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  • Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. IHM.
    Promoting integration through physical education (?)2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in contemporary western societies is segregation,which is also reflected in schools. The point of departure for this study is apolitical initiative in Sweden, where pupils are being transported by busfrom a suburb to different schools in the city with the aim of promotingintegration and improved performance results. The study focuses on theteaching practice of Physical Education (PE) at one of the schools where‘the bus for inclusion’ stops every morning. The research questionconcerns how ‘the political action’ of the bussing project is ‘acted upon’in the subject of PE. The purpose is to explore what becomes of thisparticular PE practice, in terms of rationalities encompassing a PEteacher’s pedagogical actions and the pupils’ ways of acting on them. Thedata, gathered through extensive fieldwork, including lesson observationsand interviews, is analysed from a governmentality perspective [Foucault,1978/1994. Governmentality. In Power (pp. 201–222). New York: The NewPress]. The findings highlight three underlying rationalities in regards tointegration, aiming at promoting intercultural encounters, collaborationand mutual respect. These rationalities, manifested through the PEteacher’s pedagogical actions, offer guidance for the pupil seen as ‘asubject seeking to construct himself or herself’ [Wieviorka 2014. A critiqueof integration. Identities, 21(6), 633–641, 636–637]. In case of compliance,the notion of ‘us and them’ is countered and a shared experience ofbelonging is achieved through teamwork and self-regulation. In case ofresistance, segregation is maintained in the school community as well asin society as a whole. This study does not contribute any incontestableevidence of social inclusion through PE [cf. Bailey, 2005. Evaluating therelationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion.Educational Review, 57(1), 71–90; Dagkas, 2018. Is social inclusion throughPE, sport and PA still a rhetoric? Evaluating the relationship betweenphysical education, sport and social inclusion. Educational Review, 70(1),67–74]. However, the findings indicate that ‘action upon action’ in aculturally heterogeneous PE practice makes a difference insofar asintegration is understood as a process of subjectivation [Wieviorka 2014.A critique of integration. Identities, 21(6), 633–641]. Depending on thedirection of the PE teacher’s guidance, the process might tend towardseither cultural assimilation or pluralistic integration [Grimminger, 2008.Promoting intercultural competence in the continuing education ofphysical education teachers. Sport-Integration-Europe, 310–320].

  • Ni, Junbei
    et al.
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Zhao, Yuan
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Tao, Ruiyan
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Yin, Lei
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Gao, Ling
    ACON Biotech (Hangzhou) Co., Ltd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Qian, Minjie
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Li, Juncai
    Liaoning Province Institute of Pomology, Xiongyue, Liaoning, PR China.
    Li, Yuanjun
    Yantai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yantai, Shandong, PR China.
    Shen, Jiaqi
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Teng, Yuanwen
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Bai, Songling
    Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.
    Ethylene mediates the branching of the jasmonate-induced flavonoid biosynthesis pathway by suppressing anthocyanin biosynthesis in red Chinese pear fruits2019In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavonoid accumulation in most fruitsis enhanced by ethylene and jasmonate. However, little is known about the hormone functions related to red pear fruit coloration or their combined effects and potential underlying mechanisms. Various treatments were used to investigate the flavonoid metabolite profile and pear transcriptome to verify the effects of ethylene and jasmonate on flavonoid biosynthesis in red pear fruits as well as the mechanism behind this. Ethylene inhibits anthocyanin biosynthesis in red Chinese pear fruits, whereas jasmonate increases anthocyanin and flavone/isoflavone biosyntheses. The branching of the jasmonate-induced flavonoid biosynthesis pathway is determined by ethylene. Co-expression network and Mfuzz analyses revealed 4,368 candidate transcripts. Additionally, ethylene suppresses PpMYB10 and PpMYB114 expression via TF repressors, ultimately decreasing anthocyanin biosynthesis. Jasmonate induces anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional or post-translational regulation of TFs like MYB and bHLH in the absence of ethylene. However, jasmonate induces ethylene biosynthesis and the associated signaling pathway in pear, thereby decreasing anthocyanin production, increasing the availability of the precursors for flavone/isoflavone biosynthesis, and enhancing deep yellow fruit coloration. We herein present new phenotypes and fruit coloration regulatory patterns controlled by jasmonate and ethylene, and confirm that the regulation of fruit coloration is complex.

  • Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Is There a Need for a Violence Prevention Programme in Ice Hockey?2019In: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Breitbarth, Tim, Bodet, Guillaume, Fernández Luna, Álvaro, Burillo Naranjo, Pablo & Bielons, Gerardo, Seville: EASM , 2019, Vol. 1, p. 776-777Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Research Questions: Against a background of identified masculinity ideals and how they relate to norms of violence in Swedish ice hockey, the overall purpose of this paper is to identify preventive suggestions that can challenge violence-supportive masculinity ideals and norms. The specific research aim is to identify and discuss preventive measures from an individual (coach or player) perspective (i.e. a micro level), club or community perspective (a meso level) and a structural (e.g. rules) perspective (a macro level). The two research questions are: Which ideals have been appreciated in Swedish male ice hockey and what kinds of attitudes to violence in general can be identified? What, more specifically, can be considered as necessary to change in Swedish ice hockey in order to prevent violence and violent behaviour?

    Theoretical Background and Literature Review: By combining research on sport, masculinities (or gender), violence/aggression and prevention, a theoretical discussion is conducted about the link between masculinity and aggressiveness/violence in sport and how this affects and is associated with more general expressions of men’s violence in society and the adequacy of prevention. The point of departure is a ‘broad’ understanding of violence that includes physical, psychological, verbal and other non-physical aspects (Connell, 2005; Flood, 2019). Ice hockey has a long history of violence (Lorenz, 2016)and researchers have examined this culture from several perspectives. Rockerbie (2015)estimates the effect of ice hockey fights on attendance in the NHL and finds that although fighting perhaps was more popular in the early years of the NHL, there is no absolute association between average attendance and fights per game. Other research has shown that male team sports can nurture aggressive and sexist attitudes and behaviour (Messner and Sabo, 1994; Pappas, 2012). Flood’s (2019) work focuses on men and boys and violence prevention and helps us to understand such attitudes and behaviors as an initial step that could, if it escalates, result in men’s violence against women. Although there are strong arguments for male dominated team sports’ objectification of women and femininity and the social problems associated with this, there is a risk of simplification by only attributing such attitudes to participation in ice hockey or a team sport. Alcohol consumption, socialization in a sport, society at large and other factors also need to be taken into account.

    Research Design, Methodology and Data Analysis: Part of a larger project on masculinity ideals and violence norms in Swedish ice hockey from 1965 up until today, the presentation is primarily based on interviews with five Swedish ice hockey coaches. (The project also gathers data from interviews with players, observations from ice hockey games, excerpts from media, examination of the magazine Hockey and (auto)biographies). Taken together, all the coaches had experiences of playing ice hockey themselves from amateur to professional level in Sweden and abroad. The analytical process can be summarized in three steps. Firstly, a thematic analysis was carried out in which different ‘meaning units’ were transformed into ‘condensed meaning units’ and finally collected to ‘codes’. Secondly, the codes or ideals were placed within the theoretical frame and interpreted in terms of an eventual hegemonic, masculine and/or violence-supportive ideal. Lastly, given that some meaning units include norms related to aggression and violence, the discussion section is constructed around preventative suggestions emanating from the findings.

    Results/Findings and Discussion: The main result shows that some of the ice hockey milieu’s positive effects (e.g. community, loyalty, the sense of comfort) to some extent also form the basis as risk factors in developing violent behaviour, (e.g. sexist and derogative attitudes/language, exaggerated hard playing style, collective norms that trigger fights and alcohol consumption). One coach gave an example of the coaches of a junior team he played with (in the early 1990s) who drank alcohol and watched pornographic films in the bus home from away matches. The informant reflected that such behaviour affected the players’ values, their talk about and views of women and their attitudes towards alcohol. Another aspect, highlighted by another informant, is that violence (in a wide sense) can become part of the tactics in certain situations during a game, especially if players are encouraged to ‘provoke and get provoked!’ ie the same qualities that might make someone a successful player could also foster them in violent-supportive attitudes.

    Conclusion, Contribution and Implication: The paper shows how ice hockey, as a male team sport, can nurture and even encourage sexist and violent attitudes but the sport also has a huge preventative potential. The conclusion that can be drawn is that a successful, violence prevention programme in ice hockey (and perhaps also other male dominated team sports) should pay specific attention to such individual behaviour with the aim of minimizing the risk of players developing negative attitudes that in the end nurture patriarchy and enhance the inequalities between men and women.

  • Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Environmental Physiology Group, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Padial, Paulino
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Schoenfeld, Brad John
    Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, New York, NY, United States.
    Feriche, Belen
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mean Propulsive Velocity Is a Viable Method for Adjusting the Resistance-Training Load at Moderate Altitude: Monitoring Resistance Load at Altitude2019In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 1, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the viability of using mean propulsive velocity (MPV) to adjust the load in the countermovement jump (CMJ) at moderate altitude. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to a 4-week power-oriented resistance training (RT) program in either normoxia (N, 690 m) or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH, 2,320 m). The load was adjusted to maintain execution velocity of CMJ at 1m·s−1 of MPV. Relative peak power output (Prel), and percentage of velocity loss throughout the sets (VL) were determined for each session. The internal load was measured by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The absolute load lifted was higher in IH compared to N (75.6 ± 8.4 vs. 58.5 ± 12.3 kg P < 0.001). However, similar relative increases for both groups were found when comparing the final values (IH: 8.2%, P = 0.007; N: 9.8%, P = 0.03) with no changes in VL between groups (P = 0.36). Post-study Prel improved significantly only in IH (+7% W·kg−1P = 0.002). Mean RPE was greater in IH vs. N (6.8 ± 1.5 vs. 5.6 ± 2, P < 0.001). The MPV seems to be a viable method for adjusting external load during RT at moderate altitude. However, given that RT at moderate altitude increases RPE, it is prudent to monitor internal load when using the MPV to best determine the actual physiological stress of the session.

  • Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Helena, Vennberg
    Institutionen för Naturvetenskapernas och Matematikens didaktik, UFM, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Early assessment in mathematics, the ethics in a practice close research approach2019In: Abstractbok, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the latest reforms to increase the equity and quality in mathematics education is mandatory national assessment in Preschool-class. It is supposed to govern the action, focus and professional language of the pedagogues. In an earlier study of preparatory work, policy decisions and assessment material, we discovered that there is a risk for schoolification of the Preschool-class, through this reform. A second risk is that students could be locked into "levels" of achievement and a third risk lies in a potential narrowing down of the curriculum (Bagger, Björklund, Vennberg, Accepted). At the same time, earlier research show that early assessment can lead to positive development for students in need of support (Vennberg & Norqvist, 2018). Deriving from our initial study of national assessment in preschool class, we have planned for a follow up project with the aim to contribute to knowledge of and developing the practice about the preschool class teacher’s work with national assessment in mathematics. During the conference we will present and discuss ethical and methodological challenges in this project. More specifically, we want to discuss what is required of practice close approaches in these ethically demanding situations of vulnerability and assessment in mathematics with young students. A key issue is the opportunities for teachers and researchers to manage the information collected during the  national assessment and handling of sensitive data, how they jointly can contribute to the development and management of the knowledge that generated about students' opportunities to learn and to demonstrate their knowledge. And finally, in what way this might contribute to assessment and teaching in mathmatics continues to have its starting points in the unique assignment of the preschool-class.

    References

    Bagger, A., Björklund, L. & Vennberg, H. (accepted). The politics of early assessment in mathematics education. CERME11 in Utrecht, January 2019.

    Vennberg, H. & Norqvist, M. (2018). Counting on – long term effects of an early intervention program. In Bergqvist, E., Österholm, M., G, C & Sumpter, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 4, (pp. 355-362). Umeå, Sweden: PME.

  • Grosinger, Jasmin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    On Making Robots Proactive2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question addressed in this thesis is: Can we make robots proactive? Proactivity is understood as self-initiated, anticipatory action. This entails the ability to generate own goals and pursue them. Our work is based on the assumption that proactivity makes robots more acceptable in human-inhabited environments. Proactive behavior is opposed to reactive behavior which is merely responding to external events and explicit requests (by the user). We approach the question of how to make robots proactive by first identifying the necessary cognitive capabilities, how they relate and interact. We find that to enable proactive behavior one needs to bridge the gap between context, planning, acting and goal reasoning. We then propose a model of opportunity which formalizes and relates these cognitive capabilities in order to create proactivity. In order to make the model of opportunity computational we introduce a framework called equilibrium maintenance. We show formally and empirically that the framework can make robots act in a proactive way. We can make guarantees about the behavior of a robot acting based on equilibrium maintenance: we prove that given certain assumptions a system employing our framework is kept within desirable states. Equilibrium maintenance is instantiated in different scenarios, both theoretically and in practice by deploying it in a number of systems including both robots and humans. More specifically, we conduct experimental runs in simulation in the domain of robotic disaster management and we implement the framework on a real robot in a domestic environment. The latter is done by integration in different levels, from conceptual examples to closing the loop with a full robotic system. Empirical results confirm that equilibrium maintenance creates proactive behavior and leads to preferable outcomes.

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallhead, Tristan
    University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States.
    Brock, Sheri
    Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States.
    Goodyear, Victoria
    University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Amade-Escot, Chantal
    University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Group Work in Physical Education: Exploring the Interconnectedness of Theoretical Approaches and Practice2017In: Journal of teaching in physical education, ISSN 0273-5024, E-ISSN 1543-2769, Vol. 36, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student group work is a central feature of many contemporary pedagogical approaches to teaching physicaleducation. Despite this proliferation, our understanding of the teaching-learning dynamics inherent in groupwork remains limited and has tended to be under-theorized. The purpose of this paper was to examine differenttheoretical approaches to group work to identify similarities and differences and consequently provide insightsand recommendations into ways of using group work as a pedagogical strategy. Four theoretical approaches togroup work models were described in detail with brief empirical examples used to illustrate aspects to whicheach approach draws attention. The examination demonstrates conceptual overlap, elaboration and distinctionsbetween the theoretical approaches related to: (i) content knowledge; (ii) engaging learners; (iii) theteacher’s role; and (iv) group composition. Meta-theoretical discussions of teaching strategies such as groupwork generate important discourse on the potential for the development of effective pedagogical practice.

  • Paul, Satyam
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morales-Menendez, Ruben
    School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, NL, Mexico.
    Chatter Mitigation in Milling Process Using Discrete Time Sliding Mode Control with Type 2-Fuzzy Logic System2019In: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 9, no 20, article id 4380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a high-quality machining process with superior productivity, it is very important to tackle the phenomenon of chatter in an effective manner. The problems like tool wear and improper surface finish affect the milling process and are caused by self-induced vibration termed as chatter. A strategy to control chatter vibration actively in the milling process is presented. The mathematical modeling of the process is carried out initially. In this paper, an innovative technique of discrete time sliding mode control (DSMC) is blended with the type-2 fuzzy logic system. The proposed active controller results in a significantly high mitigation of vibration. The DSMC is linked to the time-varying gain which is an innovative approach to mitigate chattering. The theorem is laid down which validates that the system states are bounded in the case of DSMC-type-2 fuzzy. Stability analysis is carried out using Lyapunov candidate. The nonlinearities linked with the cutting forces and damper friction are handled effectively by using the type-2 fuzzy logic system. The performance of the DSMC-type-2 fuzzy concept is compared with the discrete time PID (D-PID) and discrete time sliding mode control for validating the effectiveness of the controller. The better performance of DSMC-type-2 fuzzy over D-PID and DSMC-T1 fuzzy in the minimization of milling chatter are validated by a numerical analysis approach.

  • Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardarens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Implementation Integrity of Parenting Programs: Which Aspects Are Most Important?2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 917-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The implementation of preventive interventions is considered a crucial aspect of their success. However, few studies have investigated which components of implementation are most important.

    Objective: We aimed to understand whether the components of implementation integrity—adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participants’ involvement—influenced the effectiveness of four parenting programs. We also investigated factors associated with these components.

    Method: Data come from a national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden. The study was a randomised controlled effectiveness trial, with a sample of 535 parents with 3–12-year-old children. Measures included parenting behaviors (angry outbursts, harsh parenting, attempts to understand, rewarding, and praising), child conduct problems (ECBI and SNAP-V), and measures tapping into the four components (adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participant involvement).

    Results: We ran multilevel models and found that implementation quality (adherence and quality of delivery) did not influence the effects on parents and children. Conversely, participant involvement was associated with improvements in parenting and child conduct. Finally, parents’ perceptions of their leaders as supportive and understanding were associated with parents’ responsiveness and attendance.

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of having actively engaged parents to maximise intervention effects.

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergentoft, Helene
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Sport and Health Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    What would physical educators know about movement education? A review of literature2017In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 419-435Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article identifies the conceptual underpinnings of currentmovement research in physical education. Using a hermeneuticapproach, four analogies for movement education are identified:the motor program analogy, the neurobiological systems analogy, theinstinctive movement analogy, and the embodied exploration analogy.Three issues related to logical consistency and its relevance for movementeducation are raised. The first relates to tensions between theanalogies and educational policy. The second concerns differencesamong the four analogies. The third issue relates to the appropriatenessof specific analogies for dealing with certain movement contexts.In each case, strategies for improvement are considered. Thearticle concludes with a brief summary, along with reflections onissues that require further attention.

  • Tryggvason, Ásgeir
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    How to End a Discussion: Consensus or Hegemony?2019In: Democracy & Education, ISSN 1085-3545, E-ISSN 2164-7992, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking the vantage point of agonistic pluralism, the aim is to enter into dialogue with Samuelsson’s theoretical development of consensus as an educational aim for classroom discussions. The response highlights three points of interest in the deliberative conception of consensus. The first point relates to the problem of exclusion, which Samuelsson clearly framed as something that concerns deliberative theory and agonistic theory. The second point is about the relation between conflict and consensus and the kind of conflict that is compatible with Samuelsson’s idea of consensus. The concluding part of this response is an exploration of how the agonistic concept of hegemony could function as an alternative aim for ending classroom discussions.

