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  • Karni, Liran
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    EMPARK: Internet of Things for Empowerment and Improved Treatment of Patients with Parkinson's Disease2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of patient-directed feedback from remote symptom, medication, and disease activity monitoring on patient empowerment and treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Background: There is a need to empower patients with PD to be able to understand better and control their disease using prescribed medication and following recommendations on lifestyle. The research project EMPARK will develop an Internet of Things system of sensors, mobile devices to deliver real-time, 24/7 patient symptom information with the primary goal to support PD patients empowerment and better understanding of their disease. The system will be deployed in patient homes to continuously measure movements, time-in-bed and drug delivery from a micro-dose levodopa system. Subjective symptom scoring, time of meals and physical activities will be reported by the patients via a smartphone application. Interfaces for patients and clinicians are being developed based on the user center design methodology to ensure maximal user acceptance. 

    Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial where 30 PD patients from 2 university clinics in Sweden will be randomized to receive (intervention group) or not (control group) continuous feedback from the results of the EMPARK home monitoring for 2 weeks. Disease-specific (UPDRS, PDQ-39), Quality of Life (QoL) (modified EuroQoL EQ-5D) and empowerment questionnaires will be collected prior and after the intervention. The correlation of technology-based objective and patient-reported subjective parameters will be assessed in both groups. Interviews will be conducted with the clinicians and observations will be made about the patient-clinician interaction to assess the potential treatment benefits of the intervention.

    Results: Preliminary results from workshops with patients and clinicians show potential to improve patient empowerment and disease control among patients. Completion of the trial will show the degree of patient empowerment, individualized treatment, and patientclinician interactions.

    Conclusions: Raising patients’ awareness about disease activity and home medication is possible among PD patients by providing them with feedback from the results of a home monitoring system. This randomized, controlled trial aims to provide evidence that this approach leads to improved patient empowerment and treatment results.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Filip, Bergquist
    Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenbrug, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of measuring Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms with a multi-sensor data fusion method. More specifically, the aim is to assess validity, reliability and sensitivity to treatment of the methods.

    Background: Data from 19 advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were collected in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed leg agility and 2-5 meter straight walking tests while wearing motion sensors on their limbs. They performed the tests at baseline, at the time they received the morning dose, and at pre-specified time points until the medication wore off. While performing the tests the patients were video recorded. The videos were observed by three movement disorder specialists who rated the symptoms using a treatment response scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). The sensor data consisted of lower limb data during leg agility, upper limb data during walking, and lower limb data during walking. Time series analysis was performed on the raw sensor data extracted from 17 patients to derive a set of quantitative measures, which were then used during machine learning to be mapped to mean ratings of the three raters on the TRS scale. Combinations of data were tested during the machine learning procedure.

    Results: Using data from both tests, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) could predict the motor states of the patients on the TRS scale with a good agreement in relation to the mean ratings of the three raters (correlation coefficient = 0.92, root mean square error = 0.42, p<0.001). Additionally, there was good test-retest reliability of the SVM scores during baseline and second tests with intraclass-correlation coefficient of 0.84. Sensitivity to treatment for SVM was good (Figure 1), indicating its ability to detect changes in motor symptoms. The upper limb data during walking was more informative than lower limb data during walking since SVMs had higher correlation coefficient to mean ratings.  

    Conclusions: The methodology demonstrates good validity, reliability, and sensitivity to treatment. This indicates that it could be useful for individualized optimization of treatments among PD patients, leading to an improvement in health-related quality of life.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Borlänge, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors

    Objective: To develop and evaluate machine learning methods for assessment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using leg agility (LA) data collected with motion sensors during a single dose experiment.

    Background: Nineteen advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were recruited in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed up to 15 LA tasks while wearing motions sensors on their foot ankle. They performed tests at pre-defined time points starting from baseline, at the time they received a morning dose (150% of their levodopa equivalent morning dose), and at follow-up time points until the medication wore off. The patients were video recorded while performing the motor tasks. and three movement disorder experts rated the observed motor symptoms using 4 items from the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section including UPDRS #26 (leg agility), UPDRS #27 (Arising from chair), UPDRS #29 (Gait), UPDRS #31 (Body Bradykinesia and Hypokinesia), and dyskinesia scale. In addition, they rated the overall mobility of the patients using Treatment Response Scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). Sensors data were processed and their quantitative measures were used to develop machine learning methods, which mapped them to the mean ratings of the three raters. The quality of measurements of the machine learning methods was assessed by convergence validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to treatment.

    Results: Results from the 10-fold cross validation showed good convergent validity of the machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) with correlation coefficients of 0.81 for TRS, 0.78 for UPDRS #26, 0.69 for UPDRS #27, 0.78 for UPDRS #29, 0.83 for UPDRS #31, and 0.67 for dyskinesia scale (P<0.001). There were good correlations between scores produced by the methods during the first (baseline) and second tests with coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.96, indicating good test-retest reliability. The machine learning methods had lower sensitivity than mean clinical ratings (Figure. 1).

    Conclusions: The presented methodology was able to assess motor symptoms in PD well, comparable to movement disorder experts. The leg agility test did not reflect treatment related changes.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Göran
    Science and Technology Studies in the Department of Sociology and Work Science at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Environmental Expertise as Group Belonging: Environmental Sociology Meets Science and Technology Studies2018In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 309-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is environmental expertise? The background to this question is that many scholars consider environmental expertise crucial for discovering, diagnosing, and solving environmental problems but do not discuss in any depth what constitutes expertise. By investigating the meaning and use of the concept of expertise in three general theories within environmental sociology—the treadmill of production, risk society, and ecological modernization—and findings from science and technology studies (STS), this article develops a sociological understanding of environmental expertise: what it is and how it is acquired. Environmental expertise is namely about group belonging and professional socialization around specialized skills; that is, it concerns both substantial competence and social recognition. The implications of this general view on expertise are then used to enrich theories in environmental sociology.

  • Hege, Inga
    et al.
    Institute for Medical Education, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.
    Kononowicz, Andrzej A.
    Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; Department of Learning, Informatics Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolks, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Education, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Department of Learning, Informatics Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kuehlmeyer, Katja
    Institute for Ethics, History and Theory of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.
    A qualitative analysis of virtual patient descriptions in healthcare education based on a systematic literature review2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, article id 146Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual Patients (VPs) have been in the focus of research in healthcare education for many years. The aim of our study was to analyze how virtual patients are described in the healthcare education literature, and how the identified concepts relate to each other.

    Methods: We performed a literature review and extracted 185 descriptions of virtual patients from the articles. In a qualitative content analysis approach we inductively-deductively developed categories and deducted subcategories. We constructed a concept map to illustrate these concepts and their interrelations.

    Results: We developed the following five main categories: Patient, Teacher, Virtual Patient, Curriculum, and Learner. The concept map includes these categories and highlights aspects such as the under-valued role of patients in shaping their virtual representation and opposing concepts, such as standardization of learner activity versus learner-centeredness.

    Conclusions: The presented concept map synthesizes VP descriptions and serves as a basis for both, VP use and discussions of research topics related to virtual patients.

  • Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Debriefing practices in interprofessional simulation with students: A sociomaterial perspective2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The debriefing phase is an important feature of simulation activities for learning. This study applies a sociomaterial perspective on debriefing in interprofessional simulation with medical and nursing students. Sociomaterial perspectives are increasingly being used in order to understand professional practice and learning in new ways, conceptualising professional practice as being embodied, relational and situated in sociomaterial relations. The aim of the study is to explore how debriefing is carried out as a practice supporting students’ interprofessional learning.

    Methods: Eighteen debriefing sessions following interprofessional full-scale manikin-based simulation with nursing and medical students from two different universities were video-recorded and analysed collaboratively by a team of researchers, applying a structured scheme for constant comparative analysis.

    Results: The findings show how debriefing is intertwined with, and shaped by social and material relationships. Two patterns of enacting debriefing emerged. Debriefing as algorithm was enacted as a protocol-based, closed inquiry approach. Debriefing as laissez-faire was enacted as a loosely structured collegial conversation with an open inquiry approach.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that neither an imposed structure of the debriefing, nor the lack of structure assured interprofessional collaboration to emerge as a salient topic for reflection, even though that was an explicit learning objective for the simulation. 

  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, unit of Medical Education, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Students’ self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students’ self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities.

    Method: A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students’ study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity.

    Results: Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p < 0.001), but was not true in all settings. The association was higher in the two strongly regulated settings. The external regulation strategy did generally associate weakly with perceived benefit (rho 0.17, p < 0.05) with large variations between settings.

