challenges. The main research question addressed in this paper is: How is voluntary information sharing to create publicvalue achieved and what are the drivers and mechanisms to achieve that? While voluntary information sharing to achieve public value is recognized in the eGovernment literature, this literature is limited to understand how such information sharing can be achieved. To address the research question, we borrow a framework of platforms for cross sector social partnerships from organization studies and use it as a conceptual lens to structure the analysis of three case studies where voluntary information sharingwas achieved in different domains. Building on the framework and our case analysis, we distinguish three types of information sharing collaborations, namely Resource-dependence platform, Social Issue platform, and Societal Sector platform which allow to distinguish the motivations why parties enter into voluntary information sharing collaborations. Our analysis suggests that while the higher goal of the voluntary information sharing may be the same (i.e. to create public value), parties are driven by different motivations of why they enter into the information sharing collaborations. Furthermore, in each of these different types of collaborations the mechanisms of how the information sharing was achieved, as well as the role the government can play, differ.