  • Janemalm, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Sweden.
    What is complex in complex movement? A discourse analysis of conceptualizations of movement in the Swedish physical education curriculum2019In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1146-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the Swedish National Agency for Education introduced a new national curriculum. Thecurriculum contained a number of new terms. One in particular proved problematic for physicaleducators – complex movement. The confusion surrounding the term could be seen as somewhatunexpected since movement is and has been a central element of practically all physical education(PE) curricula. The specific aim of this paper is to identify how the discourse regarding complexmovement is assembled, and by doing so, provide insights into the meaning(s) of complexmovement within the context of PE policy in Sweden. Following Englund and Quennerstedt (2008),the study is framed within a Swedish curriculum theory tradition and six policy texts are examinedusing a discourse analytic methodology. The results suggest three different inferences of complexmovement discourse: advanced with a wide meaning; context-dependent and related to sports forolder pupils; and knowledge-dependent where different views about knowledge exist. From theseresults, three discussion points are raised related to: the diversity of possible meanings presentedin policy; the connection between knowledge and understanding; and the probability of differentaudiences reading the texts in different ways. The paper is concluded with a consideration of theconsequences of different inferences concerning complex movement and whether greater consensusis necessary.

  • Rönnqvist, Mats
    et al.
    The Technical High School of Lindholmen, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. The Technical High School of Lindholmen, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education2019In: Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a substantial body of physical education scholarshipfocusing on movement learning. The question of how pupilsthemselves make sense of movement learning has however,largely escaped attention. Answers to such a question wouldseem to be highly germane if educators are to engage in pupilcenteredpedagogies. In light of this absence, the aim of thisinvestigation was to describe how movement learners madesense of their own movement development. Drawing ontheoretical tenets of Gilbert Ryle (2009. The concept of mind.New York, NY: Routledge) and Michael Polanyi (1969. Knowing andbeing. Essays by Michael Polanyi. Chicago, IL: University of ChicagoPress), three cases from an investigation in which movementlearning was occurring are presented. The investigation wasconducted during a physical education project week with pupilsfrom an upper secondary school. Data were produced usingobservations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews, andresearch diaries as a group of pupils learned to juggle. The resultssuggest that: the aspects of moving to which learners attendchange as they learn; learners have a relatively limited capacity toverbally articulate what they learn, and; learners’ expectations ofideal ways of moving have considerable impact on how theycome to make sense of their own ways of moving. The practicalimplications of these points are discussed in the final section ofthe paper.

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Department of Sport and Health Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joy, fear and resignation: Investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention fromscholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotionssignificantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy andpleasure are necessary for continued participation in movementactivities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature,however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mentalstates that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we workwith alternative principles that can create new understandings of theaffective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We drawon symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodalcommunicative resources that are performed in social contexts. Fromthis perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigatedas part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical actionand (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We presentobservational material generated with PE teacher education students asthey develop movement capability. We focus on three interactionalepisodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by studentsinteracting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case,we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with themovement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizableidentity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in theinteractional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that assymbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actorswithin movement learning environments. The paper is concluded withreflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners alongwith a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Nemati, Farhang
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Resource Sharing in Real-Time Systems on Multiprocessors2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years multiprocessor architectures have become mainstream, and multi-core processors are found in products ranging from small portable cell phones to large computer servers. In parallel, research on real-time systems has mainly focused on traditional single-core processors. Hence, in order for real-time systems to fully leverage on the extra capacity offered by new multi-core processors, new design techniques, scheduling approaches, and real-time analysis methods have to be developed.

    In the multi-core and multiprocessor domain there are mainly two scheduling approaches, global and partitioned scheduling. Under global scheduling each task can execute on any processor at any time while under partitioned scheduling tasks are statically allocated to processors and migration of tasks among processors is not allowed. Besides simplicity and efficiency of partitioned scheduling protocols, existing scheduling and synchronization techniques developed for single-core processor platforms can more easily be extended to partitioned scheduling. This also simplifies migration of existing systems to multi-cores. An important issue related to partitioned scheduling is the distribution of tasks among the processors, which is a bin-packing problem.

    In this thesis we propose a blocking-aware partitioning heuristic algorithm to distribute tasks onto the processors of a multi-core architecture. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to decrease the blocking overhead of tasks, which reduces the total utilization and has the potential to reduce the number of required processors.

    In industrial embedded software systems, large and complex systems are usually divided into several components (applications) each of which is developed independently without knowledge of each other, and potentially in parallel. However, the applications may share mutually exclusive resources when they co-execute on a multi-core platform which introduce a challenge for the techniques needed to ensure predictability. In this thesis we have proposed a new synchronization protocol for handling mutually exclusive resources shared among real-time applications on a multi-core platform. The schedulability analysis of each application is performed in isolation and parallel and the requirements of each application with respect to the resources it may share are included in an interface. The protocol did not originally consider any priorities among the applications. We have proposed an additional version of the protocol which grants access to resources based on priorities assigned to the applications. We have also proposed an optimal priority assignment algorithm to assign unique priorities to the applications sharing resources. Our evaluations confirm that the protocol together with the priority assignment algorithm outperforms existing alternatives in most cases.

    In the proposed synchronization protocol each application is assumed to be allocated on one dedicated core. However, in this thesis we have further extended the synchronization protocol to be applicable for applications allocated on multiple dedicated cores of a multi-core platform. Furthermore, we have shown how to efficiently calculate the resource hold times of resources for applications. The resource hold time of a resource for an application is the maximum duration of time that the application may lock the resource whenever it requests the resource. Finally, the thesis discusses and proposes directions for future work.

  • Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Partitioned Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks on Multi-core Platforms2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years multiprocessor architectures have become mainstream, and multi-core processors are found in products ranging from small portable cell phones to large computer servers. In parallel, research on real-time systems has mainly focused on traditional single-core processors. Hence, in order for real-time systems to fully leverage on the extra capacity offered by new multi-core processors, new design techniques, scheduling approaches, and real-time analysis methods have to be developed.

    In the multi-core and multiprocessor domain there are mainly two scheduling approaches, global and partitioned scheduling. Under global scheduling each task can execute on any processor at any time while under partitioned scheduling tasks are statically allocated to processors and migration of tasks among processors is not allowed. Besides simplicity and efficiency of partitioned scheduling protocols, existing scheduling and synchronization methods developed for single-core processor platforms can more easily be extended to partitioned scheduling. This also simplifies migration of existing systems to multi-cores. An important issue related to partitioned scheduling is distribution of tasks among processors which is a bin-packing problem.

    In this thesis we propose a partitioning framework for distributing tasks on the processors of multi-core platforms. Depending on the type of performance we desire to achieve, the framework may distribute a task set differently, e.g., in an application in which tasks process huge amounts of data the goal of the framework may be to decrease cache misses.Furthermore, we propose a blocking-aware partitioning heuristic algorithm to distribute tasks onto the processors of a multi-core architecture. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to decrease blocking overhead of tasks which reduces the total utilization and has the potential to reduce the number of required processors.Finally, we have implemented a tool to facilitate evaluation and comparison of different multiprocessor scheduling and synchronization approaches, as well as different partitioning heuristics. We have applied the tool in the evaluation of several partitioning heuristic algorithms, and the tool is flexible to which any new scheduling or synchronization protocol as well as any new partitioning heuristic can easily be added.

  • Goodyear, Victoria A.
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    #Gymlad: young boys learning processes and health-related social media2020In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent systematic reviews identify that the factors mediating and/or moderating the relationship between social media and health outcomes are sparse. There have also been few attempts to analyse gender specific uses of social media. This paper investigated young boys health-related learning in relation to social media. Data were generated from class activities and interviews and from a large data set that included 1346 young people. The approach to the empirical data adopted was Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA). The findings reveal two main purposes of young boys engagement with social media: (i) communicating with friends, and (ii) accessing health-related information. Irony and humour were central learning mechanisms used by young boys to participate within health-related social media, and in a way that enabled them to engage with, uphold, and handle health discourses associated with masculinity – such as being ripped – without fear of ‘literal’ peer ridicule and within a context of acceptable ‘banter’. There was evidence that young people were critical users and generators of social media, who were clearly thinking through what they see, do, and use online. Hence, this paper provides a fresh evidence-based perspective on the potentially positive role of social media as a health-related learning resource. PEA is illustrated as a new methodological approach for investigating learning in the context of social media. The evidence generated can be used to inform future evaluations of social media use, the design of educative support for young people, and guidance and training for key stakeholders.

  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart: Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.

    Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.

    Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.

    Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).

    Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.

  • Petersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Elektroniska marknadsplatser: IT-stöd för små och medelstora leverantörer2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to identify what constitutes a desirable design for electronic marketplaces from the perspective of small and medium-sized suppliers. The specific marketplace category under study is business-oriented marketplaces, which are marketplaces that mediate commercial transactions between organizations (in a so-called business-to-business setting). An important justification for the study is the fact that research has shown a disproportionately small interest in studying the issue from this perspective, despite there being both scientific and practical needs for greater knowledge in this area. That is to say, there are a number of important and unanswered questions regarding marketplace suppliers in general and the situation of small suppliers in specific.

    The overarching research question is: “What kind of electronic marketplace design is preferable in order to support the needs of small suppliers” and this question has been answered through the development, presentation and application of a set of seven design criteria. The research project was comprised of several sub-studies and characterized by a qualitative approach. Practice theory has been used as the central theoretical perspective of the study. The object of study in the primary case was the Scandinavian marketplace Proceedo and the practical work undertaken involved collecting and analyzing data in the form of interviews, documents and system tests.