    Conclusions:  The flexible student-autonomous appeal of virtual patients should not lead to the dismissal of guidance and related course activities. External teacher and peer regulation seem to be productive for increasing learners’ perceived benefit. Awareness of the interplay among teacher regulation (external) and various study strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  • Kononowicz, Andrzej A.
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.
    Woodham, Luke
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St George’s, University of London, London, UK.
    Georg, Carina
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stathakarou, Natalia
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Davies, David
    Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK.
    Masiello, Italo
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saxena, Nakul
    Health Services and Outcomes Research (HSOR), National Healthcare Group, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tudor Car, Lorainne
    Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Car, Josip
    Health Services and Outcomes Research Programme, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore; Global eHealth Unit, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zary, Nabil
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences, Casablanca, Morocco; Medical Education Research and Scholarship Unit, Lee Kong Chian Sch ool of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Virtual patient simulations for health professional education2016In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISSN 1469-493X, E-ISSN 1469-493X, no 5, article id CD012194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual patient simulation as an educational intervention versus traditional learning, other types of e-Learning interventions and other forms of virtual patient simulation interventions for delivering pre-registration and post-registration healthcare professional education. We will primarily assess the impact of these interventions on learners knowledge, skills and attitudes. Our secondary objective is to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

  • Escher, Cecilia
    et al.
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rystedt, Hans
    Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Creutzfeldt, Johan
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meurling, Lisbet
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Department of Behavior Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    6Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordahl Amorøe, Torben
    Simulator Centre West, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Method matters: impact of in-scenario instruction on simulation-based teamwork training2017In: Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, ISSN 2364-3277, E-ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The rationale for introducing full-scale patient simulators in training to improve patient safety is to recreate clinical situations in a realistic setting. Although high-fidelity simulators mimic a wide range of human features, simulators differ from the body of a sick patient. The gap between the simulator and the human body implies a need for facilitators to provide information to help participants understand scenarios. The authors aimed at describing different methods that facilitators in our dataset used to provide such extra scenario information and how the different methods to convey information affected how scenarios played out.

    Methods:  A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to examine the variation of methods to deliver extra scenario information to participants. A multistage approach was employed. The authors selected film clips from a shared database of 31 scenarios from three participating simulation centers. A multidisciplinary research team performed a collaborative analysis of representative film clips focusing on the interplay between participants, facilitators, and the physical environment. After that, the entire material was revisited to further examine and elaborate the initial findings.

    Results: The material displayed four distinct methods for facilitators to convey information to participants in simulation-based teamwork training. The choice of method had impact on the participating teams regarding flow of work, pace, and team communication. Facilitators’ close access to the teams’ activities when present in the simulation suite, either embodied or disembodied in the simulation, facilitated the timing for providing information, which was critical for maintaining the flow of activities in the scenario. The mediation of information by a loudspeaker or an earpiece from the adjacent operator room could be disturbing for team communication.

    Conclusions:  In-scenario instruction is an essential component of simulation-based teamwork training that has been largely overlooked in previous research. The ways in which facilitators convey information about the simulated patient have the potential to shape the simulation activities and thereby serve different learning goals. Although immediate timing to maintain an adequate pace is necessary for professionals to engage in training of medical emergencies, novices may gain from a slower tempo to train complex clinical team tasks systematically.

  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin, Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Karlsson, Katarina
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Linköpings universitet, Linköping,.
    Meyer, Frida
    Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Tamás, Éva
    Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin, Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Utvärdering av IPL-simulering på Clinicum: Simuleringsdag ”Akuta situationer” för sistaårsstudenter från sjuksköterske- och läkarprogrammen HT 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gemensam simuleringsdag för sjuksköterske- och läkarstudenter har utvärderats och diskuteras här i relation till interprofessionellt lärande och simuleringsbaserat lärande.

    IPL-simuleringen kännetecknas av ett starkt studentengagemang och upplevs som mycket relevant och kliniskt autentisk. Den simuleringsbaserade satsningen är alltså fortsatt aktuell och har utvecklats till en hög nivå med relevans för lärande och klinisk förberedelse. Innehållet rör såväl kliniska som team­relaterade kunskaper och kompetenser. Simulering som undervisningsform uppskattas högt och simulerings­instruktörens bidrag till lärandet lyfts fram. Ambitionsnivån kan ytterligare höjas på några punkter. Kurskamraternas bidrag i lärandet kan ytterligare stärkas, likaså omvårdnads­innehållet i scenarierna.

    IPL-mål adresseras i aktiviteten, i synnerhet ökar teamsamverkan progressivt under dagen. Det inter­professionella lärandet kan stärkas ännu mer  genom att linjera tydligare med övriga IPL-moment samt knyta an till de uttalade IPL-curriculum-målen.

  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Edstrom, Desiree Wiegleb
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Dermatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characteristics of two questionnaires used to assess interprofessional learning: psychometrics and expert panel evaluations2018In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 18, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interprofessional learning activities are included in many curricula but are difficult to assess. For languages that are not widely spoken such as Swedish, few validated questionnaires exist that relate to interprofessional outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to examine two such questionnaires in relation to interprofessional competence domains.

    Methods: Psychometric characteristics, such as homogeneity of items and internal consistency, were assessed for the Swedish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) and the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The questionnaires were distributed directly following IPL activities. Mokken scale analysis based on Loevingers coefficient for homogeneity and Cronbachs alpha were used to evaluate the scales. Two expert panels performed a qualitative analysis of items in relation to four internationally defined interprofessional competences.

    Results: In total, 88 and 84 responded to the JSAPNC and RIPLS questionnaires, respectively. Estimates of homogeneity were low for both the JSAPNC (H = 0.16) and the RIPLS (H = 0.21). Reliabilities were weak (0.62 and 0.66, respectively) for the total scales. The expert panels categorised 68% of items into similar competence domains. However, their discussion revealed ambiguous wordings and imbalances in the two questionnaires in relation to domains.

    Conclusion: Interprofessional competence domains are defined but few validated tools exist to assess them. Examined tools relating to interprofessional learning in Swedish do not qualify for assessing overarching IPL outcomes, and summed scores from these tools should be used with caution.

  • Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio.
    Behovet av en ny handelspolitik2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio.
    Den trumpska hästen2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Persson, Josefin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Indoor air quality and chemical emissions of organic compounds in newly built low-energy preschools2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the European Union (EU) introduced the “Energy performance of Buildings” directive, which stipulates that all new buildings must reduce their energy consumption by constructing low-energy buildings. This could be achieved by constructing airtight and energy efficient envelopes with functional building materials such as age-resistant plastic films, insulation and different sealing products. However, functional building materials are known to contain a large amount of man-made chemicals that could be released to the indoor environment and might cause health issues among the occupants. In view of this, the indoor air quality (IAQ) and contamination of selected organic compounds were investigated in newly built low-energy preschools in order to evaluate whether the new building concept, low-energy housing, can have a negative effect to the indoor environment and the occupants. The IAQ was satisfactory in all preschools and the indoor air chemical mixture was heavily influenced by the mechanical heat recovery ventilation system. Furthermore, the levels of formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were lower in the environmental certified low-energy preschools compared to those preschools without environmental certification. Thus, a conscious choice of building materials, interior decoration and chemical products can reduce the occurrence and levels of hazardous organic compounds. Emission tests showed that collected building materials only contributed to a small fraction of the measured indoor chemical levels. Furthermore, preliminary exposure risk estimation of the indoor chemical mixture showed potential health risk from some individual compounds to the occupants, but further investigations are needed for a more complete risk assessment. In conclusion, the comprehensive and unique study design presented in this thesis will contribute to the ongoing work towards a non-toxic environment, further development of the low-energy building concept and the legislative movement on limit values for chemical emissions from building materials.

    List of papers
    1. Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?
    2018 (English)In: Indoor and Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    The use of an airtight frame in low-energy buildings could increase the risk of health-related problems, such as allergies and sick building syndromes (SBS), associated with chemical emissions from building materials, especially if the ventilation system is not functioning properly. In this study, the indoor air quality (IAQ) was investigated in newly built low-energy and conventional preschools by monitoring the indoor air temperature, relative humidity, particle-size distribution and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The thermal comfort was satisfactory in all preschools, with average indoor air temperature and a relative humidity at 21.4C and 36%, respectively. The highest levels of TVOC (range: 130–1650 mg/m3 toluene equivalents) and formaldehyde (range: 1.9–28.8 mg/m3) occurred during the first sampling period associated with strong emissions from building materials. However, those preschools constructed with environmental friendly building materials (such as Swan Eco-label) had lower initial TVOC levels compared to those preschools constructed with conventional building materials. The IAQ and indoor chemical emissions were also strongly dependent on the functioning of the ventilation system. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that exposure to acrolein and crotonaldehyde might lead to respiratory-tract irritation among occupants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Keywords
    Indoor air quality, Low-energy preschool, Ventilation, Indoor air pollutants, Temporal trends, Maximum cumulative ratio, Volatile organic compounds
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70261 (URN)10.1177/1420326X18792600 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal trends of decabromodiphenyl ether and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust, air and window surfaces of newly built low-energy preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of decabromodiphenyl ether and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust, air and window surfaces of newly built low-energy preschools
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70262 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools
    2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of extremely airtight and energy efficient low-energy buildings is achieved by using functional building materials, such as age-resistant plastics, insulation, adhesives, and sealants. Additives such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) can be added to some of these building materials as flame retardants and plasticizers. Some OPFRs are considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Therefore, in this pilot study, the occurrence and distribution of nine OPFRs were determined for dust, air, and window wipe samples collected in newly built low-energy preschools with and without environmental certifications. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were detected in all indoor dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.014 to 10 μg/g and 0.0069 to 79 μg/g, respectively. Only six OPFRs (predominantly chlorinated OPFRs) were detected in the indoor air. All nine OPFRs were found on the window surfaces and the highest concentrations, which occurred in the reference preschool, were measured for 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) (maximum concentration: 1500 ng/m2). Interestingly, the OPFR levels in the environmental certified low-energy preschools were lower than those in the reference preschool and the non-certified low-energy preschool, probably attributed to the usage of environmental friendly and low-emitting building materials, interior decorations, and consumer products.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Organophosphate flame retardant, Plasticizer, Low-energy preschool, Environmental certified building, Indoor dust, Surface wipe
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65565 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.053 (DOI)000432462000018 ()29432927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041523162 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Healthy Building Forum (HBF)

    Örebro University

    Department of Occupational and Environ-mental Medicine at Örebro University Hospital

    Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Chemical emissions from building materials used in low-energy constructions and their presence in the indoor air
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical emissions from building materials used in low-energy constructions and their presence in the indoor air
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70263 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • Singleton, Benedict
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Science, red in tooth and claw: Whaling, purity, pollution and institutions in marine mammal scientists' boundary work2018In: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, ISSN 2514-8486, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 165-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lethal research methods on cetaceans has a long and complicated history in cetology (the scientific study of whales, dolphins and porpoises). In the current era, collecting data through the hunting of whales (sometimes referred to as scientific whaling) remains a source of considerable conflict in various fora, including scientific ones. Based on interviews and documents, this article explores how marine mammal scientists articulate the validity of particular practices and research at both the International Whaling Commission and in professional scientific societies. Drawing on cultural theory, the article explores scientists’ boundary work, describing the purity and pollution of particular whaling practices in different institutional contexts. Respondents on either side of the debate argued for the pure or polluted nature of various positions, often utilising particular idealised values of science: objectivity, honesty and openness regarding how conclusions were drawn. The nature of boundary work performed is then related to the institutional context within which it takes place. This article thus highlights how science’s role in environmental conflicts can be assessed through boundary work that denotes who can legitimately speak for science, on what topics and how science is stage-managed.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Unintended consequences and risk(y) thinking: The shaping of consequences and responsibilities in relation to environmental disasters2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unintended consequences have long been central for the social sciences. But, the development of risk analysis and the adoption of risk language have substantial implications for how to understand and evaluate unintended consequences. Claims can now be raised that unintended consequences should have been foreseen and other options chosen. This situation constitutes the starting point for this paper, which develops an understanding of unintended consequences, in particular, in relation to environmental disasters. It draws on Robert Merton's classic work on unanticipated consequences, but refines and further develops it by fertilizing it with findings from risk sociology and framing theory. A particular case of a human-caused disaster, a severewildfire, is analyzed to illustrate and expand the understanding of unintended consequences. The empirical material consists of a postal survey to everyone directly affected by the wildfire (N = 960 individuals). The empirical results of this analysis are then explained and used to improve the understanding of unintended consequences, by showing how the context and framing of the disaster heavily affected the evaluation of its consequences, including unintended ones.

  • Klapwijk, M. J.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boberg, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergh, J.
    Linnaeus University, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Växsjö, Sweden.
    Bishop, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources and Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björkman, C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ellison, D.
    Ellison Consulting, Baar, Switzerland; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Felton, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, T.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. C. H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sonesson, J.
    Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordström, E. -M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenlid, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårald, E.
    Umeå University, Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå, Sweden.
    Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, p. 238-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the different factors related to the socio-ecological system. To examine the level of dispersion and to obtain a holistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forest-related carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

  • Babri, Maira
    Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå universitet, Umeå.
    The Corporate Code of Ethics at Home, Far Away and in Between: Sociomaterial Translations of a Traveling Code2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate codes of ethics (CCEs) have become increasingly prevalent as overarching ethical guidelines for multinational corporations doing business around the globe. As formal documents, governing corporations’ work, policies, and ways of doing business, CCEs are meant to guide all business activities and apply to all of the corporation’s employees, suppliers, and business partners. In multinational corporations, this means that diverse countries, cultures, and a myriad of heterogeneous actors are expected to abide by the same standards and guidelines, as stipulated in the CCE. Despite this empirical reality, CCEs have previously been approached by academics mainly as passive company documents or as marketing or management tools, in the contexts of their country of origin. Building on Actor-Network Theory this thesis applies an interactionist ontology, and relational epistemology, seeing the code as a sociomaterial object with both material and immaterial characteristics, and moving in a global arena. Furthermore, the CCEs are assumed to be susceptible to change, i.e. translations. With these assumptions, the CCE of a multinational corporation is followed as it travels between its country of origin (Sweden) and another country (China) and goes to work in different contexts. Heterogeneous empirical materials such as interviews, company documents, observations, shadowing, and emails are used to present stories from different contexts where the CCE is at work. The overall purpose of the thesis is to contribute to the theorizing of CCEs, thereby providing further understanding of the possible consequences of CCEs in contextually diverse settings. By following traces of a CCE, this study posits the need for a simultaneous understanding of three dimensions of CCEs for CCEs to be understood in contextually dispersed settings. The three dimensions are a) material translations of the code, b) enactments of these translations, and c) ideas associated with the material and enacted code.  The study contributes to the understanding of CCEs by highlighting a specific country-context (China), by putting together knowledge from codes in various contexts, and the overarching contribution lies in highlighting codes as different kinds of objects and adding to the existing literature – specifically, contextualizing the CCE as a vaporous object.

  • Borglund, Tommy
    Ekonomiska forskningsinstitutet, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Stockholm.
    Aktieägarvärden i fokus: internationell påverkan på intressentrelationer genom förvärv och fusion2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Tryggvason, Ásgeir
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Om det politiska i samhällskunskap: Agonism, populism och didaktik2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democratic education can be seen as being constituted by a political dimension in two senses. In one sense, democratic education is political because it has a politically formulated goal to educate citizens. In another sense, the practice of democratic education is in itself political, in that it constitutes a space in which students encounter different visions of and opinions about what society should be like. In the intersection of these two meanings of “the political” we find the teacher. How can teachers navigate and approach “the political” in their classrooms? Which conceptions of conflicts, emotions and identities are useful when approaching the political as an educational problem?

    This thesis formulates an agonistic perspective on the political in social science education. In four articles, the thesis explores agonism and populism in relation to social science education. In focus are questions about the role that emotions, conflicts and identities should play in democratic education. Three of the four articles are theoretical investigations into the problems and potentialities of agonism and populism. The fourth article is empirically based on interviews with social science teachers and classroom observations. By synthesizing the results from these four articles, an agonistic perspective on the political in social science education is formulated. The agonistic perspective consists of four concepts: political emotions, hegemony, political presence and simplification. With these concepts, the agonistic perspective provides a theoretically informed starting point for teachers to reflect on and approach “the political” in social science education.

    List of papers
    1. Democratic Education and Agonism: Exploring the Critique from Deliberative Theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic Education and Agonism: Exploring the Critique from Deliberative Theory
    2018 (English)In: Democracy & Education, ISSN 1085-3545, E-ISSN 2164-7992, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the current political challenges facing democratic societies, including an apparent presence of populist rhetoric, the question of how political discussions should take place in democratic education is as urgent as ever. In the last two decades, one of the most prominent approaches to this question has been the use of deliberative theory. However, the deliberative approach has been criticized from an agonistic perspective for neglecting the role of emotions in political discussions. Deliberative theorists have in turn responded to this critique and argued that the agonistic approach tends to put too much emphasis on students’ emotions and identities in political discussions. Recently, as a contribution to this debate, the idea of assimilating agonism with deliberation has been suggested as a way of overcoming the differences between agonism and deliberative theory.

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the educational debate between agonism and deliberative theory by exploring the deliberative critique from the vantage point of agonism. I claim that the deliberative critique of agonism is unfounded and based on a misreading of Mouffe’s agonistic theory. Furthermore, I argue that the attempt to assimilate agonism with deliberation is not compatible with Mouffe’s agonistic theory

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Portland, Oregon, USA: Lewis & Clark College, Graduate School of Education and Counseling, 2018
    Keywords
    Education, agonism, deliberative theory, political emotions, democracy
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67106 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    2. The Political as Presence: On Agonism in Citizenship Education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Political as Presence: On Agonism in Citizenship Education
    2017 (English)In: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, ISSN 1916-0348, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 252-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, an agonistic approach to citizenship education has been put forward as a way of educating democratic citizens. Claudia W. Ruitenberg (2009) has developed such an approach and takes her starting point in Chantal Mouffe’s agonistic theory. Ruitenberg highlights how political emotions and political disputes can be seen as central for a vibrant democratic citizenship education. The aim of this paper is to critically explore and further develop the concepts of political emotions and political disputes as central components of an agonistic approach. In order to do this, I return to Mouffe’s point of departure in the concept of the political. By drawing on Michael Marder’s (2010) notion of enmity, I suggest how “the presence of the other” can be seen as a vital aspect of the political in citizenship education. By not abandoning the concept of enmity, and with the notion of presence in the foreground, I argue that Ruitenberg’s definition of political emotions needs to be formulated in a way that includes emotions revolving around one’s own existence as a political being. Moreover, I argue that in order to further develop the agonistic approach, the emphasis on the verbalization of opinions in political disputes needs to be relaxed, as it limits the political dimension in education and excludes crucial political practices, such as exodus. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Concordia University Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada, 2017
    Keywords
    Agonism, The political, Emotions, Citizenship Education
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58063 (URN)000419272500005 ()
    Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Democratic Education in the Mode of Populism
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic Education in the Mode of Populism
    2017 (English)In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 601-613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to bring John Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy of democratic education and the public into dialogue with Ernesto Laclau’s theory of populism. Recognizing populism as an integral aspect of democracy, rather than as its antithesis, the purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical account of populism as being of educational relevance in two respects. First, it argues that the populist logic specifies a set of formal elements by which democratic education could operate as a collective enterprise. Second, it asserts that the notion of populism supplements any congenial understanding of democratic education by bringing political demands, conflicts and affects to the fore. Finally, the paper discusses the risks and possibilities inherent in visualizing populism as an educational modus.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    Populism, Democratic education, The public, Demands, Affect, Antagonism
    National Category
    Pedagogy Philosophy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54881 (URN)10.1007/s11217-017-9564-5 (DOI)000412461800001 ()2-s2.0-85009848651 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    LUN (The Board of Teacher Education) at Örebro University