    The study’s contribution to knowledge is made up of four parts: a set of criteria for electronic marketplace design, a conceptualization of marketplace practices, a categorization of SME supplier needs and finally a suggested set of generic design principles for work practices. The design criteria are presented as seven prescriptive statements that may be used to aid practical marketplace design. The set of criteria therefore also directly answers the overarching research question. For the purposes of observing, analyzing and understanding the phenomenon of electronic marketplaces, this study also presents the two concepts of marketplace practice and sales practice.

    When it came to the resulting categorization of supplier needs, the study found that the primary need was for compliance with customer desires and demands. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed two main areas within electronic marketplace interaction in which SME suppliers have particular needs. The first concerns business information – suppliers need to be able to examine and change their own business information. The second relates to business harmonization – there is a need for marketplace activities to harmonize with the regular business activities of suppliers. The study has also resulted in a contribution on a more theoretical and abstract level. It has produced a presentation of a prescriptive extension of an existing work practice model. The extension is a set of generic design principles that stem from the information systems domain and socio-technical theory.

  • Andersson, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Geographies of Place Branding: Researching through small and medium sized cities2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Place branding is commonly conceptualized with a focus on big cities, such as London, New York and Singapore, building from concepts and models from mainstream branding theory. In contrast to such conceptualizations, this thesis focuses on place branding in small and medium-sized cities. The present thesis aims to study place branding from a geographical perspective. It starts with debates theoretical and empirical understandings of place branding; what it is and how it is affecting the places where it is introduced. The thesis develops and argues for a perspective of territoriality and relationality to place branding discussing concepts, methods and empirical approaches to carry out place branding research using geographical perspectives. Empirically, this thesis focuses on in-depth studies of place branding in small and medium-sized cities in Sweden. By analyzing the development of place branding over the course of time, nuances and aspects of both territorial and relational origin emerge, situating place branding practices within a wider spatial contextualization. Four individual papers are presented, which taken together contribute to the aim of the thesis. Paper 1 introduces the place branding research field in geography and how it has developed; Paper 2 investigates the phenomena of flagship buildings located in small cities and towns; Paper 3 discusses the relationship between policy tourism and place branding; and Paper 4 analyzes how local environmental policies are affected by green place branding. The thesis demonstrates the complex and continuously interchangeable spatial structures and place contexts that create and re-produce the geographies of place branding. Here, research models and methodological examples are presented to illustrate how place branding can be studied from a geographical perspective and thus improve theoretical understandings of place branding.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frid, Emma
    2Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using eye-tracking to study the effect of haptic feedback on visual focus during collaborative object managing in a multimodal virtual interface2017In: Proceedings of the 13th SweCog conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, p. 49-51Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Twizeyimana, Jean Damascene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    E-Government and Value Creation in the Context of a Least Developed Country: A perspective on public value and information infrastructure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is in the field of information systems (IS), more specifically about IS impact. This thesis uses literature review and interpretive case study methods to investigate the phenomenon of value creation through e-government.

    The research was carried out from 2014 to 2019. Data was collected through interviews, participant observations, and document review. The main research question is "How do we create value through e-government in the context of an LDC?” It embodies the sub-questions: what is the value of e-government? And how do we attain such value?

    This thesis comprises four studies.

    The thesis found that value creation of e-government is a process of understanding: the value that e-government creates; the context in which egovernment resides because a process involves a context; and strategic actions to create that value within the context surrounds e-government.

    From the findings, this thesis argues that the value of public affairs including e-government refers to public value. The latter would mean citizens' collective expectations about public policies and services. Also, the findings reveal research needs about the public value of e-government in the LDCs in Sub-Saharan Africa and on methods of measuring and creating the public value of e-government.

    As original contribution, this thesis suggests a framework of six overarching and overlapping areas of e-government for the public value. The anticipation-reality gaps and their inter-relationships are identified, and five inter-related critical success factors are suggested. Also, the information infrastructure (II) framework, particularly, the notion of the cultivation of the installed-base is suggested as a promising avenue in the management of the public value creation in general, and in an LDC in particular.

    List of papers
    1. The public value of E-Government: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The public value of E-Government: A literature review
    2019 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 167-178Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study organizes existing research on the public value of e-government in order to investigate the current state and what value e-government is supposed to yield. The two questions that guided the research were: (1) What is the current state of research on the public value of e-government? And (2) What value is e-government supposed to yield? Six, sometimes overlapping, values were found: Improved public services; improved administrative efficiency; Open Government (OG) capabilities; improved ethical behaviour and professionalism; improved trust and confidence in government; and improved social value and well-being. These six public value dimensions were thereafter generalized into three overarching, and also overlapping, public value dimensions of Improved Public Services, Improved Administration, and Improved Social Value. The improved public services dimension influences other dimensions. Hence, this literature study theorizes a descriptive and multidimensional framework that can improve our understanding of the public value of e-government from different viewpoints, and the overlap between them in actual e-government designs and implementations. Regarding the current state of research on the public value this study found a lack of research on the public value of e-government, especially, in the context of developing countries – and more importantly – a total absence of this kind of research in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). There is also a lack of comparative studies at national, regional, and project level; and a lack of research on the generative perspective.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    E-Government, Public value, IT value, Framework, Literature review
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73688 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2019.01.001 (DOI)000467194300001 ()2-s2.0-85061541488 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    2. The public value of e-Government: anticipations in the IREMBO project in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The public value of e-Government: anticipations in the IREMBO project in Rwanda
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77826 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    3. E-government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections
    2018 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    E‑government is currently high on the agenda in many developing countries (DCs). While e‑government is well‑established in many developed countries it is new to least developed countries. Countries that start implementing e‑government today can benefit from easy import of modern technologies, but adaptation to local conditions and the organizational change that is required cannot be imported, but must be developed at home. By using examples of an ongoing initiative by the Government of Rwanda to digitalize all G2C and G2B into a single window platform, the current study investigated the important challenges in the implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. An interpretive case study was followed. Data was collected through interviews and participatory observations during August to December 2015. Data analysis was inductive, the analysis method was content analysis, and the coding followed open‑coding. NVivo software has been used to handle data and facilitate the analysis. The study found six overarching categories of aspects that challenge a successful implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. They include information infrastructure for e‑government, social inclusion, governance, management, trust in the new system, and languages. However, challenges to e‑government implementation should not be taken as of the same extent, neither their degree of mitigation. Rather, they influence and are influenced by various contextual factors which include political support, nature of the e‑government project, implementation strategies, human and socio‑economic development, existing information infrastructure, and operational capabilities. Having said this, we also argue that countries should learn from one another of their experiences, success stories, and mistakes. Despite a number of associated challenges, the adopted public‑private partnership (PPP) approach to e‑Government implementation in Rwanda might indeed seem as a suitable catalyst for e‑government success in the country.

    2.5.0.0

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2018
    Keywords
    information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70165 (URN)
    Projects
    E-Government Implementation in Rwanda: the value and context
    Note

    2.5.0.0

    Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Towards Realization of the Public Value of e-Government: anticipation-reality gap and critical success factors in the context of Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Realization of the Public Value of e-Government: anticipation-reality gap and critical success factors in the context of Rwanda
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77827 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
  • Ullsten, Alexandra
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Singing, sharing, soothing: Family-centred music therapy during painful procedures in neonatal care2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To sing is to communicate. The soothing, comforting and emotional regulating properties of a lullaby are well-known cross-culturally and historically. This doctoral thesis addresses neonatal pain management from a novel and groundbreaking perspective, studying the efficacy of live music therapy on infants’ pain responses during venepuncture. New research is needed to advance the non-pharmacological interventions in neonatal pain care, and neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) offers active methods to involve the parents in pain management. The doctoral thesis includes two empirical and two theoretical articles. In paper I, preterm and term infants (n=38) were subjected to venepuncture with and without live lullaby singing, in a randomised order with a crossover design. Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live by a music therapy student and standard care was provided for all infants. The results did not show any significant pain-alleviating effects, however, the live singing was not stressful for the infants.

    In paper II, the microanalysis disclosed that live lullaby singing is a communicative reciprocal intervention that also applies to premature infants during painful procedures. Live lullaby singing is a tool suitable as a means to optimise the homeostatic mechanisms. The results from the theoretical papers III and IV are further developed and synthesised in the thesis into a theoretical strategy; The Nordic NICU MT pain management strategy, featuring the parents and their singing voices as mediators for pain relief. The role of the music therapist in neonatal pain management is as a facilitator and an educator for the parents. Coaching parents to better meet their infant’s attachment needs during a painful procedure may lead to more efficacious interventions. The biopsychosocial parental infant-directed singing is presumably an applicable parent-driven non-pharmacological intervention, which promotes pain relief and attachment formation during painful procedures. Neonatal music therapy is still in its infancy in the Nordic countries, but the societal and healthcare contexts afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach. This doctoral thesis will hopefully contribute to the important interdisciplinary endeavour worldwide of involving and integrating parents in neonatal pain management.