    Available from: 2017-01-20 Created: 2017-01-20 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Den politiska dimensionen i samhällskunskap
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den politiska dimensionen i samhällskunskap
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70260 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • Pugh, Rhiannon
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lamine, Wadid
    Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France; Univ Ottawa, Telfer Sch Management, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Jack, Sarah
    Lancaster university, Lancaster, United Kingdom; Stockholm Sch Econ, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hamilton, Eleanor
    Lancaster university, Lancaster, UK.
    The entrepreneurial university and the region: what role for entrepreneurship departments?2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1835-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the concept of the entrepreneurial university by examining roles of academic entrepreneurship departments in driving regional economic development outcomes. While a wealth of research investigates the role, activities and function of the entrepreneurial university, very little which focuses specifically on academic entrepreneurship departments, where much of the research, teaching and knowledge exchange concerning entrepreneurship takes place. Two case studies of large and active entrepreneurship departments are presented to illustrate the different roles and activities they undertake in the sphere of economic development in their regions or locales. A dual model of engagement is proposed, whereby the entrepreneurship department operates within the framework of the entrepreneurial university, but also as a regional actor in its own right.

  • Pugh, Rhiannon
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Universities and economic development in lagging regions: ‘triple helix’ policy in Wales2017In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 982-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper considers the applicability and relevance of triple helix-based policy and theory, in the weaker region context of Wales,where the success of such approaches has been questionable. It calls for a broader appreciation of the roles ofuniversities in weaker regions beyond a narrow ‘third mission’ conceptualization, moving away from a normativeapplication of the triple helix in contexts very different from those in which it was originated. Instead, it supports thebroadening of the original theory beyond the three key actors of university, government and business, and anincreasing focus on diverse regional settings and spaces.

  • Kautonen, Mika
    et al.
    Research Centre for Knowledge, Science, Technology and Innovation Studies [TaSTI], School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Pugh, Rhiannon
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Raunio, Mika
    Research Centre for Knowledge, Science, Technology and Innovation Studies [TaSTI], School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Transformation of regional innovation policies: from ‘traditional’ to ‘next generation’ models of incubation2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 620-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores a widely - employed instrument of regional innov a- tion policy: the innovation incubator. It proposes th at incubation approaches are moving away from a “traditional” approach strongly premised of physical infr a- structure and high - technology, to a more interactive, participatory, and social mode of innovation , in line with broader developments in innovation policy and theory . To practically illustrate this shift , we take two cases: a “traditional ” style of incubation in Wales, UK, and a “next generation” incubation programme in Fi n land. This paper reflect s on incub a tors as a mode of regional innovation policy, both past developments and future trends , to ensure that new policies and pr o- gramme s lea rn from best (and indeed , worst ) practice and build on , rather than replicate , past approaches.

  • Babri, Maira
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stål, Herman
    Umeå university, Umeå, Sweden.
    Power in the development of Circular Business Models: An Actor Network Theory approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Kladivko, Kamil
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway.
    Zervos, Mihail
    Department of Mathematics, London School of Economics, London, UK.
    Valuation of Employee Stock Options (ESOs) by means of Mean-Variance Hedging2017Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of ESO valuation in continuous time. In particular, we consider models that assume that an appropriate random time serves as a proxy for anything that causes the ESO's holder to exercise the option early, namely, reflects the ESO holder's job termination risk as well as early exercise behaviour. In this context, we study the problem of ESO valuation by means of mean-variance hedging. Our analysis is based on dynamic programming and uses PDE techniques. We also express the ESO's value that we derive as the expected discounted payoff that the ESO yields with respect to an equivalent martingale measure, which does not coincide with the minimal martingale measure or the variance-optimal measure. Furthermore, we present a numerical study that illustrates aspects or our theoretical results.

  • Henderson, Vicky
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Zeeman Building, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Kladivko, Kamil
    Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway.
    Monoyios, Michael
    Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, UK.
    Executive stock option exercise with full and partial information on a drift change point2017Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the valuation and exercise of an American executive call option written on a stock whose drift parameter falls to a lower value at a change point given by an exponential random time, independent of the Brownian motion driving the stock. Two agents, who do not trade the stock, have differing information on the change point, and seek to optimally exercise the option by maximising its discounted payoff under the physical measure. The first agent has full information, and observes the change point. The second agent has partial information and filters the change point from price observations. Our setup captures the position of an executive (insider) and employee (outsider), who receive executive stock options. The latter yields a model under the observation filtration $\widehat{\mathbb F}$ where the drift process becomes a diffusion driven by the innovations process, an $\widehat{\mathbb F}$-Brownian motion also driving the stock under $\widehat{\mathbb F}$, and the partial information optimal stopping problem has two spatial dimensions. We analyse and numerically solve to value the option for both agents and illustrate that the additional information of the insider can result in exercise patterns which exploit the information on the change point.

  • Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Project management ontology: the organizational learning perspective2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent interview with the Financial Times, the chief executive of Royal Dutch Shell, Mr. Jeroen van der Veer, said he “keeps faith in ‘elephant’ projects” referring to the Russian gas mega-project that Shell had fallen eight months behind schedule with and had cost overruns twice the original estimate. Mr. van der Veer partially blamed industry-wide factors for this such as an increase in raw material prices, more expensive contractors and exchange rate pressure. But he also implied that the original assessment of the project in 2003 had been too optimistic and that the scope of the mega-project had to be revised. The wisdom he said was that scope changes are basically because you didn’t do enough homework in advance. Even though it is rather easy to feel miserable after such a statement, there is faith left as the chief executive says - if only we had been able to do our homework. This gives me reason enough to concentrate in this research on the construction of a proactive qualitative decision support aid for mega-project management. The main research topic of the dissertation is organizational learning in the field of project management (PM). This study explores project management by providing a PM ontology for managers. The managerial value of the ontology is, for example, lower potential for time and cost overruns and poor project quality, and higher potential for effective and efficient execution of complex projects. Project management essentially aims to combine learning and performance within the project organization to serve the project owners’ strategy. Therefore a proactive vision and co-evolutionary touch is needed to evolve project processes. Project management under high pressure often means utilizing explicit quantitative methods, usually based on reactive calculations. However, the management of uncertainties and risks demands a versatile, qualitative point of view. With quantitative methods we can “price” the risks. With qualitative methods we are able to realize and shape the risks in advance. Therefore project management is the challenge to move the organization towards the common qualitative and quantitative goals during a project lifecycle, i.e. to support organizational learning throughout a long-lasting project. This study introduces a project management ontology – a classification of management disciplines for project managers and a project learning model. Knowledge management theory, activity theory, systems theory and various management practices are discussed in the conceptual part of this thesis. The empirical part of the research concerns a multiple-case study conducted in ten project organizations participating in two large mega-projects. The mega-projects were in the offshore industry and shipbuilding industry. Altogether more than fifty project managers and project team members participated in this research. The empirical results are presented at the end of the introductory essay and in the original publications enclosed in this thesis. Appendixes available from: heli.aramo-immonen@tut.fi

  • St John, Oliver
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Practice and Presence: Bilingual interaction and identities in an 'international' school setting [LISA 21 and pilot study findings]2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Study Colloquium Proposal Abstract

    LISA 21 and Pilot Study Findings

    Oliver St John has worked within the field of foreign language pedagogy both as a teacher and teacher educator in the UK and Sweden. He is currently starting his second year of a five-year PhD programme within the LISA 21 project at the Department of Education, Örebro University, Sweden.

    LISA 21 is a new project which focuses on plurilingualism, identities and learning in culturally-diverse secondary schools. Taking sociocultural, postcolonial and pragmatist theoretical frameworks as points of departure and seeking to build on classroom interaction studies, the project aims to maintain multiple perspectives on these issues and to create new analytical and empirical intersections.

    The first section of this paper sketches some of the theoretical perspectives guiding this project by seeking to clarify the way the terms ‘language’, ‘identities’ and ‘culture’ are understood. Language is a primary means of mediating human action, but is itself constantly being tailored to serve individual purposes. It is argued that identities need to be understood as both social positionings and as having some kind of cross-contextual coherence. Culture, it is suggested, needs to be conceived as both differentiated and dynamic. This section also highlights the way both languages and identities are implicated when individuals learn. Multiple perspectives on these issues and maintaining balance between micro and macro approaches are considered vital to a more penetrating analysis of these issues.

    The second section of this paper presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study undertaken in the spring of 2007. Ethnographic fieldwork was carried out in a school for the Deaf and Hearing-impaired and an ‘international’ school with a view to gaining orientation and finer focus on areas of potential significance within the project’s ‘language and identities’ research questions. Three educational tensions are outlined as a way of communicating some preliminary results: suspending and resourcing dialogue in the classroom; transferring versus transforming understanding and identity affordances and restraints in plurilingual learning environments. The first of these seeks to convey the way a teacher’s orchestration of student participation in the classroom has important repercussions for students’ learning opportunities and the generation of certain kinds of knowledge. The significant contribution of student contributions to understanding in the classroom was also noted. With regard to the second, teacher practices suggested a view of knowledge as ‘packing’ brains whereas students’ behaviour demonstrated that their needs would be better satisfied with a transforming rather than a transferring of understanding. Thirdly, observations pointed to the need for pedagogical sensitivity where both identity affordances and restraints on student learning are created in plurilingual settings.

    Finally, the capacity to be comfortable alongside cultural differences and to appreciate them is highlighted as a ‘core’ life skill – one which needs to be fostered in school settings. Teachers need much support for this task and intercultural competence must be focused on in teacher education programmes if sustained opportunities for this kind of learning are to be an ongoing part of classroom priorities and practice.

     

  • Matérne, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Återgång i arbete efter förvärvad hjärnskada: livskvalitet, möjligheter och hinder2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, about 35–40 percent of people who acquire a brain injury can return to work. To be able to help people with acquired brain injury to return to work, it is important to know about experiences and factors that facilitate return to work and how they affect quality of life. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the opportunities and barriers for people with acquired brain injury to return to work, as well as the importance of returning to work for their quality of life. Four studies were conducted: two interview studies and two register studies, giving qualitative and quantitative data.The major finding in this thesis was that people with acquired brain injury who could return to work had high functioning in all levels of the biopsychosocial model. The opportunities increased if the return to work was individually adapted in all phases of the process and if the person was motivated and supported by support persons with commitment, cooperation and adaptation. Those who had a university education, got their driver’s license reinstated, had high motor function and could return towork showed the greatest increase in their quality of life.Return to work is a complex process for people with acquired brain injury that could be successful if they are motivated, can balance the internal and external demands to return to work, get individual adaptation, and receive committed support. Their quality of life also increased more if theywere able to return to work.

    List of papers
    1. Opportunities and barriers for successful return to work after acquired brain injury: A patient perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and barriers for successful return to work after acquired brain injury: A patient perspective
    2017 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many people who suffer an acquired brain injury (ABI) are of working age. There are benefits, for the patient, the workplace, and society, to finding factors that facilitate successful return to work (RTW).

    Objective: The aim was to increase knowledge of opportunities and barriers for a successful RTW in patients with ABI.

    Method: Five men and five women with ABI participated. All had successfully returned to work at least 20 hours a week. Their experiences were gathered by semi-structured interviews, which were subsequently subjected to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes that influenced RTW were identified: individually adapted rehabilitation; motivation for RTW; and cognitive and social abilities. An individually adapted rehabilitation was judged important because the patients were involved in their own rehabilitation and required individually adapted support from rehabilitation specialists, employers, and colleagues. A moderate level of motivation for RTW was needed. Awareness of the person's cognitive and social abilities is essential, in finding compensatory strategies and adaptations.

    Conclusions: It seems that the vocational rehabilitation process is a balancing act in individualized planning and support, as a partnership with the employer needs to be developed, motivation needs to be generated, and awareness built of abilities that facilitate or hinder RTW.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, 2017
    Keywords
    Content analysis, vocational rehabilitation, qualitative interviews
    National Category
    Occupational Therapy Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Disability Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54393 (URN)10.3233/WOR-162468 (DOI)000396547500014 ()28035941 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85012225058 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    University Health Care Research Center

    Region Örebro County Sweden

    Swedish Association of Brain Injured and Families

    Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Support Persons' Perceptions of Giving Vocational Rehabilitation Support to Clients With Acquired Brain Injury in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support Persons' Perceptions of Giving Vocational Rehabilitation Support to Clients With Acquired Brain Injury in Sweden
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1536-710X, E-ISSN 1536-7118, Vol. 15, no 3-4, p. 351-369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to explore the perception of being a support person for clients with acquired brain injury undergoing vocational rehabilitation. Nine support persons, identified by clients with brain injury, were interviewed. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, resulting in three themes for assisting the client: (i) commitment; (ii) adaptation; and (iii) cooperation. Within each theme, multiple dimensions were identified, reflecting the complexity of vocational rehabilitation following acquired brain injury. Commitment built on social relations is linked to sustainability of support. The included support persons' role was especially valuable in contexts where adaptation and cooperation were required.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2016
    Keywords
    Acquired brain injury, content analysis, empathy and support, inclusion, rehabilitation, return to work, support person, vocational rehabilitation
    National Category
    Social Work Other Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Social Work; Disability Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51616 (URN)10.1080/1536710X.2016.1220880 (DOI)000387348600010 ()27494552 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84987662485 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Change in quality of life in relation to returning to work after acquired brain injury: a population-based register study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Change in quality of life in relation to returning to work after acquired brain injury: a population-based register study
    2018 (English)In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated changes in quality of life (QoL) in relation to return to work among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI).

    METHOD: The sample consisted of 1487 patients with ABI (63% men) aged 18-66 years (mean age 52) from the WebRehab Sweden national quality register database. Only patients who worked at least 50% at admission to hospital and were on full sick leave at discharge from hospital were included. QoL was measured by the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Patients who returned to work perceived a larger improvement in QoL from discharge to follow-up one year after injury compared to patients who had not returned to work. This difference remained after adjustment for other factors associated with improved QoL, such as having a university education, increased Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale scores and getting one's driving licence reinstated.

    CONCLUSION: Return to work is an important factor for change in QoL among patients with ABI, even after adjusting for other factors related to QoL. This is consistent with the hypothesis that having employment is meaningful, increases self-esteem and fosters participation in society. Thus, helping patients with ABI return to work has a positive influence on QoL.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2018
    Keywords
    Stroke, life satisfaction, rehabilitation, traumatic brain injury, vocational rehabilitation
    National Category
    Neurology Occupational Therapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69466 (URN)10.1080/02699052.2018.1517224 (DOI)30296173 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Risk markers for not returning to work among patients with acquired brain injury: a population-based register study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk markers for not returning to work among patients with acquired brain injury: a population-based register study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70255 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
  • Sund, Louise
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pashby, Karen
    School of Childhood, Youth and Education Studies, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    ‘Is It That We Do Not Want Them to Have Washing Machines?’: Ethical Global Issues Pedagogy in Swedish Classrooms2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 3552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to sustainable development target 4.7, by 2030, all signatory nations must ensure learners are provided with education for sustainable development and global citizenship. While many national curricula provide a policy imperative to provide a global dimension in curriculum and teaching, mainstreaming an approach to teaching about sustainable development through pressing global issues requires strong attention to what happens between students and teachers in the classroom. In this article, we aim to help teachers think through an ongoing reflexive approach to teaching by bridging important theoretical and empirical scholarship with the day-to-day pedagogies of global educators. This collaborative praxis offers an actionable approach to engaging with values, conflicts and ethical consequences towards bringing global issues into teaching and learning in a critical and fruitful way. Our results show that teachers and students can both experience discomfort and experience a sense of significance and worthiness of engaging in a more critical approach. In addition, if we critically reflect and support students in doing so, as these teachers have done, we open up possibilities for approaches to global issues pedagogy that come much closer to addressing the pressing issues of our deeply unequal world.

  • Tronstad, Kristian
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nygaard, Marit Owren
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Bask, Miia
    NOVA, OsloMet- Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Accumulation of welfare problems among immigrants in Norway2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses a large-scale survey of living conditions among immigrants in Norway. Data were collected by Statistics Norway in 2016 and covered 12 of the largest immigrant groups in Norway. This aim of the present report is analyse the kinds of welfare problems experienced by immigrants. Which immigrants accumulate most welfare problems? What are the main predictors of welfare problems among immigrants in Norway? How does the accumulation of welfare problems relate to general life satisfaction among immigrants? In addition, we compare the accumulation of welfare problems among immigrants with the total population.

    An early draft of this report was presented at the International Forum on Migration Statistics 2018, in Paris in January. A more recent draft was presented internally at a seminar for migration researchers at Oslo Metropolitan University. We would like to thank participants at both events for constructive and valuable feedback. This project was commissioned and financed by the Directorate of Integration and Diversity (IMDi). We would like to thank IMDi for making possible this interesting and challenging project, and especially Anja Wedde Sveen and Eivind Hageberg, both at IMDi, for cooperation underway. Project leader has been Kristian Rose Tronstad of the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, NIBR. Tronstad has conducted the statistical analyses and written most of the report. Marit Nygaard at NIBR has contributed on analysis and discussion of the results. Miia Bask at Norwegian Social Research, NOVA, has written about the theory of accumulation of welfare problems in Chapter 3.

  • Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research, Norway, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Ristikari, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Hautakoski, Ari
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Gissler, Mika
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Psychiatric diagnoses as grounds for disability pension among former child welfare clients2017In: Longitudinal and life course studies, ISSN 1124-9064, E-ISSN 1757-9597, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Geissinger, Andrea
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shahin Moghadam, Sarah
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Jussila, Jari J.
    Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mustafee, Navonil
    University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Clustering the imp thought: searching roots and diversities in imp research2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMP research is often treated as an empirical perspective describing complexities of repeated business-to-business exchanges and their embeddedness. While building on some common understandings and concepts, this paper asks: How homogeneous is the IMP research? This paper uses cluster analysis to capture the roots and various sub-groups of IMP research as means to depict the question of homogeneity (i.e. a core focus in the research) or heterogeneity (i.e. using references from other fields or specific to sub-fields) of the IMP thought. In this scientific work in progress paper we introduce how we design to use bibliographical methods in order to harvest data from an extensive amount of IMP-related articles written from the 1970’s onwards. In this first attempt to reveal IMP we used overall 294 articles yielded to 10,615 co-citation relationships. A threshold of minimum number of citations of a cited reference was set to five (5) to capture such references that have been cited in multiple publications. We introduce visual mapping of defined subject area clusters and as an example we describe shortly clusters. Perhaps not surprisingly our findings suggest that IMP research is not so homogenous, with at least four clear clusters of IMP-research each utilizing different key references.