    List of papers
    1. Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Music and Medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 73-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This clinical trial tested the pain relieving effect of live lullaby singing on behavioral and physiological pain responses during venepuncture in 38 preterm and full term neonates. Acute and repeated pain, as well as the use of analgesic drugs, may have long-term negative impact on infants’ development and future behaviour. This emphasizes the need for complementary approaches to pain management such as music therapy.

    Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live and standard care was provided for all neonates. Behavioral responses with regard to pain were assessed with Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) and Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP). Heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were measured each tenth second.

    Although the live lullaby singing did not show a statistically significant effect on the infants’ pain score, there was a significantly calmer breathing pattern in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage, showing a non-significant trend towards higher oxygen saturation levels and calmer heart rate in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage. There were non-significant indications of fewer and shorter skin punctures with lullaby singing. More research is needed to explore such positive trends in the data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PKP Publishing Services, 2017
    Keywords
    newborn infant, preterm infant, pain, music therapy, lullaby
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68308 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-07-31 Created: 2018-07-31 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0809-8131, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 142-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During the most vulnerable period in a child’s life, preterm and sick infants are exposed to a high number of painful procedures, sometimes without the comfort and affection of their parents. Since repeated pain and frequent use of analgesic drugs may have consequences for the neurological and behaviour-oriented development of the infant, it is vital to identify effective non-pharmacological interventions with regard to procedural pain. This paper reviews the use of live lullaby singing as an adjuvant to the control of premature infant pain. The objectives of this case study were to analyse the live lullaby singing for two premature infants during venipuncture in comparison to standard care only, and the infants’ physiological and affective responses emerging before, during and after this procedure. The empirical data stem from a quantitative clinical study. From this larger study, two premature infants were selected. Through microanalysis, with in-depth analysis of video footage, and pain assessment with Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP), painful standard care procedures with and without live lullaby singing, were analysed. The results show that live lullaby singing with premature infants is a communicative interaction which may optimize the homeostatic mechanisms of the infant during painful procedures. This case study shows the importance of predictability of the affective support, right from the start of the live singing intervention. It is important in a painful context that vocal interactions provide regular and comforting intensity, shape and temporal structures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    Pain management, premature infants, music therapy, infant directed singing, lullaby
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Health and Medical Care Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49326 (URN)10.1080/08098131.2015.1131187 (DOI)000394440800004 ()2-s2.0-84988566335 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Värmland County Council, Sweden

    Queen Silvia's Jubilee Fund, Sweden

    Karin and Erik Gerdens Foundation, Sweden

    Berit and Carl-Johan Wettergrens Foundation, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-13 Created: 2016-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    2018 (English)In: Music & Science, ISSN 2059-2043, Vol. 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Infant-directed singing is a medium for parents and infants to communicate in a mutual relationship. Parental infant-directed singing is a multisensory, biopsychosocial communication that applies to ill and vulnerable hospitalised infants. The primary musical features of infant-directed singing are ideal for emotional coordination and sharing between parent and infant without the risk of over-stimulation. In this article, we suggest that parental infant-directed singing is regarded as a nonpharmacological emotion regulation intervention, which may modify the painful experience for both the infant and the parent before, during and after painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care context. Parents have the biopsychosocial resources to alleviate their infant’s pain through infant-directed singing, if they are empowered to do so and coached in this process. A music therapist specialised in neonatal music therapy methods can mentor parents in how to use entrained and attuned live lullaby singing in connection to painful procedures. Pain and the vast amount of painful procedures early in infancy, combined with early parent–infant separation and lack of parental participation in the care of the infant during neonatal intensive care, place arduous strain on the new family’s attachment process and on the infant’s and parents’ mental health, both from a short and long-term perspective. Therefore, we argue with biopsychosocial rationales, that live parental infant-directed singing should be promoted in neonatal pain care worldwide. Consequently, parents should be welcomed round the clock and invited as prescribed pain management for their infant.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Keywords
    Affect attunement, biopsychosocial, infant, infant-directed singing, music therapy, pain management, parent, vitality affects
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Health and Medical Care Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67535 (URN)10.1177/2059204318780841 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    2019 (English)In: Music in paediatric hospitals – Nordic perspectives / [ed] Lars Ole Bonde, Kjersti Johansson, Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music , 2019, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the concept of family-centred care, where the family and healthcare staff share responsibility for the infant’s hospital care, has been part of an ongoing paradigm shift in neonatal care globally. The public health care system with family-friendly parental leave policies might be one of the reasons that the Nordic countries today are at the forefront of welcoming and including parents and partners in the care of their infant round the clock. When implementing neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) in the context of Nordic health care, music therapy models of practice as well as research ought to be defined and shaped by the family-centred care model, which today is considered best practice. The Nordic context also offers favourable conditions for further developing NICU MT approaches in line with family-centred care. NICU MT was first developed in the USA in the 1980s and the interventions were infantfocused, emphasising the infant’s physical and medical needs, which was the existing care focus in neonatal care at that time. Neonatal music therapy and research in the Nordic countries is still in its infancy. Systematic implementation work was first initiated in Karlstad, Sweden in 2010 and in Akershus and Oslo, Norway in 2017. 

    This essay provides the international music therapy field as well as other professionals in paediatric and neonatal health care an insight into the evolving Nordic approach of NICU MT. The conclusion of this essay is that the familycentred care approach in the Nordic NICUs, combined with the progressive family politics in the Nordic countries with generous parental leave schemes and gender equality in childcare, afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music, 2019
    Series
    CREMAH Anthology ; 11
    Keywords
    neonatal music therapy, Nordic perspective, family-centred care, infants, pain management
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77701 (URN)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Centre for Clinical Research, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden

    Available from: 2019-11-03 Created: 2019-11-03 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
  • Fan, Han
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Semi-supervised Gas Detection Using an Ensemble of One-class Classifiers2019In: 18th ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), IEEE, 2019, article id 151773Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting chemical compounds using electronic noses is important in many gas sensing related applications. Existing gas detection methods typically use prior knowledge of the target analytes. However, in some scenarios, the analytes to be detected are not fully known in advance, and preparing a dedicated model is not possible. To address this issue, we propose a gas detection approach using an ensemble of one-class classifiers. The proposed approach is initialized by learning a Mahalanobis-based and a Gaussian based model using clean air only. During the sampling process, the presence of chemicals is detected by the initialized system, which allows to learn a one-class nearest neighbourhood model without supervision. From then on the gas detection considers the predictions of the three one-class models. The proposed approach is validated with real-world experiments, in which a mobile robot equipped with an e-nose was remotely controlled to interact with different chemical analytes in an open environment.

  • Zhang, Shiyu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Shuling
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Real-time kinematical optimal trajectory planning for haptic feedback manipulators2019In: Simulation, ISSN 0037-5497, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 621-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To obtain real-time haptic interactions in virtual cockpit systems (VCSs), a real-time trajectory planning method based on kinematical optimization for haptic feedback manipulators (HFMs) is presented in this paper. Firstly, the control panel area is extracted in the workspace of the HFM, in which the interacting point is located. Then a feasible interacting configuration is calculated as the objective configuration of the trajectory encoded by a parametric representation. The trajectory planning problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem based on kinematics, which is solved in real-time by finding a good initial solution with machine learning methods. Simulations show that trajectories with a compromise between safety and rapidity can be calculated in real-time by this method, which provides a basis for haptic interaction in VCSs.

  • Zhang, Shiyu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, HaiDian District, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Shuling
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, HaiDian District, Beijing, China.
    Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Haptic Feedback Manipulators in Virtual Cockpit Systems2018In: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 041015-1-041015-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Zhang, Shiyu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Shuling
    State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Workspace analysis for haptic feedback manipulator in virtual cockpit system2018In: Virtual Reality, ISSN 1359-4338, E-ISSN 1434-9957, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 321-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To obtain natural space experience of haptic interaction for users in virtual cockpit systems (VCS), a haptic feedback system and a workspace analysis framework for haptic feedback manipulator (HFM) are presented in this paper. Firstly, improving the classical three-dimensional workspace obtained by the Monte Carlo method, a novel workspace representation method, oriented workspace, is presented, which can indicate both the position and the orientation of the end-effector. Then, aimed at the characters of HFMs, the oriented workspace is divided into the effective workspace and the prohibited area by extracting the control panel area. At last, the effective workspace volume and the control panel area are calculated by the double-directed extremum method, with the accuracy improved by repeatedly adding and extracting boundary points. By simulation, the area in which interactions between the manipulator and users hand performed is determined and accordingly the effective workspace along with its boundary and volume are obtained in a relative high precision, which lay a basis for haptic interaction in VCS.

  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center of Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Anxiety during magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in relation to scanner design and size2019In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging in closed-bore scanners sometimes provokes anxiety but closed-bore designs have gradually become wider and shorter. Open scanners may be easier to tolerate. The aim was to compare patient anxiety during MRI between bore diameters of 60 cm and 70 cm, and to determine the current level of patient anxiety and experience in open scanners in a clinical setrting.

    Methods: Consecutive patients referred for examination of the spine in 60 cm and 70 cm bores and one open scanner participated. Four established/validated questionnaires, answered before, directly after (N = 155) and one week after (N = 109) the MRI-examination were used, measuring anxiety, fear and depression.