  • Bask, Miia
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A longitudinal approach to social exclusion in Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers, and has as its central theme the accumulation of welfare problems and social exclusion. We use Swedish data and all analyses are based on individuals of working age. We perform longitudinal analyses to scrutinize the accumulation of disadvantages over the individual life courses as well as to detect the general trends in social exclusion occurrence in Swedish society during the past two decades.

    In Paper I, in an analysis of social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden, we find that immigrants suffer more often from social exclusion than native Swedes do. We also find that even if the accumulation of welfare problems is more common among immigrants than native Swedes, the connections between welfare disadvantages are stronger among Swedes. Furthermore, a logistic regression analysis revealed that time spent in Sweden decreases the risk of social exclusion among immigrants. However, even though we control for several demographic variables, human capital indicators and socio-economic class, the odds for social exclusion are still greater for immigrants than for native Swedes. Some form of discrimination can therefore not be excluded.

    Paper II is co-written with Björn Halleröd. This paper involves a longitudinal analysis of the accumulation of closely related welfare disadvantages, showing that the initial deprivation increases over time. Latent growth curve models reveal that a high initial deprivation is related to low socio-economic class and being single. It is also shown that a high initial deprivation decreases the probability of upward class-mobility as well as the probability of deprived singles becoming cohabiting. Moreover, a high initial deprivation increases the risk that couples will experience a household break-up.

    In Paper III, we perform a longitudinal analysis of social exclusion in Sweden during the period 1979-2003, in which several logistic regression models for panel data are fitted to our data. We find no support that immigrants have been better integrated into Swedish society over time from the perspective of social exclusion risk. Instead, there are weak signs that integration has become worse. We also find weak signs that the higher social exclusion risk that men have relative to women has decreased during the past two decades. Furthermore, comparing with couples without children, the odds for social exclusion among singles with children have increased and the odds for couples with children have decreased during the period 1979-2003.

    Paper IV utilizes latent class factor models to scrutinize the connections between welfare problems and a set of demographic variables, human capital indicators and socio-economic class. We find that welfare problems do cluster. Our results also support several of the findings in the previous paper. Family type, especially being single or living in a relationship, makes a clear difference in the propensity to accumulate welfare problems. Furthermore, immigrants characterize the factors with a high problem accumulation. Additionally, there is no general difference between the sexes in the problem accumulation itself, but experiences of threat or violence and having sleeping problems seem to be more often related to being a woman, whereas the lack of a close friend is most often related to being a man.

    To conclude, this thesis reveals several interesting facts concerning the accumulation of welfare problems and social exclusion in Sweden. Considering the implications for policy, the situations of immigrants and single parents need to be underlined. That is, the integration of immigrants should be given more emphasis and measures should be taken to support single parents as well as to promote a discussion on how to make relationships last.

    List of papers
    1. Welfare problems and social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welfare problems and social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden
    2005 (English)In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden. The groups under scrutiny are native Swedes, first generation Swedes, naturalized Swedes, Nordic citizens and non-Nordic citizens. Specifically, because one goal of the welfare state is to break the connections between different welfare problems, we investigate the associations between welfare problems among different immigrant groups as well as among native Swedes. We find that the accumulation of welfare problems is higher among immigrant groups, but that the correlations between welfare problems are strongest among Swedes. Finally, we analyse social exclusion among immigrants using a logistic regression analysis. Because a regression analysis with explanatory variables such as demographic variables, human capital indicators and socioeconomic class cannot explain the difference between immigrants and native Swedes, it appears that discrimination is a probable explanation.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69033 (URN)10.1093/esr/jci005 (DOI)000228080900005 ()2-s2.0-24144464018 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective
    2008 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    Living conditions, Social exclusion, Longitudinal, Deprivation, Structural equation modelling, Latent growth curve modelling, Accumulation of welfare problems, Health, Income, Unemployment
    National Category
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69043 (URN)10.1007/s11205-007-9192-5 (DOI)000257957800006 ()
    Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Social Exclusion Occurrence in Sweden during 1979-2003: The Significance of Sex, Family Type and Nationality Background
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Exclusion Occurrence in Sweden during 1979-2003: The Significance of Sex, Family Type and Nationality Background
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69028 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69021 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
  • Zekavat, Amir Reza
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jansson, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pejryd, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Investigating the effect of fabrication temperature on mechanical properties of fused deposition modelling parts using X-ray computed tomography2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most common additive manufacturing (AM) techniques for fabricating prototypes as well as functional parts. In this technique, several parameters may influence the part quality and consequently mechanical properties of fabricated components. In this paper, an experimental investigation on effects of fabrication temperature as one of the influential parameters on mechanical properties of manufactured parts is presented. A series of specimens fabricated at temperatures ranging from 180 to 260 C were used for this investigation. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used in order to non-destructively analyze the internal geometry of the specimens especially the bond between extruded filaments. Finally, the specimens were subjected to a uniaxial tensile load for evaluation of mechanical properties. The results showed that the specimens fabricated at lower temperatures have relatively lower tensile strength despite their considerably higher strain at break. In addition, the specimens fabricated at higher temperature range had significantly higher tensile strength because of the better bond between extruded filaments. The different mechanical responses were highly related to the internal geometry of the specimens and not necessarily the porosity. CT showed great potential as a non-destructive tool for investigation and development of FDM process.

  • Quennerstedt, Ann
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Robinson, Carol
    School of Education, University of Brighton, Brighton, England.
    I'Anson, John
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    The UNCRC: The Voice of Global Consensus on Children's Rights?2018In: Nordic Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1891-8131, E-ISSN 1891-814X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 38-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) encompasses contradictions is known. Despite this knowledge, attention to conflicting aspects within the convention is limited, and instead, the assumption that the convention represents an international consensus on the meaning of children's human rights seems to be widespread in policy and academic work. Furthermore, the available literature within the field of children's rights is largely silent regarding precise and elaborated knowledge about the inherent contradictions within the UNCRC. This paper expands upon and specifies the knowledge about consensus and inconsistencies within the convention. Through an in-depth study of the drafting process of the UNCRC, the paper identifies and displays both contradictions within the convention, and ways in which the text of the convention can be seen to express consensus. The analysis shows how a certain consensus was produced for respectively civil and political rights, and socio-economic rights, but that different and inconsistent children's rights logics underlay the formation of these respective consensus-formations.

  • Knezevic, David
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Kommuninvest, Örebro, Sweden.
    Intertemporal diversification of sub-sovereign debt2018In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the debt maturity structure of the Swedish municipal sector. The Swedish municipal debt portfolio is characterized by a short maturity structure and an asset-liability mismatch that poses potentially severe roll-over risk. The 2008–2009 financial crisis manifested as a liquidity shock to the sector that highlighted the dangers of short-term funding strategies in conjunction with low levels of intertemporal diversification. In this study we analyze to what extent this led to a change of intertemporal diversification. Based on a unique contract-level monthly data set of municipal loans issued by Kommuninvest of Sweden from January 1997 to June 2016, we construct and estimate a range of dispersion and moment measures to capture the change of various distributional characteristics of the maturity structure. These measures are used as dependent variables in fixed-effects models together with a number of control variables to estimate the effect of the debt-crisis liquidity shock. The main finding is that the crisis did affect the diversification, but not in a persistent way. A possible explanation is that the municipalities found that Kommuninvest through jointly guaranteed lending was able to function as a lender of last resort and thereby mitigates the roll-over risk. It is also found that fiscal and financial properties such as debt-to-tax base ratio, tax base volatility and per capita income are associated with the characteristics of the debt maturity structure of Swedish municipalities, as well as macroeconomic factors such as the term structure of interest rates.

  • Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Bask, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0142447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis) advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis) advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis) advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose.

  • Bask, Miia
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bask, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this was not the case when social influence was not allowed. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may gener-ate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs were much more popular, and the least popular songs were much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  • Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Bask, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Inequality Generating Processes and Measurement of the Matthew Effect2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this paper is to clarify the differences and relationships between cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the Matthew effect. Its second aim, which is also its main contribution, is not only to present a new measure of the Matthew effect, but also to show how to estimate this effect from data and how to make statistical inference. We argue that one should utilize the positivity of the natural logarithm of the largest generalized eigenvalue for a non-linear dynamic process as evidence when claiming that the Matthew effect is present in the dynamic process that generates individuals’ socio-economic life-courses. Thus, our measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the dynamic process that generates socio-economic inequality and not on the outcome of this process.

  • Björkman Hjalmarsson, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Aspects of neonatal septicaemia: prevention and complications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Study I was part of the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), a prospective national study including all infants born <27 weeks in Sweden in 2004-2007 that survived their first year of life (n=497). Neonatal sepsis was evaluated as a risk factor for neonatal morbidities. Definite sepsis was associated with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged hospital stay, but not with a higher risk of retinopathy of prematurity or intraventricular haemorrhage.

    Study II was a non-randomized single-centre intervention study evaluating possible preventive effects on coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) sepsis when the scrub the hub method was used. During the intervention period, the incidence of CoNS sepsis decreased from 1.5% to 0% (CI: 0.53-2.58%, p=0.06).

    Study III was an in-vitro study evaluating leakage of isopropanol (IPA) and ethanol when alcohol caps and scrub the hub were used to disinfect hubs. Alcohol leakage was measured using gas chromatography. IPA was detected in all samples from cap circuits, and mean leakage increased over time. Ethanol levels were low, and scrub the hub therefore seems safe to use.

    Study IV was a survey study evaluating reported hygiene routines from Swedish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) included in the EXPRESS study. Routines were compared between the EXPRESS period (2004- 2007) and 2013. Improvements were seen regarding basic hygiene routines, routines for work clothing, and follow-up of compliance. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased while fungal prophylaxis increased, but the empiric treatment of suspected late-onset sepsis (LOS) showed heterogeneity.

    Study V investigated the association between incidence in LOS in the EXPRESS cohort and the hygiene routines previously evaluated in Study IV. Strict catheter routines, blood culture routines, and non-use of antibiotic prophylaxis were associated with decreased sepsis risk.

    List of papers
    1. Sepsis as a risk factor for neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sepsis as a risk factor for neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 11, p. 1070-1076Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study evaluated sepsis as a risk factor for neonatal morbidities and investigated the association between specific pathogens and neonatal morbidities.

    Methods: This was a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study, consisting of the 497 extremely premature children, who were born before 27weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 and survived their first year of life. Neonatal sepsis was evaluated as a risk factor for neonatal morbidity using multiple logistic linear regression analyses.

    Results: We found that 326 (66%) of the infants had at least one sepsis episode and coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common pathogen. Definite sepsis, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.6, was associated with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but not clinical sepsis (OR 1.1). Definite sepsis was also associated with a prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.6). Sepsis was not significantly associated with a higher risk of retinopathy of prematurity or intraventricular haemorrhage.

    Conclusion: Extremely preterm infants face a great risk of acquiring neonatal sepsis, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being the most common pathogen in this population. Definite sepsis seemed to be a risk factor for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged hospital stay, but the associations were weaker than in previous studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
    Keywords
    Morbidity, Neonatal, Prematurity, Risk factor, Sepsis
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46694 (URN)10.1111/apa.13104 (DOI)000363866200018 ()26118325 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84945493792 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2006-3858
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Lilla Barnets Fond

    Evy and Gunnar Sandbergs Foundation

    Birgit and Håkan Ohlssons Foundation

    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis
    2015 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 232-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit.

    Methods: We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters.

    Results: During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11).

    Conclusion: Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
    Keywords
    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Infection, Intravenous catheters, Neonatal sepsis, Prevention
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43932 (URN)10.1111/apa.12866 (DOI)000350062400012 ()25399485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84923181512 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-03-30 Created: 2015-03-30 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Leakage of isopropanol from port protectors used in neonatal intensive care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leakage of isopropanol from port protectors used in neonatal intensive care
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69661 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Hygiene routines in the EXPRESS study: a Swedish national survey of hygiene practices in neonatal intensive care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hygiene routines in the EXPRESS study: a Swedish national survey of hygiene practices in neonatal intensive care
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69662 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Hygiene routines in the EXPRESS study: impact of hygiene routines and antibiotic prophylaxis on neonatal sepsis incidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hygiene routines in the EXPRESS study: impact of hygiene routines and antibiotic prophylaxis on neonatal sepsis incidence
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69663 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
  • Cicognani, Elvira
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Albanesi, Cinzia
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Mazzoni, Davide
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Modelling and testing the processes of construction of youth active EU citizenship in school: Recommendations from the CATCHEyoU intervention2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the intervention was to stimulate young people’s interest and engagement in European affairs in schools. The core pedagogical idea was to build with schools an opportunity to involve students in a participatory action research (PAR), on social issues that young people identify as relevant and would be willing to address.

  • Nyström Höög, Catharina
    et al.
    Department of Scandinavian Languages, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björkvall, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Keeping the Discussion Among Civil Servants Alive: ‘Platform of Values’ as an Emerging Genre Within the Public Sector in Sweden.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 17-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining feature of contemporary public authorities in Scandinavia end elsewhere is the production of texts labelled platform of values or core values. Previous research has pointed to at least three factors contributing to this development: an increased interest in the ethics in the public sector, new forms of management and control, and the importance of the external promotion of public authorities. This paper presents an analysis of how different groups of civil servants in Sweden perceive and use "platform of values" texts as part of their professional practices. The paper draws on two types of data - a focus group with senior HR officers and a quantitative survey to civil servants. Critical Genre Analysis is presented as a methodological framework for understanding "value texts" as social actions. The results show that platform of values practices are connected to the creation of the "ethically aware" public servant; that neither their connection to control over civil servants nor to the external promotion of the authority are directly recognised, whereas their connection to goal achievement is; and that the role of the "value texts" as such has been somewhat overrated in previous research - it is the dialogue about the values that matters.

  • Harrison, Glenn W.
    et al.
    Department of Risk Management & Insurance and Center for the Economic Analysis of Risk, Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Lau, Morten I.
    Durham University Business School, Durham University, Durham, UK.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Identifying Time Preferences With Experiments: Comment2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying time preferences with laboratory experiments demands attention to theoretical, experimental and econometrics issues. Andreoni and Sprenger [2012a] propose a single choice task and several econometric methods that seek to address these issues. The choice task requires subjects to make portfolio allocations between sooner and later payments of money. All theories they examine imply that subjects pick one boundary or the other, or that they pick strictly interior allocations. Their econometric methods seek to explain the average portfolio choice, but ignore the bald fact that 70% of the responses by the subjects were choices at one boundary allocation or the other. The average portfolio choice implied by the modes at either boundary is chosen by virtually none of their subjects. Their ad hoc econometric attempts to model the truncation of choices at the boundaries fail to account for the economics of the observed behavior. A systematic analysis of their data generates a priori implausible estimates of significantly convex utility functions. Andreoni and Sprenger [2012b] inherits all of the problems of the basic design and econometrics from Andreoni and Sprenger [2012a], and adds one: their findings are immediately confounded by non-additivity of the intertemporal utility function. Apart from this theoretical confound, there is experimental evidence of just this type of non-additivity, leading to an aversion to correlated payoffs over time. The evidence in favor of correlation aversion predicts the qualitative pattern they observe perfectly, without claiming that the utility function for stochastic outcomes is somehow different from the utility function for non-stochastic outcomes.

  • George, J. Greg
    et al.
    School of Business and the Center for Economic Analysis, Middle Georgia State College, Macon, GA, USA.
    Harisson, Glenn W.
    Department of Risk Management & Insurance, Robinson College of Business and Center for the Economic Analysis of Risk, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Dean’s Behavioral Economics Lab, Robinson College of Business and Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Behavioral Responses towards Risk Mitigation: An Experiment with Wild Fire Risks2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the behavioral effects of voluntary self-protection in situations where the probabilities are unknown to the agent? Virtually all naturally occurring environments of risk management involve subjective probabilities, and many allow decision makers to voluntarily mitigate risk using self-protection activities. To examine this environment we design a laboratory experiment in which incomplete information about probabilities is generated in a naturalistic way from the perspective of decision makers, but where the experimenter has complete information. Specifically, we use virtual simulations of property that is at risk of destruction from simulated wild fires. Using direct belief elicitation mechanisms we find that subjective beliefs over high and low risk scenarios underestimate the shift. Thus, predictions of voluntary self-protection activities based on such data would estimate a suboptimal willingness to invest. However, when offering subjects’ self-protection opportunities, their choices indicate that they over-estimate the risk reducing effects and would in fact be willing to pay more than if they knew the objective probabilities. These findings have direct implications for the normative evaluation of risk management policies when risk perception is subjective.

  • Harrison, Glenn W.
    et al.
    Department of Risk Management & Insurance and Center for the Economic Analysis of Risk, Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Johnson, Jared M.
    Google, USA .
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Dean’s Behavioral Economics Lab, Robinson College of Business and Department of Economics, Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA .
    Risk Perceptions in the Virtual Wilderness2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In economic decision making most probabilities are formed in a compound manner through the interaction of multiple attributes of events, each of which have likelihoods that are unknown to various degrees. We consider how subjectively formed risk perceptions are affected by the dispersion of the underlying objective, compound probability distribution. Our methodology relies on virtual reality simulations of physical cues of the risk, allowing us to bring together the natural stimuli of the field and the control of the lab. Our application is an important example of a risk with serious economic consequences: the management of wild fire risk. This is an important natural setting where the risk is compound, depending on many random physical processes and where the formation of risk perceptions necessary for risk management is therefore complex. We find that increasing the dispersion of the underlying objective risk leads to higher subjective probabilities of the worst outcome occurring, consistent with increased pessimism. We compare the risk perceptions of experts in this domain with non-expert residents that are affected by the risk, and conclude that experts are not always better than non-experts at estimating the risks. Experts appear to be locked in by their strong priors based on stimuli outside those presented in our naturalistic virtual reality. With a global environment that produces increasingly extreme phenomena, training experts to be less anchored on their prior experiences will become important.