    Results: No difference was found in the patient scores of anxiety between the 60 cm and the 70 cm scanners on the examination day. At follow-up, patients in the 70 cm bore rated their examination experience better (p < 0.025), compared to patients in the 60 cm bore. Patients in the open scanner rated higher levels of anxiety (p < 0.001) before, directly after and one week after the examination, compared to the closed bore scanners.

    Conclusion: Scanners with a 70 cm diameter bore seem more tolerable than those with a 60 cm bore. Patients referred to the open scanner had on average a higher tendency to express anxiety. Still, patient anxiety in MRI is challenging and further research required.

    Implications for practice: Patients prefer to be examined in 70 cm bore scanners compared with 60 cm. If open scanners aren't available extended support may be necessary for the most anxious patients.

  • Fang, Wei
    et al.
    Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China.
    Santosh, Lamichhane
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lipidomes in health and disease: Analytical strategies and considerations2019In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 120, article id 115664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipidomics is a rapidly-growing field which focuses on global characterization of lipids at molecular and systems levels. As small changes in the concentrations of lipids may have important physiological consequences, much attention in the field has recently been paid to more accurate quantitation and identification of lipids. Community-wide efforts have been initiated, aiming to develop best practices for lipidomic analyses and reporting of lipidomic data. Nevertheless, current approaches for comprehensive analysis of lipidomes have some inherent challenges and limitations. Additionally, there is, currently, limited knowledge concerning the impacts of various external and internal exposures on lipid levels. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in lipidomics analysis, with a primary focus on analytical approaches, as well as on the different sources of variation in quantifying lipid levels, both technical and biological.

  • Ahonen, Linda
    et al.
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Jäntti, Sirkku
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suvitaival, Tommi
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Theilade, Simone
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Risz, Claudia
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rossing, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Targeted Clinical Metabolite Profiling Platform for the Stratification of Diabetic Patients2019In: Metabolites, ISSN 2218-1989, E-ISSN 2218-1989, Vol. 9, no 9, article id E184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several small molecule biomarkers have been reported in the literature for prediction and diagnosis of (pre)diabetes, its co-morbidities, and complications. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel, quantitative method for the determination of a selected panel of 34 metabolite biomarkers from human plasma. We selected a panel of metabolites indicative of various clinically-relevant pathogenic stages of diabetes. We combined these candidate biomarkers into a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and optimized it, prioritizing simplicity of sample preparation and time needed for analysis, enabling high-throughput analysis in clinical laboratory settings. We validated the method in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity (R2), and intra- and inter-day repeatability of each metabolite. The method's performance was demonstrated in the analysis of selected samples from a diabetes cohort study. Metabolite levels were associated with clinical measurements and kidney complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Specifically, both amino acids and amino acid-related analytes, as well as specific bile acids, were associated with macro-albuminuria. Additionally, specific bile acids were associated with glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medication, statin medication, and clinical lipid measurements. The developed analytical method is suitable for robust determination of selected plasma metabolites in the diabetes clinic.

  • Hysing, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Responsibilization: The case of road safety governance2019In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are increasingly turning to new modes of governance to induce nonstate actors to voluntarily take responsibility for societal problems. Using the concept of responsibilization as a theoretical lens, this article analyzes changes in road safety governance in Sweden. How, why, and to whom has the responsibility for road safety been attributed in Swedish policymaking, and how have state authorities engaged in processes of responsibilization during its implementation? The results show a shift in attribution of responsibility from individual road users to a broad set of so-called system designers, based on moral, causal, and preventive rationales. Responsibilization both occurs within the state apparatus and is imposed by state authorities on nonstate actors using soft governance measures. Responsibilization provides a fruitful theoretical lens for governance studies by identifying shifts in responsibility (including deresponsibilization), explicating normative/ethical underpinnings of new governance modes, and helping to open the “black box” of the state.

  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Building Institutional Trust Through Service Experiences: Private Versus Public Provision Matter2019In: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare service experiences are known to shape citizens' trust in public institutions and their sup-port of the welfare state. But, there is poor understanding of how this relationship is shaped in systems of mixed provision, that is, welfare states that use public in-house as well as contracted private providers for publically funded services. Drawing on the notion of system trust this article provides a theoretical account of how mixed-provision welfare systems condition the relationship between service experience and trust, affecting the legitimacy of the state. Utilizing a random-ized vignette experiment with participants in a general citizen survey in Sweden, we investigate whether it matters for the formation of institutional trust if the welfare service is provided by a public or third-party private provider. The main result show that the spillover of trust from positive service experiences with the provider to trust in public institutions is higher in cases of public ser-vice provision. Thus, the possibility of using welfare services to build trust in the welfare system seems to be greater when public provision is used.

  • Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Hooiveld, Guido J.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    de Vos, Willem
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre and Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Allogenic Faecal Microbiota Transfer Induces Immune-Related Gene Sets in the Colon Mucosa of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome2019In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe–host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.

  • Larsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Att lära genom improvisation: en didaktisk studie i grundskolans musikundervisning2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the growing field of research on improvisation, it is argued that improvisation should be at the core of music education, and in many curricula improvisation is in fact emphasized. However, in general music education, as well as research, improvisation is still overlooked. There seem to be a discursive gap between ‘everyday’ and artistic perceptions of improvisation and the way it is perceived didactically. Improvisation is also a creative music activity form and as such it cannot have prescribed outcomes. Yet, the current goal- and result driven schooling system focuses on achieving prescribed knowledge requirements. This situation constitutes an educational paradox. Through a systematic literature review, interviews with teachers and a practice-based study, this thesis explores the conditions and the role of improvisation in general music education. The theoretical perspective is based on Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, and his concepts of aesthetic experience and transaction. Results show that improvisation is conceptualised in a continuum between structure and freedom and that teachers’ didactical approaches to improvisation can be oriented towards the process, the subject or Bildung. However, teachers’ perceptions of improvisation as related to jazz and blues sometimes present a hindrance. Combining a practical epistemology analysis with Dewey´s concept of the esthetic event (Dewey´s spelling) provides new insights into the process and content of aesthetic meaning-making. Improvising pupils who have an aesthetic experience can develop expressivity, agency and responsivity (EAR) as well as aspects of embodied, cognitive and ethical knowledge. The transactional perspective and 5 concepts developed here provide new insights in how to understand improvisation in education: as ethically co-creative action, co-learning action, explorative action, a space for imagination and emotional engagement and finally a room for subjectification. This implies a negotiated role for the teacher as co-player. A practical aesthetic analysis (PESA) is suggested which emphasises the specific nature of the aesthetic experience.

    List of papers
    1. Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    2019 (English)In: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-67Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to provide a convenient summary of empirical research on improvisation in general music education and thereby provide guidance to researchers and practitioners, using a systematic, narrative-review approach. By analysing 20 music education research articles, published from 2000–2015 in peer-reviewed journals,we firstly provide an overview of the key features and knowledge of existing research. Secondly we identify how improvisation has been characterized, conceptually before, thirdly, describing the implications of the literature for improvisation in practice. Our article reveals that improvisation tends to be an overlooked activity both in music education contexts and in music education research. Broadly speaking, music education research tends to characterise improvisation within two conceptual frameworks, which have different implications for implementation; ‘structured’, teacher-directed improvisation and ‘free’, child-directed improvisation. We conclude by arguing that music educational research on improvisation is an underdeveloped field and outline a number of questions to be addressed in future research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2019
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52882 (URN)10.1017/S026505171800013X (DOI)000466759900005 ()2-s2.0-85048884464 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-10-10 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78148 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    3. A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    2019 (English)In: Expanding the space for improvisation pedagogy in music: a transdisciplinary approach / [ed] G. G. Johansen, K. Holdhus, C. Larsson & U. MacGlone, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 61-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I argue that specific valuable educational qualities can be developed through free group improvisation in general music education. My claims are operationalised through a set of research questions to investigate students’ actions, and characteristics as well as implications of these actions in improvisation events. John Dewey’s theory of aesthetic experience, and more specifically an experience, is employed as analytical lens in analysis of children’s improvisations. I argue that an experience in improvisation occurs in and through a reciprocal interaction with the environment which means that when children improvise, they change due to their musical experiences but they also in turn change their musical environment. Crucially, I argue that having an experience in free group improvisation can cultivate Expressiveness, Agency and Responsiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2019
    Keywords
    improvisation, general music education, aesthetic experience, an experience
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78149 (URN)9780815392101 (ISBN)9781351199957 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 121-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improvisation in general music education is still a somewhat underdeveloped practice. Moreover, attempts to justify its place in the curriculum have often focused solely on its (measurable) outcomes. In this article, we claim that a deeper understanding of students' meaning-making processes in experiences of improvisation is necessary in order to develop improvisation practice and research. The purpose of this article is to offer a music education perspective on improvisation based on John Dewey's transactional perspective on aesthetic experience and meaning-making. Related to this, we suggest and illustrate a Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA) as a way of analysing meaning-making in music improvisation within general music education. The method of analysis is illustrated by vignettes from video analyses of music lessons in two Swedish schools with pupils aged 9-10 and their free improvisations. The vignettes show how PEA enables analyses of situated meaning-making in the progress of the pupils' improvisation activities. Further, the transactional perspective makes educational values of improvisation visible, such as musical and personal agency, and elucidates cognitive, embodied and ethical aspects of musical meaning-making.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut / Stockholm University College of Music Education, 2018
    National Category
    Social Sciences Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology esp. Musical Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70322 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-25 Created: 2018-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
  • Alsarve, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Förhandlade relationer i kölvattnet efter en mammas sjukskrivning2019In: Samhälle i förhandling: Villkor, processer, konsekvenser: festskrift till Christine Roman / [ed] Jenny Alsarve & Erik Löfmarck, Örebro universitet , 2019, p. 89-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Complexity in the 'Extended' Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an 'extended' business network is investigated. The ‘extended’ view refers to the inclusion of socio-political actors in the firm’s business network. Building on a business network perspective, the thesis’ purpose is to understand how interactions between business, social, and political actors influence the development of smart city solutions. Based on the findings from the four articles included in the thesis, a complexity lens for further understanding of interaction with socio-political actors is presented. It argues that reaching success in the relationship entails finding a balance between economic and social needs.

    Through the analysis of two smart city projects developed in Brazil, this study investigates the influence of socio-political actors on firms’ cooperative and competitive behavior as well as their decisions relating to resource allocation. The findings illustrate that decisions to cooperate or compete are associated with centrality. The firm’s willingness to be a central actor, i.e., a project leader, places traditional buyer-supplier partners in competition. In addition to this, resource allocation is closely linked to customization. In cities demanding a high level of customization of the smart city solution, companies will be encouraged to allocate resources to exploitation, while in cities requiring a low level of customization, exploration will be chosen instead. But knowledge about how to allocate resources is closely linked to the centrality issue, since a central actor may enjoy better access to a large pool of resources and information. Consequently, the final outcome in relational terms can lead to win-lose rather than a win-win situation if rivalry for centrality between business partners intensifies over time.

    The study of such complex interaction contributes to the industrial marketing and business network literature by providing a practical perspective and showing how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantages for companies. In addition, this thesis suggests that managers need to cope with the complexity inherent in such type of relationships, primarily due the fact that interaction with socio-political actors has important competitive implications for firms. Ultimately, the thesis offers a framework for investigating complexity in actors’ interactions and resource heterogeneity that complements our understanding of intraorganizational relationships, opening opportunities for a new perspective and better comprehension of the influence of socio-political actors in firms’ business networks.

  • Mielle, Malcolm
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A comparative analysis of radar and lidar sensing for localization and mapping2019In: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidars and cameras are the sensors most commonly used for Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM). However, they are not effective in certain scenarios, e.g. when fire and smoke are present in the environment. While radars are much less affected by such conditions, radar and lidar have rarely been compared in terms of the achievable SLAM accuracy. We present a principled comparison of the accuracy of a novel radar sensor against that of a Velodyne lidar, for localization and mapping.

    We evaluate the performance of both sensors by calculating the displacement in position and orientation relative to a ground-truth reference positioning system, over three experiments in an indoor lab environment. We use two different SLAM algorithms and found that the mean displacement in position when using the radar sensor was less than 0.037 m, compared to 0.011m for the lidar. We show that while producing slightly less accurate maps than a lidar, the radar can accurately perform SLAM and build a map of the environment, even including details such as corners and small walls.

  • Klézl, Vojtech
    Department of Marketing and Business, Faculty of Economics, VŠB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Factors influencing savings from electronic auctions2014In: Central European Review of Economic Issuer (CEREI), ISSN 1212-3951, Vol. 17, p. 209-216Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ratio of public procurement undertaken through reverse electronic auctions is increasing rapidly. Czech and Slovak municipalities use this tool to save public funds through fostering direct competition between suppliers and to increase transparency. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the savings achieved through e-auctions and the factors influencing these. Five variables are tested to establish whether they influence the savings: num-ber of participants (potential suppliers) in the e-auction, total value of the e-auction, size and country of origin of the municipality, and category of the procured product or service. Several methods are used to test independence. All of these factors except the country of origin influence the savings gained, which is in accordance with the findings of existing research.

  • Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazil2019In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 171-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a business network perspective, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical view for studying service MNEs in ICT (information communication technology) projects centred on the improvement of public services. The four inter-related concepts of cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge are applied in the analysis of two projects. Defining the projects as object-based services, the study manifests how service MNEs manage three types of actors (business, politi-cal and social) having their legitimacy in different systems. The cases illustrate cross-border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join forces in Brazil with local business, social and political actors and cooperate to strengthen their competitive market position. The study concludes that successful cooperation is partially explained by the management’s ability to incorporate business resources into the needs of the socio-political actors. Furthermore, in object-based services, which are not similar to long-term business relationships, the three involved par-ties advance different types of relationships within a loose network structure. A key implication is that extensive public–private relationships are needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

  • Moll, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haptic communicative functions and their effects on communication in collaborative multimodal virtual environments2017In: Proceedings 13th SweCog Conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, p. 63-64Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Frid, Emma
    et al.
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bresin, Roberto
    Sound and Music Computing, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moll, Jonas
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta
    Interaction Design, CSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sonification of haptic interaction in a virtual scene2014In: SMC Sweden 2014 Sound and Music Computing: Bridging science, art, and industry / [ed] Roberto Bresin, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2014, p. 14-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a brief overview of work-in-progress for a study on correlations between visual and haptic spatial attention in a multimodal single-user application comparing different modalities. The aim is to gain insight into how auditory and haptic versus visual representations of temporal events may affect task performance and spatial attention. For this purpose, a 3D application involving one haptic model and two different sound models for interactive sonification are developed.

  • Kiss, Tamás
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predictability in Equity Markets: Estimation and Inference2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three chapters dealing with predictability in equity markets. The first chapter analyses predictive regressions in a predictive system framework, where the predictor is an imperfect proxy for the expected returns. I show that when there are differences between the dynamic structure of the expected return and the predictor, the predictive regression uses predictive information inefficiently. As a solution, I propose a persistence adjustment for the predictive regression. The resulting estimator is a two-stage method, where the expected return and predictor processes are modelled separately, allowing for each to have distinct dynamic properties. Simulations, as well as empirical results, show that the method leads to both better in-sample fit and real-time forecasting performance. In the second chapter we show that the dividend-growth based test of return predictability, proposed by Cochrane [2008, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1533-1575], is similar to a likelihood-based test of the standard return-predictability model, treating the autoregressive parameter of the dividend-price ratio as known. In comparison to standard OLS-based inference, both tests achieve power gains from a strong use of the exact value postulated for the autoregressive parameter. When compared to the likelihood-based test, there are no power advantages for the dividend-growth based test. In common implementations, with the autoregressive parameter set equal to the corresponding OLS estimate, Cochrane's test also suffers from severe size distortions. The third chapter provides an explanation for why predictive regressions may have lost power in recent samples. In a noisy predictor framework, where expected returns are stationary and a non-stationary component masks the information in the regressor, I show that the predictive power of the regression vanishes as the sample size increases. To address vanishing predictability, I propose an estimation method, subsample fixed effects. It involves estimating the predictive relationship locally in subsamples and then pooling the estimates via a fixed effects estimator. Empirically, important predictors of the stock returns exhibit vanishing predictability but applying subsample fixed effects indicates that the underlying predictive relationship between these predictors and returns remains significant.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Industrial policy: Political considerations, payoffs, and peculiar incentives2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent papers. They deal with some aspects of industrial policy, namely public supports to firms that are intended to support innovation and growth at the firm level, using Swedish data. Two papers study the efficiency of current Swedish policies by estimating the effects of subsidies and public loans to firms, respectively.

    The results on subsidized firms suggests that there are some positive effects on profits and productivity, but these diminish and disappear over time. The results of public loans are more positive with long lasting effects on productivity and sales but only for smaller firms. Public loans do not lead to an increase in the number of employees in the firms that receive them.

    The third paper studies the selection of firms for subsidies and the incentives firms have to seek them. By modeling the decision to seek subsidies as a trade off between producing in the market and seeking grants, the results suggest that firms with low market productivity might self-select into seeking grants. The empirical results are in line with the theoretical predictions.

    The final paper studies the incentives that politicians have to implement programs and policies that they know will be inefficient. Since a lack of political action can make the politicians look incompetent, incumbentens have incentives to implement policies even though they know that these will be ineffective, to signal competence towards the voters.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping International Business School; The Ratio Institute.
    Statens roll för företagsstöd och då särskilt innovationsstöd2015In: Tillväxt genom stöd: En bok om statligt stöd tillnäringslivet / [ed] Gustavsson Tingvall, P., Östersund: Tillväxtanalys , 2015, p. 13-21Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet diskuter argument för och emot statlig intervention och selektiva stödåtgärder. Under vilka förutsättningar är det motiverat att stötta företag och FoI-verksamhet, och vilka utmaningar möter en sådan politik? Argument för statligt stöd är att staten kan lösa marknadsproblem. Exempelvis kan staten behöva stötta innovativa företag som annars har svårt att få finansiering. Det är ofta svårt för banker och andra finansiärer att bedöma dessa företags lönsamhet, vilket gör dem mindre benägna att låna ut pengar. Riskkapitalbolag kan ta större risker, men stödjer sällan nya företag eftersom det blir för dyrt att utvärdera om de är värda att satsa på. Ett annat argument är att ny kunskap har positiva effekter på andra än de företag som får stöd. Därför bör staten stötta innovativa företag och projekt som ännu inte är lönsamma nog för marknaden. Dessutom kan staten ta en aktiv roll för att samordna och effektivisera innovationssystemet och samverkan mellan stat, näringsliv, akademi och finansiärer. Argument emot statligt stöd är att företag ägnar sig åt att söka stöd i stället för åt produktivt arbete. Stödet kan också gå till företag som är bra på att söka stöd och ägnar sig åt ”rätt” saker, snarare än de företag som bäst behöver det. Ett annat motargument är att det kan vara svårt att motivera varför staten skulle vara bättre på att hitta lönsamma företag än marknaden. Statliga selektiva stöd kan också leda till att ett mindre produktivt företag konkurrerar ut ett som är mer produktivt. Andra utmaningar som stödpolitiken har att brottas med är bland annat att det kan vara dyrt att administrera stöden, att stöden inte generar nya investeringar utan bara ses som en alternativ finansiering till en åtgärd som skulle gjorts i alla fall och att de kan hindra nödvändig strukturomvandling. Men statligt stöd kan också handla om att stötta företag i utsatta regioner och sektorer. Här handlar det om medmänsklighet och valfrihet för medborgarna. Vi menar dock att även om stöden är av denna karaktär bör de användas så effektivt som möjligt.

  • Gustafsson, Anders
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige; Ratio, stockholm, Sverige.
    Den borgerliga kulturen skapade den industriella revolutionen2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 83-85Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó.
    CKS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping Business School, Jönköping, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    IAS, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Municipally Owned Enterprises as Danger Zones for Corruption?: How Politicians Having Feet in Two Camps May Undermine Conditions for Accountabilit2019In: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 320-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market-inspired reforms of New Public Management have been particularly pronounced in Swedish local government. Notably, municipally owned enterprises (MOEs) have rapidly grown in numbers. Principal-agent theory gives rise to the hypothesis that the massive introduction of MOEs has impacted negatively on the conditions for accountability in Swedish local government. To study this, social network analysis was employed in mapping networks for 223 MOEs in 11 strategically chosen municipalities, covering a total of 732 politicians. The analysis reveals substantial overlaps between principals (representatives of the ultimate stakeholders, citizens) and agents (the boards of the MOEs). Hence, corporatization of public services seems to imply worrisome entanglements between the politicians who are set to steer, govern, and oversee MOEs on the one hand, and the board members of MOEs on the other. The increasing numbers of MOEs may therefore have adverse effects on accountability in important and growing parts of Swedish local government.

  • Grylin, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Passivitetsrätten vid skattetillägg2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a taxpayer fails to fulfill the obligation in Chapter 30 Section 1 and Chapter 31 Section 3 of the Swedish Tax Procedure Act, skatteförfarandelagen (2011:1244), the STPA, to submit information about his or her taxable income, he or she becomes liable to pay a tax surcharge. Decisions about tax surcharges can be made in both administrative and criminal proceedings. In fact, decisions on tax surcharges may be made due to a taxpayer’s passiveness during a criminal tax procedure, regardless of the intent. However, the European Court on Human Rights has established that a person’s silence is not, in itself, sufficient proof for a conviction. This causes a tension between the obligation to submit information about taxable income and the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination in the Swedish tax surcharge procedure.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the Swedish system of tax surcharge and the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination according to the ECHR, the EU Charter, Article 3 Section 1 (e) of Directive 2012/13/EU and Article 7 of Directive 2016/343/EU. The method used to analyze these problems and discuss solutions combines a legal dogmatic method with an autonomous interpretation of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination. The analysis shows that problems occur after the point where a taxpayer has been charged with a criminal offence according to the autonomous meaning of the concept. This point in time corresponds to the point in time when action is taken by the Swedish Tax Agency that has a substantial impact on the taxpayer. The analysis also shows that if a tax surcharge is levied only because of a taxpayer’s silence, after that point, there has been a violation of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination according to the autonomous meaning.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that there is a need for an amendment to the STPA, which reinforces the autonomous meaning of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination in the Swedish tax surcharge procedure. This includes new rules in the STPA, which define 1) a duty for the Swedish Tax Agency to inform taxpayers about the right to silence and the right against selfincrimination, 2) the scope of the taxpayer’s obligation to submit information about taxable income in relation to the right to silence and the right against selfincrimination and 3) rules on exemption from tax surcharge when it violates the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination.

  • Spinelli, L.
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Botwicz, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Zolek, N.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kacprzak, M.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Milej, D.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sawosz, P.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Liebert, A.
    IBIB, Nalecz Instutute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Weigel, U.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Durduran, T.
    ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, Castelldefels, Spain.
    Foschum, F.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Kienle, A.
    ILM, Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universität Ulm, Germany.
    Baribeau, F.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Leclair, S.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Bouchard, J. -P
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Noiseux, I.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Gallant, P.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Mermut, O.
    INO, National Optics Institute, Québec, Canada.
    Farina, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy.
    Pifferi, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Torricelli, A.
    POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Cubeddu, R.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche–Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Milano, Italy; POLIMI, Politecnico di Milano–Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.
    Ho, H. -C
    ITRI, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan; PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Mazurenka, M.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Wabnitz, H.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Klauenberg, K.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, C.
    PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany.
    Bénazech-Lavoué, M.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.
    TomOptUS, Département de génieélectrique, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Lesage, F.
    Département de génieélectrique, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Khoptyar, D.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Subash, A. A.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson-Engels, S.
    ULUND, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Di Ninni, P.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Martelli, F.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Zaccanti, G.
    UNIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink2014In: Biomedical Optics Express, ISSN 2156-7085, E-ISSN 2156-7085, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 2037-2053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-center study has been set up to accurately characterize the optical properties of diffusive liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Nine research laboratories from six countries adopting different measurement techniques, instrumental set-ups, and data analysis methods determined at their best the optical properties and relative uncertainties of diffusive dilutions prepared with common samples of the two compounds. By exploiting a suitable statistical model, comprehensive reference values at three NIR wavelengths for the intrinsic absorption coefficient of India ink and the intrinsic reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid-20% were determined with an uncertainty of about 2% or better, depending on the wavelength considered, and 1%, respectively. Even if in this study we focused on particular batches of India ink and Intralipid, the reference values determined here represent a solid and useful starting point for preparing diffusive liquid phantoms with accurately defined optical properties. Furthermore, due to the ready availability, low cost, long-term stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of these compounds, they provide a unique fundamental tool for the calibration and performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopy instrumentation intended to be used in laboratory or clinical environment. Finally, the collaborative work presented here demonstrates that the accuracy level attained in this work for optical properties of diffusive phantoms is reliable.

  • Fan, Isaac
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Jens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Kilian, Wolfgang
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Burghoff, Martin
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Stollfuss, Detlef
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Schnabel, Allard
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Wübbeler, Gerd
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)Berlin, Germany.
    Bodnar, Olha
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Seifert, Frank
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Trahms, Lutz
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany.
    Direct measurement of the γHe / γXe ratio at ultralow magnetic field2016In: 8TH SYMPOSIUM ON FREQUENCY STANDARDS AND METROLOGY 2015 / [ed] Riehle, F., IOP Publishing Ltd , 2016, Vol. 723, p. 1-7, article id 012045Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A co-located 3He and 129Xe nuclear spin free precession measurement at sub-μT magnetic field was carried out in a magnetically shielded environment. The uncorrected quotient of the gyromagnetic ratios between neutral 3He and 129Xe atoms is determined to be 2.754 082 81(07), accounting for only statistical error. Our measurement shows that this ratio has a stability of 1.4×10-5/ √τ, demonstrating the ability to reach the current precision limit of the quotient in a 10000 s of averaging time τ. This precision is enough for the next-generation EDM search in neutral 129Xe atoms based on a similar comagnetometer scheme.

  • Bodnar, Olha
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Gremany.
    Link, Alfred
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany.
    Objective Bayesian Inference for a Generalized Marginal Random Effects Model2016In: Bayesian Analysis, ISSN 1936-0975, E-ISSN 1931-6690, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective Bayesian inference is proposed for the generalized marginal random effects model p(x|μ, σλ) = f((x − μ1) T (V + σ2 λI) −1 (x − μ1))/ det(V + σ2 λI). The matrix V is assumed to be known, and the goal is to infer μ given the observations x = (x1,...,xn) T , while σλ is a nuisance parameter. In metrology this model has been applied for the adjustment of inconsistent data x1,...,xn, where the matrix V contains the uncertainties quoted for x1,...,xn. √ We show that the reference prior for grouping {μ, σλ} is given by π(μ, σλ) ∝ F22, where F22 denotes the lower right element of the Fisher information matrix F. We give an explicit expression for the reference prior, and we also prove propriety of the resulting posterior as well as the existence of mean and variance of the marginal posterior for μ. Under the additional assumption of normality, we relate the resulting reference analysis to that known for the conventional balanced random effects model in the asymptotic case when the number of repeated within-class observations for that model tends to infinity. We investigate the frequentist properties of the proposed inference for the generalized marginal random effects model through simulations, and we also study its robustness when the underlying distributional assumptions are violated. Finally, we apply the model to the adjustment of current measurements of the Planck constant.