  • Dixit, Vinayak V.
    et al.
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Harb, Rami C.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Harrison, Glenn W.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Marco, Donald M.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Mard, M. Seph
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Radwan, A. Essam
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Schneider, Mark P.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Review of Congestion Pricing Experiences2010Report (Other academic)
  • Adenskog, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Democratic innovations in political systems: towards a systemic approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many indicators that the representative democratic system is currently facing serious legitimacy challenges. Two central indicators of these challenges are changing patterns of political participation and a decline in system support. Against this backdrop, a growing number of governments claim that democratic innovations (DIs) could reconnect institutions with citizens. This thesis focuses on online DIs implemented in real political contexts, and the overarching aim of the thesis is to contribute to the emergent empirical scholarship on how DIs can influence political systems. In the last two decades, most empirical studies in the field have analysed DIs at the micro level.

    This thesis takes a different stance by posing system-related research questions to the implementation of DIs and, by doing so, showing how DIs are interrelated with, rather than isolated from, the political system and that DIs can influence political systems. The thesis consists of one literature review and three empirical case studies, applying a multiple methodological approach. Its novelty lies in three main empirical findings that contribute to the development of the field. First, it shows that participation in DIs can influence citizens’ perceived trust towards local political institutions. In addition, the results suggest that predispositions and prior engagement mediate the direction of change in trust amongst citizens. Secondly, the results show that DIs can perform different political functions, such as facilitating spaces for citizens to provide original ideas and deliberation, while also having an agenda-setting function. Thirdly, the result suggest that long-term institutional change is complex and that the implementation of DIs can create a situation in which civil servants and politicians perceive their organisation to be in some ‘state of flux’, as they are torn between two competing institutional logics. In conclusion, this thesis should be understood as a piece in a broader movement that works towards a systemic approach to the study of DIs, and that by showing these empirical findings, the thesis contributes to deepening our understanding of what influences and functions DIs can have in political systems.

    List of papers
    1. The Challenges for Online Deliberation Research: A Literature Review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Challenges for Online Deliberation Research: A Literature Review
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of E-Politics, ISSN 1947-9131, E-ISSN 1947-914X, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While pure deliberation has still not been found online, the field of online deliberation research is blossoming. Born out of the “frustrations and possibilities” of the 1990s, a current theme in the field is to re-link deliberative theory with empirical political science. The aim of this systematic literature review is to sort out and examine important features of this development; to identify and categorise important research themes and issues as well as to pinpoint some research gaps. Using citation analysis as a method for article selection, 788 abstracts were retrieved and out of these, 130 items were chosen for further analysis. First the review shows that researchers from several different disciplines are involved in the field and that these researchers are studying online deliberation in a variety of arenas aided by a wide range of methods. Second the review reveals that the field struggles with a highly diversified concept of deliberation; that newer theoretical developments are underutilised in the operationalisation of theoretical concepts for empirical analyses, and that it there is a rather low degree of cumulativity in the field. Finally, more attention is paid on deliberation per se, rather than the political and democratic consequences of deliberation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IGI Global, 2014
    Keywords
    Deliberation, internet, deliberative democracy, literature review, online deliberation
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32418 (URN)10.4018/ijep.2014010101 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-11-15 Created: 2013-11-15 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Democratic Innovations in Deliberative Systems: the Case of the Estonian Citizens’ Assembly Process
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic Innovations in Deliberative Systems: the Case of the Estonian Citizens’ Assembly Process
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Public Deliberation, ISSN 1937-2841, E-ISSN 1937-2841, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With the proliferation and application of democratic innovations around the world, the empirical study of deliberative and participatory processes has shifted from small-scale environments and experiments to real-life political processes on a large scale. With this shift, there is also a need to explore new theoretical approaches in order to understand current developments. Instead of analyzing democratic innovations in isolation, the recent ‘systemic turn’ in the field encourages us to broaden our perspective and evaluate democratic innovations as complementary parts of a political system.

    This paper will draw upon a qualitative case study, based on interview and supported by survey data, of the ‘Estonian Citizens’ Assembly Process’ (ECA), in order to operationalize the systemic approach to deliberative democracy and illustrate how this can be applied to an analysis of democratic innovations.

    The ECA spanned more than a year (November 2012 to April 2014) and covered three political arenas: the public sphere, democratic innovations and representative institutions. The systemic analysis highlights the deliberative strengths and weaknesses of arenas and institutions, and illuminates how various arenas and democratic innovations did and did not complement one another in the creation of a deliberative process. The systemic analysis offers two possible interpretations of the ECA. The more affirmative interpretation is it constituted a deliberative system, as it did perform the three main functions fulfilled by different arenas and institutions. The more critical interpretation is that the ECA partly failed to be a deliberative system, due to social domination and decoupling of institutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    International Association for Public Participation, 2015
    Keywords
    Democratic innovations, deliberative systems, crowdsourcing, ICTs, deliberative democracy
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Research subject
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39681 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Democratic Innovations: Reinforcing or changing perceptions of trust?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic Innovations: Reinforcing or changing perceptions of trust?
    2017 (English)In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 575-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Declining trust in representative institutions is considered one of the most significant political problems of our time. It is often suggested that democratic innovations—or mechanisms which aim to increase and deepen citizen participation in the political decision-making process—can help reverse this trend. However, empirical research about actual effects of participation on trust is scarce, and weakened by causality problems. With survey data representing 1,470 participants in a landmark Swedish e-petition system, the article shows that both generalized attitudes and process evaluations matter in how trust is affected by democratic innovations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keywords
    Citizen participation; democratic innovations; e-petitions; public trust
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Research subject
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48957 (URN)10.1080/01900692.2016.1162801 (DOI)000415699700004 ()2-s2.0-84978523941 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Building pervasive participation
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
    4. After the Equilibrium: Democratic Innovations and Long-term Institutional Development in the City of Reykjavik
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>After the Equilibrium: Democratic Innovations and Long-term Institutional Development in the City of Reykjavik
    2018 (English)In: Analyse & Kritik. Zeitung für linke Debatte und Praxis, ISSN 0171-5860, E-ISSN 2365-9858, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although democratic innovations (DIs) are spread all over the world, there is little research on the institutional outcomes of implementing such innovations in governmental organisations. To remedy this, it is important to focus on cases where DIs have been implemented and formally connected to the policymaking process over a longer period. Reykjavik provides such a case. Drawing on observations and interviews with key stakeholders over a period of three years, this study analyses how the institutional logic of DIs influenced the local government in Reykjavik. The study presents two conclusions: First, it is clear that one equilibrium (representative democracy) has not been replaced by another (participatory democracy). Second, there is no peaceful co-existence between the two, but instead the outcome is an organisation in ‘a state of flux’. There are several factors contributing to this outcome, but three stand out: a populist power-shift, dissatisfaction with theworking of the implemented DIs and deliberative ambiguity. In the final part of the article, the institutional outcome is discussed in relation to overall consequences for the political system.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lucius und Lucius Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
    Keywords
    Democratic innovations, ICT, local government, institutional logics
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69066 (URN)10.1515/auk-2018-0002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048634224 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
  • Akalin, Neziha
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Enhancing Social Human-Robot Interaction with Deep Reinforcement Learning.2018In: Proc. FAIM/ISCA Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Multimodal Human Robot Interaction, 2018, MHRI , 2018, p. 48-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to develop an autonomous social robot for elderly individuals. The robot will learn from the interaction and change its behaviors in order to enhance the interaction and improve the user experience. For this purpose, we aim to use Deep Reinforcement Learning. The robot will observe the user’s verbal and nonverbal social cues by using its camera and microphone, the reward will be positive valence and engagement of the user.

  • Lagin, Madelen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Price We Pay: The Autonomy of Store Managers in Making Price Decisions: The Case of Grocery Retailing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, the store manager’s autonomy in making price decisions is explored to further our understanding of this actor. As a result, the store manager’s embeddedness in the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad provides a more holistic view of the price decisions made in grocery retailing. In both the scientific literature and the grey literature, discussions of whom it is who actually makes the price decisions within grocery retailing are diverse and point to all three actors in the triad, including the store manager.

    Through a theoretical departure in which price decisions and autonomy is discussed, it is possible to explore the store manager’s ability to make price decisions in relation to the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad. As an embedded actor in the triad, the store managers can, theoretically andspeculatively, face restrictions in relation to all actors.

    The context in which this dissertation is placed is that of the grocery retail branch in Sweden, where the three largest retail organisations have participated in the dissertation. This dissertation consists of the cover paper and five appended papers, where autonomy is discussed from a qualitative perspective within the frame of a mixed method approach. By looking at price decisions from the store manager’s perspective, and his/her freedom in making price decisions, the dissertation contributes to the area of micro-foundations of pricing.

    It is concluded that while store managers might not be formally autonomous in making price decisions, and that connected restrictions, due to the relationship and position of the actors in the original triad are in place, the store managers have enough freedom in relation to the store to implicitly and operationally influence price decisions. As a result, it is concluded that the possibility to resist decisions by acting as if they are autonomous, store managers become important actors to be taken into account when price decisions are made and evaluated.

    List of papers
    1. Understanding the link between price strategy and price tactic: an analytical model on retailers’ decisions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the link between price strategy and price tactic: an analytical model on retailers’ decisions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69157 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. How does the use of in-store discount coupons affect retail revenues?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does the use of in-store discount coupons affect retail revenues?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69158 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Quantity Rebates Using Coupons: A Retailers Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantity Rebates Using Coupons: A Retailers Perspective
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69159 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Psychological price-setting techniques: An experiment on odd to even prices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological price-setting techniques: An experiment on odd to even prices
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69160 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Retail price decisions from the perspective of the store manager
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retail price decisions from the perspective of the store manager
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69161 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved