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  • Wide, Sverre
    Redaktören har ordet2014In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 107-107Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Redaktören har ordet
  • Wide, Sverre
    Redaktören har ordet2015In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 207-207Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Redaktören har ordet
  • Wide, Sverre
    Redaktören har ordet2016In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Redaktören har ordet
  • Wide, Sverre
    Nordiska Sociologiska Förbundets Styrelse, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Sociologförbundet har ordet: Rapport från Nordiska sociologförbundets 28:e konferens i Helsingfors 11–13 aug 20162016In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 339-339Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Rapport från Nordiska sociologförbundets 28:e konferens i Helsingfors 11–13 aug 2016
  • Wide, Sverre
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Smärta, skönhet och sociomaterialitet: En intervju med Dag Østerberg om begreppen form, förändring och socialitet2009In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 5-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain, beauty, and socio-matter. An interview with Dag Østerberg concerning the concepts of form, process, and sociality.

    Professor Dag Østerberg (born 1938) is one of the most prominent Nordic sociologists and the author of many influential books. In this interview he discusses the concept of form in sociology and social thinking and relates it not only to change, but to sociality, pain, beauty, and socio-matter as well. In order to contextualise Østerberg’s discussion, the interview is prefaced by a brief introduction to the traditional understanding of form as related to matter and content.

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    Smärta, skönhet och sociomaterialitet: en intervju med Dag Østerberg om begreppen form, förändring och socialitet
  • Wide, Sverre
    Sociologi som erotik2007In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 80-85Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Sociologi som erotik
  • Wide, Sverre
    Sociologi, metod och smak2007In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 83-84Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Sociologi, metod och smak
  • Wide, Sverre
    Teori för rädda2008In: n()n()a()g()e()n()t() : om kunskap, kärlek och ingenting särskiljt: En vänbok till Kaj Håkanson / [ed] Wide, Sverre; Palm, Fredrik; Misheva, Vessela, Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2008, p. 236-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Teori för rädda
  • Wide, Sverre
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Vad betyder ordet positivism?: Försök till karaktäristik av ett tänkesätt2015In: En profil i profilen: Vänbok till Bo G Jansson / [ed] Catharina Nyström Höög, Charlotte Lindgren & Sverre Wide, Falun, Sweden: Dalarna University, 2015, p. 179-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Vad betyder ordet positivism? Försök till karaktäristik av ett tänkesätt
  • Wide, Sverre
    et al.
    Palm, FredrikMisheva, Vessela
    n()n()a()g()e()n()t(): Om kunskap, kärlek och ingenting särskiljt. En vänbok till Kaj Håkanson2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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    n()n()a()g()e()n()t()
  • Wide, Sverre
    et al.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Om den vård- och socialpolitiska gruppen: Ett samtal mellan Elisabet Näsman, Fredrik Palm och Sverre Wide2008In: n()n()a()g()e()n()t() : om kunskap, kärlek och ingenting särskiljt: En vänbok till Kaj Håkanson / [ed] Wide, Sverre; Palm, Fredrik; Misheva, Vessela, Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2008, p. 61-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Om den vård- och socialpolitiska gruppen: Ett samtal mellan Elisabet Näsman, Fredrik Palm och Sverre Wide
  • Public defence: 2020-06-08 10:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Wastewater-Associated Aquatic Environments2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes (carbapenemases) in Enterobacteriaceae has led to limited therapeutic options. The increased resistance to these “last-resort” antibiotics is fueled by overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human medicine and agriculture. According to the One-Health concept, the microbiomes of humans, animals and natural environments are interconnected reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and changes in one compartment will affect the other compartments. Thus, the environmental waters exposed to the pathogens, ARGs and other contaminants of human origin can play a significant role in the spread of resistance. The study aimed to characterize carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and ARGs in wastewaters and associated river and lake waters in Örebro, Sweden. The study also analyzed de novo development of resistance in Klebsiella oxytoca during long-term growth in river water and the effect of temperature on the emergence of resistance. OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli (ST131) and VIM-1-producing K.oxytoca (ST172) were repeatedly detected in the wastewaters and associated river, suggesting that these isolates were persistently present in these environments. Furthermore, K. oxytoca ST172 isolated from the river was genetically similar to two isolates previously recovered from patients in a local hospital, which shows the possibility of transmission of CPE from hospital to aquatic environments. A high diversity of ARGs was detected in these environments especially in hospital wastewater where ten different carbapenemase genes were detected. These results emphasized that the effective treatment of wastewaters must be ensured to reduce or eliminate the spread of antibiotic resistance. Increased resistance to meropenem (up to 8-fold) and ceftazidime (>10-fold) was observed in K. oxytoca after exposure to both river and tap water after 600 generations and resistance emerged earlier when the bacteria was grown at the higher temperature. The exposure to contaminants and increased environmental temperature may induce similar changes in the environmental microbiome, generating novel resistant variants at accelerated rates that may pose a significant threat to human health.

    List of papers
    1. Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST38 and Klebsiella oxytoca ST172 are persistent in Swedish wastewaters and associated river
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST38 and Klebsiella oxytoca ST172 are persistent in Swedish wastewaters and associated river
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81831 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden
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    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2241-2251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenem antibiotics are one of the last-resort agents against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in wastewater and aquatic environments is an indication of MDR bacteria in the community. This study evaluated CPE in aquatic environments and compared them to the local hospital isolates in Sweden. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of antibiotic resistance of environmental and clinical CPE were performed. The relatedness of the isolates and possible clonal dissemination was evaluated using phylogenetic and phyloproteomic analysis. Klebsiella oxytoca carrying carbapenemase genes (blaVIM-1, blaIMP-29) were isolated from wastewater and the recipient river, while K. oxytoca (blaVIM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaVIM-1, blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-3) were isolated from patients at the local clinics or hospital. The K. oxytoca classified as sequence type 172 (ST172) isolated from the river was genotypically related to two clinical isolates recovered from patients. The similarity between environmental and clinical isolates suggests the dispersion of blaVIM-1 producing K. oxytoca ST172 from hospital to aquatic environment and the likelihood of its presence in the community. This is the first report of CPE in aquatic environments in Sweden; therefore, surveillance of aquatic and hospital environments for CPE in other urban areas is important to determine the major transfer routes in order to formulate strategies to prevent the spread of MDR bacteria.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2018
    Keywords
    Antimicrobial resistance, Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Extended spectrum beta-lactamase, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Multidrug resistance
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68676 (URN)10.1007/s10096-018-3365-9 (DOI)000449921100003 ()30171482 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053311566 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Nyckelfonden at Orebro University Hospital 

    Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Aquatic Environments Using Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Aquatic Environments Using Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81832 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater
    2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-lactose fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic misuse has fueled the worldwide spread of resistant bacteria and the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (ARGs). There is evidence that ARGs are ubiquitous in non-clinical environments, especially those affected by anthropogenic activity. However, the emergence and primary sources of ARGs in the environment of countries with strict regulations for antibiotics usage are not fully explored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the repertoire of ARGs of culturable Gram-negative bacteria from directionally connected sites from the hospital to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and downstream aquatic environments in central Sweden. The ARGs were detected from genomic DNA isolated from a population of selectively cultured coliform and Gram-negative bacteria using qPCR. The results show that hospital wastewater was a reservoir of several class B beta-lactamase genes such as bla(IMP)(-1), bla(IMP)(-2), and bla(OXA-23), however, most of these genes were not observed in downstream locations. Moreover, beta-lactamase genes such as bla(OXA-48), bla(CDX-M-8), and bla(SFC-1), bla(VIM-1), and bla(VIM-13) were detected in downstream river water but not in the WWTP. The results indicate that the WWTP and hospital wastewaters were reservoirs of most ARGs and contribute to the diversity of ARGs in associated natural environments. However, this study suggests that other factors may also have minor contributions to the prevalence and diversity of ARGs in natural environments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
    Keywords
    carbapenemase, urban wastewater, surface water, enterobacteriaceae, VIM-1, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance gene co-occurrence
    National Category
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73758 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2019.00688 (DOI)000463403600001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837Knowledge Foundation, 20150084
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Nyckelfonden at Örebro University Hospital  

    Örebro University 

    Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Environmental Conditions Promote Genetic Changes and Increase Resistance to β-lactam Antibiotics in Klebsiella oxytoca
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Conditions Promote Genetic Changes and Increase Resistance to β-lactam Antibiotics in Klebsiella oxytoca
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81833 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
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    Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Wastewater-Associated Aquatic Environments
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Djekic, Demir
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to determine the association of novel and traditional risk factors with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in healthy individuals. In addition, we investigated the effects of a vegetarian, compared to a meat diet, on novel and traditional risk factors in patients with diagnosed CAD.

    Methods: Studies I-II evaluated the inter-laboratory reproducibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) lipid analysis and the association of serum lipidome with CAC in a cohort of 70 patients. Studies III and IV analysed data of 1067 participants in the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study to determine associations of psychosocial (residential area, education, housing, and social support) and traditional risk factors with CAC. Cardiac computed tomography was used to obtain a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) (Studies I–IV). Study V employed a crossover design in which 31 patients with CAD were randomly allocated to a four-week vegetarian diet alternating with four weeks of an isocaloric meat diet. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure oxidised LDL-cholesterol. Plasma metabolome, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, L-carnitine, and acetyl-carnitine, as well as plasma lipidome were determined with LC-MS. Gut microbiota and faecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids were analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-MS, respectively.

    Results: In Study I, two laboratories independently identified six lipids in common that differentiated serum of patients with CACS >250 from that of those with CACS=0. Study II, revealed higher levels of phosphatidylcholine(PC)(16:0/20:4) and lower levels of PC(18:2/18:2), PC(36:3) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(20:0/18:2) in patients with CACS >250 than found in those with CACS=0. Study III showed a CACS >0 prevalence of 46.3% and 36.6% in low and high socioeconomic residential areas, respectively, but the traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratio for CACS >0 was not significantly higher in subjects living in low socioeconomic areas. In Study III, the traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratio for CACS >100 relative to CACS=0 was significantly higher in women with low education level and living in a rented apartment. Studies III and IV showed traditional risk factor–adjusted odds ratios for CACS >0 to be significantly higher in women with a family history of premature cardiovascular disease and low social support. No relationship of psychosocial factors with CAC was observed in men. The vegetarian diet implemented in Study V significantly lowered mean oxidized LDL-cholesterol (-2.73 U/L), total cholesterol (-0.13 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (-0.10 mmol/L), and body mass index (-0.21 kg/m2), as well as the relative abundance of PCs, PEs, and several microbial genera compared with the meat diet. The effect of the vegetarian diet on oxidized LDL-C was associated with higher relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae genera and of Barnesiella and reduced abundance of Flavonifractor. The vegetarian diet lowered the relative abundance of ceramide(d18:1/16:0) and triacylglycerols with saturated fatty acyl chains and raised the relative abundance of triacylglycerols with high carbon and polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains compared with the meat diet.

    Conclusions: Novel and traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with subclinical CAD. Psychosocial factors are associated with subclinical CAD in women, but not in men. Short-term intervention with a vegetarian diet in individuals with CAD can positively impact novel and traditional factors that have been associated with risk of future cardiovascular events.

    List of papers
    1. Replication of LC-MS untargeted lipidomics results in patients with calcific coronary disease: an interlaboratory reproducibility study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Replication of LC-MS untargeted lipidomics results in patients with calcific coronary disease: an interlaboratory reproducibility study
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 222, p. 1042-1048Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recently a lipidomics approach was able to identify perturbed fatty acyl chain (FAC) and sphingolipid moieties that could stratify patients according to the severity of coronary calcification, a form of subclinical atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, these findings have not yet been reproduced before generalising their application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of lipidomics approaches by replicating previous lipidomic findings in groups of patients with calcific coronary artery disease (CCAD).

    METHODS: Patients were separated into the following groups based on their calcium score (CS); no calcification (CS: 0; n=26), mild calcification (CS: 1-250; n=27) and severe calcification (CS: >250; n=17). Two serum samples were collected from each patient and used for comparative analyses by 2 different laboratories, in different countries and time points using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry untargeted lipidomics methods.

    RESULTS: Six identical metabolites differentiated patients with severe coronary artery calcification from those with no calcification were found by both laboratories independently. Additionally, relative intensities from the two analyses demonstrated high correlation coefficients. Phosphatidylcholine moieties with 18-carbon FAC were identified in lower intensities and 20:4 FAC in higher intensities in the serum of diseased group. Moreover, 3 common sphingomyelins were detected.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first interlaboratory reproducibility study utilising lipidomics applications in general and specifically in patients with CCAD. Lipid profiling applications in patients with CCAD are very reproducible in highly specialised and experienced laboratories and could be applied in clinical practice in order to spare patients diagnostic radiation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Lipidomics, Reproducibility, Coronary artery disease, Calcific coronary disease, Metabolomics
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Research subject
    Cardiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57882 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.214 (DOI)000384698300219 ()27543723 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84982192130 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Serum untargeted lipidomic profiling reveals dysfunction of phospholipid metabolism in subclinical coronary artery disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum untargeted lipidomic profiling reveals dysfunction of phospholipid metabolism in subclinical coronary artery disease
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    2019 (English)In: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 15, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Disturbed metabolism of cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TGs) carries increased risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, the exact relationship between individual lipid species and CAC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify disturbances in lipid profiles involved in the calcification process, in an attempt to propose potential biomarker candidates.

    Patients and methods: We studied 70 patients at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease who had undergone coronary calcification assessment using computed tomography and Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS). Patients were divided into three groups: with no coronary calcification (NCC; CACS: 0; n=26), mild coronary calcification (MCC; CACS: 1-250; n=27), or severe coronary calcification (SCC; CACS: >250; n=17). Patients' serum samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in an untargeted lipidomics approach.

    Results: We identified 103 lipids within the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and sterol lipid classes. After false discovery rate correction, phosphatidylcholine (PC)(16:0/20:4) in higher levels and PC(18:2/18:2), PC(36:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine(20:0/18:2) in lower levels were identified as correlates with SCC compared to NCC. There were no significant differences in the levels of individual TGs between the three groups; however, clustering the lipid profiles showed a trend for higher levels of saturated and monounsaturated TGs in SCC compared to NCC. There was also a trend for lower TG (49:2), TG(51:1), TG(54:5), and TG(56:8) levels in SCC compared to MCC.

    Conclusion: In this study we investigated the lipidome of patients with coronary calcification. Our results suggest that the calcification process may be associated with dysfunction in autophagy. The lipidomic biomarkers revealed in this study may aid in better assessment of patients with subclinical coronary artery disease.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2019
    Keywords
    coronary artery calcification, coronary artery calcium score, lipidomics, triacylglycerol, lipids, atherosclerosis, autophagy
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74648 (URN)10.2147/VHRM.S202344 (DOI)000468547500001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Impact of socioeconomic status on coronary artery calcification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of socioeconomic status on coronary artery calcification
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    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 1756-1764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, but few studies have investigated the potential link between living in an area with a low versus a high socioeconomic status and coronary artery calcification, a marker of subclinical coronary artery disease. Design The design of this study was a cross-sectional study. Methods We evaluated 1067 participants with no history of coronary artery disease from the pilot phase of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Men and women aged 50-64 years were recruited from three high-socioeconomic status ( n = 541) and three low-socioeconomic status ( n = 526) areas in the city of Gothenburg (550,000 inhabitants). The coronary artery calcification score was assessed with the Agatston method using computed tomography, with individuals classified into either no coronary calcification ( n = 625; mean age, 57 years) or any coronary artery calcification ( n = 442; mean age, 59 years (men, 68.5%)). Results Coronary artery calcification was present in 244 (46.3%) and 198 (36.6%) individuals from the low- and high-socioeconomic status areas, respectively. Participants from the low-socioeconomic status areas had a significantly higher risk factor burden. In a multivariable logistic regression model with adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, the odds for coronary artery calcification were not significantly higher among persons living in low-socioeconomic status areas (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.60). Conclusion In this relatively small cross-sectional study, we observed an association between living in a low-socioeconomic status area and coronary artery calcification. However, this was mostly explained by higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors, indicating that the effect of socioeconomic status on the atherosclerotic process works through an increased burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Keywords
    Socioeconomic status, social classes, neighbourhood, coronary artery calcification, subclinical coronary artery disease, ethnic group, nationality
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68438 (URN)10.1177/2047487318792103 (DOI)000448077100012 ()30095278 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052572798 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Heart Lung FoundationKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVARegion Västra Götaland
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg

    Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Social Support and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged Men and Women: Findings from the Pilot of Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Support and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Middle-Aged Men and Women: Findings from the Pilot of Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study
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    2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Social support has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly in individuals who have sustained a cardiovascular event. This study investigated the relationship between social support and subclinical CAD among 1067 healthy middle-aged men and women. Social support was assessed with validated social integration and emotional attachment measures. Subclinical CAD was assessed as a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) using computed tomography. There was no association between social support and CACS in men. In women, low social support was strongly linked to cardiovascular risk factors, high levels of inflammatory markers, and CACS > 0. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for 12 cardiovascular risk factors, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for CACS > 0 in women with the lowest social integration, emotional attachment, and social support groups (reference: highest corresponding group) were 2.47 (1.23-5.12), 1.87 (0.93-3.59), and 4.28 (1.52-12.28), respectively. Using a machine learning approach (random forest), social integration was the fourth (out of 12) most important risk factor for CACS > 0 in women. Women with lower compared to higher or moderate social integration levels were about 14 years older in "vascular age". This study showed an association between lack of social support and subclinical CAD in middle-aged women, but not in men. Lack of social support may affect the atherosclerotic process and identify individuals vulnerable to CAD events.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2020
    Keywords
    Social support, women, coronary artery calcium, coronary artery calcification, subclinical coronary artery disease, inflammation
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80753 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17030778 (DOI)000517783300103 ()32012689 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078872171 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilVinnovaRegion Västra GötalandAFA InsuranceSwedish Heart Lung Foundation
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg

    Region Örebro County through ALF research fund

    Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) is the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation

    Available from: 2020-03-20 Created: 2020-03-20 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Effects of a vegetarian diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, gut microbiota, and plasma metabolome in subjects with ischemic heart disease - a randomized, cross-over study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a vegetarian diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, gut microbiota, and plasma metabolome in subjects with ischemic heart disease - a randomized, cross-over study
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81939 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-05-19 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
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    Novel and Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Coronary Artery Calcium, Lipidomics, Psychosocial Factors and Diet
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  • Skargren, Fredric
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    What is the point of benchmarking e-government? An integrative and critical literature review on the phenomenon of benchmarking e-government2020In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 67-89, article id IP-190131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review looks at research conducted on the phenomenon of benchmarking e-government during the years 2003 to 2016 and entails 27 articles. The review shows how this field has changed over time, its main findings and what the potential benefits are for the public sector in using the results from benchmarks. The findings reveal how initial research created taxonomies of benchmarks and criticised them for being too focused on measuring online services. This research was followed by even more criticism on how benchmarks can have a negative impact on e-government policy and development. During the same time-period there is research giving methodological support on how to improve ways of benchmarking. Later research offer theoretically and conceptually informed critique of benchmark-studies. The review finds that there are mainly implicit assumptions about the potential benefits in using benchmarks for improving e-government. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings in terms of the lack of context and relevance in benchmarks for e-government in relationship to the nature of public administration and makes suggestions for ways forward.

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    What is the point of benchmarking e-government?
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 09:00 Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Örebro
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the use of evidence-based nursing (EBN) with respect to the four cornerstones of EBN: research, nursing theory, the patient’s perspective and clinical competence. Study I explored registered nurses (RNs) self-reported research utilization (RU) in relation to their work climate. A quantitative approach was used; further analyze led to a cluster solution of the measured variables, and low reported RU were compared with higher reported RU. The result showed that an academic degree underpinned the instrumental research utilization (IRU), also women reported higher use of conceptual research utilization (CRU). An association between low RU and dynamism/liveliness was seen, and younger RNs and RNs with shorter working experience reported higher scores for playfulness/humor and conflicts. Study II described how nurses conceived working in a ward where a nursing philosophy had been implemented. A phenomenographic method was used. The philosophy supported the clinical work and underpinned reflection and shared values. A prerequisite was a dedicated leader. The RNs described the care being of high quality. First line nurse managers (FLNMs) role and their experience of opportunities and obstacles to support EBN, was explored in study III. Data was collected using focus groups and analysed using phenomenography. The result showed that the FLNMs need to make an entity of vision and reality to be supportive according of EBN. The last study was an integrative literature review and the perspective of the patient in articles reporting on interventions designed to improve nursing was in focus. The result in study IV showed that the perspective of the patient represents five aspects, and that reporting clinical implications is important. In conclusion; the different perspectives all relates to EBN. Registered nurses need to be encouraged to develop their academic training, to be able to work according to EBN. A nursing philosophy provides time for reflection and a feeling of performing care of high quality. FLNMs need to take their role to support the RNs in order to work evidence-based. Conscious and communicated aspects supported the perspective of the patient.

    List of papers
    1. Registered nurses’ self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate – using cluster analysis to search for patterns
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Registered nurses’ self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate – using cluster analysis to search for patterns
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81865 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Conceptions of an implemented nursing philosophy: A phenomenographic study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptions of an implemented nursing philosophy: A phenomenographic study
    2014 (English)In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses conceive their work on a ward where a nursing philosophy has been systematically implemented.

    Introduction: There is no international consensus today in relation to the organizing of nursing on the basis of an established nursing theory.

    Design and method: This study has a phenomenographic methodology, with an epistemological base in life-world perspective. Data were collected through thematized interviews with nurses on a ward where a nursing philosophy has been implemented for several years.

    Result: The conceptions of working with a nursing philosophy is described in an overarching statement formulated as a movement From implicit to explicit - where openness and freedom to speak are essential based on five categories of description (conceptions): Making it happen – the manager´s significance for implementation, Integrating the philosophy within me – creating a collective platform, “Welcome to us” – a caring atmosphere, The patient’s sense of being confirmed – establishing quality of care, “Us and them” –being inside or outside.

    Conclusion: Working with an implemented nursing philosophy seemed to provide support to the nurse in day-to-day work and thereby contributes to shared values. On the basis of the results we are not able to state that the specific nursing philosophy used can be the only contribution to the experienced support.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sciedu Press, 2014
    Keywords
    Nursing philosophy, Reflections, Feeling of confidence, Theory, Phenomenography
    National Category
    Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81864 (URN)10.5430/cns.v2n3p86 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
    3. First line nurse managers' experience of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence-based nursing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>First line nurse managers' experience of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence-based nursing
    2018 (English)In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 634-641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to explore first line nurse managers’ experiences of opportunities and obstacles to support evidence‐based nursing.

    Design: A qualitative study with a phenomenographical approach.

    Method: Data were collected through focus group interviews with 15 first line nurse managers’ in four settings.

    Results: The results are presented in four categories of description headed: Manage the everyday work vs. evidence‐based nursing; Uncertainties about evidence‐based nursing and nursing research; Time as a reality, as an approach; and Shaping awareness—towards an active approach to evidence‐based nursing. The overarching category of description has been formulated as follows: The internal relation—how active leadership influences evidence‐based nursing. The outcome space is presented as: The individual path—how to make vision and reality become a working entity around evidence‐based nursing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
    Keywords
    Coherent strategy, evidence‐based nursing, first line nurse manager, leadership, phenomenography, reflection
    National Category
    Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68352 (URN)10.1002/nop2.172 (DOI)000446838700020 ()30338109 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Is the patient’s perspective taken into account? – Interventions to improve evidence-based nursing: An integrative literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the patient’s perspective taken into account? – Interventions to improve evidence-based nursing: An integrative literature review
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81866 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
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    Evidence-based nursing - reflections from different perspectives
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  • Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Berg, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cold Science Meets Hot Weather: Environmental Threats, Emotional Messages and Scientific Storytelling2020In: Media and Communication, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science is frequently called upon to provide guidance in the work towards sustainable development. However, for science to promote action, it is not sufficient that scientific advice is seen as competent and trustworthy. Such advice must also be perceived as meaningful and important, showing the need and urgency of taking action. This article discusses how science tries to facilitate action. It claims that the use of scientific storytelling—coherent stories told by scientists about environmental trajectories—are central in this; these stories provide meaning and motivate and guide action. To do this, the storylines need to include both a normative orientation and emotional appeals. Two different cases of scientific storytelling are analyzed: one is a dystopic story about a world rushing towards ecological catastrophe, and the other is an optimistic story about a world making dramatic progress. These macrosocial stories offer science-based ways to see the world and aim to foster and guide action. The article concludes by stating that using storylines in scientific storytelling can elicit fear, inspire hope, and guide action. The storylines connect cold and distant scientific findings to passionate imperatives about the need for social transformation. However, this attachment to emotions and values needs to be done reflexively, not only in order to create engagement with an issue but also to counteract a post-truth society where passionate imperatives go against scientific knowledge.

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    Cold Science Meets Hot Weather: Environmental Threats, Emotional Messages and Scientific Storytelling
  • Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flygare, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Bryggan: En processutvärdering av en social investering med fokus på elever med destruktivt normbrytande beteende och problematisk skolfrånvaro2020Report (Other academic)
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    BRYGGAN: En processutvärdering av en social investering med fokus på elever med destruktivt normbrytande beteende och problematisk skolfrånvaro
  • Öberg, Jacob
    Faculty of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trust in the Law? Mutual Recognition as a Justification to Domestic Criminal Procedure2020In: European Constitutional Law Review, ISSN 1574-0196, E-ISSN 1744-5515, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 33-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article closely analyses mutual recognition as a justification for EU legislative activity in the field of domestic criminal procedure. By looking at the structure, wording and purpose of the Treaties, the article first discusses the proper interpretation of the mutual recognition criterion in Article 82(2) TFEU. It argues for a narrow construction of Article 82(2) TFEU, suggesting that the expression ‘enabling mutual recognition’ is capable of substantially confining EU action on criminal procedure. The article challenges the justification for having EU competence in domestic criminal procedure on the basis that it enables mutual recognition. It advances the proposition that it is very difficult to defend on a conceptual and empirical basis that harmonisation has a positive effect on the operation on mutual recognition.

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    Trust in the Law? Mutual Recognition as a Justificationto Domestic Criminal Procedure
  • Hugelius, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Semrau, Maya
    Center for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    HESPER web - development and reliability evaluation of a web-based version of the humanitarian emergency settings perceived needs scale2020In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER) assesses a wide range of physical, psychological and social perceived needs across 26 questions, and can be used in humanitarian emergencies and disasters for needs assessment or research studies. The original HESPER collects data through individual interviews. Today, a large number of people have access to the internet, including in humanitarian emergencies and disasters. Therefore, this paper aimed to report the development, reliability evaluation and feasibility evaluation of the HESPER Web.

    Methods: First, the original HESPER was developed into a web based survey. Thereafter, alternate forms reliability between the HESPER and HESPER Web, and test-retest reliability for the HESPER Web, was evaluated using a study sample of 85 asylum seekers in Sweden in total.

    Results: The alternate forms reliability evaluation showed that the HESPER Web was a reliable instrument to assess perceived needs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for total number of serious needs was 0.96 (CI 0.93–09.98, p < 0.001). Cohen’s κ was used to analyse the alternate forms reliability between the HESPER and HESPER Web item per item; the correspondence between HESPER and HESPER Web varied between 0.54 and 1.0 for the 26 questions. There was a strong nominal association in first priority need between the HESPER and HESPER Web (Cramer’s V 0.845, p < 0.001). In the test-retest reliability evaluation of HESPER Web, ICC was 0.98 (CI 0.97–0.99, p < 0.001), and Cohen’s κ varied between 0.53 and 1.0. There was a strong nominal association in first priority need between test and re-test (Cramer’s V 0.93, p < 0.001). The HESPER Web was experienced as easy and safe to use and was found less time consuming than the original HESPER interview, according to the study participants.

    Conclusion: The HESPER Web is a reliable and usable instrument to assess perceived needs. It can reduce a number of practical challenges both for needs assessment in disasters or humanitarian emergencies as well as in research.

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    HESPER web - development and reliability evaluation of a web-based version of the humanitarian emergency settings perceived needs scale
  • Kurtser, Polina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Department of Computing science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rotstein, Nati
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems.
    PointNet and geometric reasoning for detection of grape vines from single frame RGB-D data in outdoor conditions2020In: Proceedings of the Northern Lights Deep Learning Workshop, NLDL , 2020, Vol. 1, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the usage of PointNet, a deep neural network that consumes raw un-ordered point clouds, for detection of grape vine clusters in outdoor conditions. We investigate the added value of feeding the detection network with both RGB and depth, contradictory to common practice in agricultural robotics of relying on RGB only. A total of 5057 pointclouds (1033 manually annotated and 4024 annotated using geometric reasoning) were collected in a field experiment conducted in outdoor conditions on 9 grape vines and 5 plants. The detection results show overall accuracy of 91% (average class accuracy of 74%, precision 53% recall 48%) for RGBXYZ data and a significant drop in recall for RGB or XYZ data only. These results suggest the usage of depth cameras for vision in agricultural robotics is crucial for crops where the color contrast between the crop and the background is complex. The results also suggest geometric reasoning can be used for increased training set size, a major bottleneck in the development of agricultural vision systems.

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    PointNet and geometric reasoning for detection of grape vines from single frame RGB-D data in outdoor conditions
  • Jämte, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Antirasismens många ansikten2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the knowledge and understanding of the anti-racist movement in Sweden by describing its development from the early 1930s to the mid-2000s. It pays special attention to mapping and analyzing the ideas that have motivated anti-racist activities and their importance for mobilizing support and movement activity. Using the theoretical toolbox of the framing perspective, the strengths, weaknesses, possibilities and limitations of different anti-racist frames are discussed, as are the consequences of different types of intra-movement frame disputes and frame contests with external actors.

    By tracing and describing the historical development of the movement and different types of anti-racist frames, I create a typology of different anti-racist actors - what I call pragmatic, radical and moderate anti-racists. The activities of these types of actors are described throughout the long and winding history of the movement. In the thesis, the movement’s history is divided into four waves of protest. The movement’s roots stretch back to the 1930s and the struggle against Fascism and Nazism. It continues during the 1960s and onwards with the anti-apartheid movement, the 1980s mass mobilizations against domestic racist groups and the intensified struggles of the last decades against racist extremism, right-wing populism and various aspects of structural racism. Based on the typology, three cases are selected for further scrutiny. Pragmatic anti-racism is studied through the activities of Stoppa rasismen (Stop racism) in the 1980s, radical anti-racism through Antifascistisk aktion (Antifascist action, also known as AFA) during the 1990s and moderate anti-racism through Samling mot rasism och diskriminering (Gathering against racism and discrimination) at the turn of the millennium. By gaining access to extensive empirical material I have been able to follow each case from its first steps to its downfall. The material has been gathered from a variety of sources using different qualitative techniques. I have conducted semi-structured interviews with activists and analyzed protocols, pamphlets, journals, internal bulletins, mails, posters, speeches, web pages that have been disbanded, pictures, films and books.

    The analysis shows that the different types of actors face different challenges, and have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to mobilizing consensus and fostering participation. However, the three actors have also faced common challenges when trying to mobilize against racism given the national context, the self-image of Sweden as a tolerant, open and egalitarian country and the dominant views of racism, which taken together has turned racism into a serious but fairly marginal problem. The analysis also shows the effects of frame disputes and frame contests with regard to diagnostic, prognostic and motivational aspects of framing. At times the dividing lines have led to a broadening of the movement and its work, creating a wide mobilization potential and a strong multitudinous movement. During other periods the differences have contributed to long and profound conflicts that have drained the organizations and activists of time, resources and energy. Instead of focusing on combating their opponents, the anti-racist groups have been engulfed in internal strife, which has severely fragmented, divided and weakened the movement and hindered mobilization – contributing to turning the movement into a dispersed “milieu” by the mid-2000s. The thesis concludes with a chapter discussing how the empirical applicability of the framing perspective can be improved.

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    Antirasismens många ansikten
  • Garcia-Ptacek, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine, Section for Neurology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contreras Escamez, Beatriz
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatrics, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Spain.
    Zupanic, Eva
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Religa, Dorota
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    von Koch, Lena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Euler, Mia
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset and Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Aging Research Network -Jönköping (ARN-J), Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prestroke Mobility and Dementia as Predictors of Stroke Outcomes in Patients Over 65 Years of Age: A Cohort Study From The Swedish Dementia and Stroke Registries2018In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between prestroke mobility dependency and dementia on functioning and mortality outcomes after stroke in patients>65 years of age.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study based on SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry and Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Registry.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1689 patients with dementia >65 years of age registered in SveDem and suffering a first stroke between 2007 and 2014 were matched with 7973 controls without dementia with stroke.

    MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for intrahospital mortality, and functioning and mortality outcomes at 3 months were calculated. Functioning included level of residential assistance (living at home without help, at home with help, or nursing home) and mobility dependency (independent, needing help to move outdoors, or needing help indoors and outdoors).

    RESULTS: Prestroke dependency in activities of daily living and mobility were worse in patients with dementia than controls without dementia. In unadjusted analyses, patients with dementia were more often discharged to nursing homes (51% vs 20%; P < .001). Mortality at 3 months was higher in patients with dementia (31% vs 23% P < .001) and fewer were living at home without help (21% vs 55%; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, prestroke dementia was associated with higher risk of 3-month mortality (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.18-1.52), requiring a higher level of residential assistance (OR 4.07; 3.49-.75) and suffering from more dependency in relation to mobility (OR 2.57; 2.20-3.02). Patients with dementia who were independent for mobility prestroke were more likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared with patients without dementia with the same prestroke mobility (37% vs 16%; P < .001), but there were no differences in discharge to geriatric rehabilitation (19% for both; P = .976). Patients, who moved independently before stroke, were more often discharged home (60% vs 28%) and had lower mortality. In adjusted analyses, prestroke mobility limitations were associated with higher odds for poorer mobility, needing more residential assistance, and death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mobility impairments and/or dementia present a high burden of disability after a stroke. There is a need for research on stroke interventions among these populations.

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    Prestroke Mobility and Dementia as Predictors of Stroke Outcomes in Patients Over 65 Years of Age
  • Nordström, Martin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Unconventional Monetary Policy at the International, National and Local Level2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on four essays. The first investigates time-variation in the relationship between short interest rates and consumption in the USA and Sweden. Results based on Bayesian VAR models indicate that the short rate ceased to respond to consumption shocks when constrained by the zero lower bound. Analysis using shadow rates indicate that the Federal Reserve was able to conduct effective monetary policy through unconventional instruments, but that the Riksbank was not.

    The second essay investigates the relation between municipal and government bond yields during the time when the Riksbank conducted quantitative easing in terms of government bond purchases. According to the results the spread between municipal and government bonds increased on days when the Riksbank announced bond purchases. However, further analysis using VAR models suggests that this was reversed in the medium run and the spread decreased – at least temporarily.

    The third essay studies the risks associated with municipal bonds. Due to previous bailouts it is not clear whether municipal debt has an implicit government guarantee. If there is a government guarantee municipal bonds should not be associated with credit risk, at least not in excess of government bonds. Analysis of the spread between government and municipal bonds, using a VAR model and looking at the variance decomposition and impulse-response functions, establishes that municipal bond yields are associated with credit risk.

    The final essay studies the forecasting accuracy of the policy rate path published by the Riksbank. For the period 2010 to 2014, the forecasting accuracy of the policy rate path was significantly worse than that of a forecast implicit in market prices. The poor forecasting accuracy during this period is attributed to that the Riksbank during this period had incentive to present a higher than expected policy rate path. This because it had reason to want long run interest rates to be high in order to discourage high debt levels due to high housing prices.

    List of papers
    1. Consumption and the interest rate – A changing dynamic?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumption and the interest rate – A changing dynamic?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81037 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    2. The Relation between Municipal and Government Bond Yields in an Era of Unconventional Monetary Policy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relation between Municipal and Government Bond Yields in an Era of Unconventional Monetary Policy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72417 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    3. A Guarantee – Does the Obligee Agree?: A Risk Premium Decomposition of Sub-Sovereign Bond Spreads
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Guarantee – Does the Obligee Agree?: A Risk Premium Decomposition of Sub-Sovereign Bond Spreads
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72416 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
    4. A Forecast Evaluation of the Riksbank’s Policy-Rate Projections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Forecast Evaluation of the Riksbank’s Policy-Rate Projections
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81036 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
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    Unconventional Monetary Policy at the International, National and Local Level
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  • Fröberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Elisson, Maria
    Örebro University.
    Korsettkriget – om modeslaveri och kvinnokamp vid förra sekelskiftet: en utvärdering2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Korsettkriget – om modeslaveri och kvinnokamp vid förra sekelskiftet: En utvärdering
  • Afanasyev, Ilya
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Zhuchkov, Nikita
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Maksatbek, Aizhan
    Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Kassab, Mohamad
    Pennsylvania State University, PA, United States.
    Distefano, Salvatore
    University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Towards the Internet of Robotic Things: Analysis, Architecture, Components and Challenges2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) and robotics cannot be considered two separate domains these days. Internet of Robotics Things (IoRT) is a concept that has been recently introduced to describe the integration of robotics technologies in IoT scenarios. As a consequence, these two research fields have started interacting, and thus linking research communities. In this paper we intend to make further steps in joining the two communities and broaden the discussion on the development of this interdisciplinary field. The paper provides an overview, analysis and challenges of possible solutions for the Internet of Robotic Things, discussing the issues of the IoRT architecture, the integration of smart spaces and robotic applications.

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    Towards the Internet of Robotic Things: Analysis, Architecture, Components and Challenges
  • Afanasyev, Ilya
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Kolotov, Alexander
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Rezin, Ruslan
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Danilov, Konstantin
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Kashevnik, Alexey
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Chechulin, Andrey
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Kapitonov, Aleksandr
    ITMO University, St.Petersburg, Russia.
    Jotsov, Vladimir
    University of Library Studies and Information, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Topalov, Andon
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Shakev, Nikola
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Ahmed, Sevil
    Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Towards Blockchain-based Multi-Agent Robotic Systems: Analysis, Classification and Applications2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralization, immutability and transparency make of Blockchain one of the most innovative technology of recent years. This paper presents an overview of solutions based on Blockchain technology for multi-agent robotic systems, and provide an analysis and classification of this emerging field. The reasons for implementing Blockchain in a multi-robot network may be to increase the interaction efficiency between agents by providing more trusted information exchange, reaching a consensus in trustless conditions, assessing robot productivity or detecting performance problems, identifying intruders, allocating plans and tasks, deploying distributed solutions and joint missions. Blockchain-based applications are discussed to demonstrate how distributed ledger can be used to extend the number of research platforms and libraries for multi-agent robotic systems.

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    Towards Blockchain-based Multi-Agent Robotic Systems: Analysis, Classification and Applications
  • Bhattacharyya, Subhajit
    et al.
    ECE Department, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, West Bengal, India.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    CSE Department, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, West Bengal, India.
    Reconstruction of Human Faces from Its Eigenfaces2014In: International Journal of Advanced Research In Computer Science and Software Engineering, ISSN 2277-6451, E-ISSN 2277-128X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eigenface or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methods have demonstrated their success in face recognition, detection and tracking. In this paper we have used this concept to reconstruct or represent a face as a linear combination of a set of basis images. The basis images are nothing but the eigenfaces. The idea is similar to represent a signal in the form of a linear combination of complex sinusoids called the Fourier Series. The main advantage is that the number of eigenfaces required is less than the number of face images in the database. Selection of number of eigefaces is important here. Here we investigate what is the number of minimum eigenface that is required for faithful production of a face image.

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    Reconstruction of Human Faces from Its Eigenfaces
  • Thapaliya, Ananga
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Elambo Atonge, Daniel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Afanasyev, Ilya
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Ahmad, Muhammad
    University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Digital Image Forgery2019In: ITTCS 2019: Information Technologies, Telecommunications and Control Systems / [ed] Artem V. Kruglov & Konstantin A. Aksyonov, CEUR-WS.org , 2019, Vol. 2525, article id 36Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Image control has disintegrated our trust of computerized pictures, with progressively unobtrusive fraud techniques representing a regularly expanding test to the integrity of images and their legitimacy. With the progress of advanced image controlling software and modifying tools, an electronic picture can be successively controlled. Checking the decency of pictures and recognizing indications of modifying without requiring extra pre-inserted data of the image is the basic field of inspection. In this paper, a study of such research commitments has been directed by following a well-defined and systematic procedure. There are different paths for modifying an image, for instance, copy-move, splicing, and re-sampling. This paper focuses on two types of digital image forgery detection which are copy move and splicing of image.

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    Digital Image Forgery
  • Bhattacharyya, Subhajit
    et al.
    Mallabhum Istitute of Technology Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    Chand, Nisarga
    Department at Mallabhum Institute of Technology, Campus Braja-Radhanagar, West Bengal, India.
    Chakraborty, Subham
    Mallabhum Istitute of Technology Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    A Modified Encryption Technique using Playfair Cipher 10 by 9 Matrix with Six Iteration Steps2014In: International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, ISSN 2278-1323, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 307-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the well-known digraph substitution cipher is the Playfair Cipher. It secures information mathematically by mangling message with key. The privacy of intended sender and receiver information is protected from eavesdropper. However the original 5 x 5 Playfair Cipher can support only 25 uppercase alphabets. Here we have implemented a new technique which includes a rectangular matrix having 10 columns and 9 rows and six iteration steps for encryption as well as decryption purpose. This 10 x 9 rectangular matrix includes all alphanumeric characters and some special characters. Cryptanalysis is done to show that the modified cipher is a strong one. Finally we have implemented this concept with the help of MATLAB.

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    A modified encryption technique using Playfair cipher 10 by 9 matrix with six iteration steps
  • Chakraborty, Subham
    et al.
    Department of CSE Mallabhum, Institute of Technology, Bishnupur, West Bengal, India.
    Sayan, Das
    Dept. of CSE, Camellia Institute of Technology, Madhyamgram, West Bengal, India.
    Syamal, Patra
    Dept. of CSE, Camellia Institute of Technology, Madhyamgram, West Bengal, India.
    A Brief Study To Cloud2017In: International Journal of Scientific & Engineering, ISSN 2229-5518, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 50-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing is a versatile technology that can support a broad-spectrum of applications. The low cost of cloud computing and its dynamic scaling renders it an innovation driver for small companies, particularly in the developing world. Cloud deployed enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management applications (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM) applications, medical applications and mobile applications have potential to reach millions of users. In this paper, we explore the different concepts involved in cloud computing. Leveraging our experiences on various clouds, we examine clouds from technical, and service aspects. We highlight some of the opportunities in cloud computing, underlining the importance of clouds and showing why that technology must succeed. Finally, we discuss some of the issues that this area should deal with.

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    A Brief Study To Cloud Subham
  • Piepenburg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Arensmeier, Cecilia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Demokratiutbildningens didaktik: internalisering, tänkande och handlande2020In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 1, p. 115-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses democratic and citizenship education with the ambition of linking theoretical insights from several fields of research to practical teaching. Perspectives on education, citizenship, politische Bildung, democratic theory and power, provides theoretical input. These perspectives are combined into three ideal-typical approaches to democratic education, emphasizing different aspects: democratic internalization, democratic acting and democratic thinking. We argue that practical teaching should utilize all three positions. Ultimately, a comprehensive didactic model is developed in order to visualize the relationship between the approaches. The model provides a bridge between theoretical and practical aspects of democratic education, which is useful for both teaching and research.

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    Demokratiutbildningens didaktik: internalisering, tänkande och handlande
  • Janemalm, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice: a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How teachers enact policy has been of significant interest to educational scholars. In physical education research, scholars have identified several factors affecting the enactment of policy. These factors include but are not limited to: structural support available for teachers, provision of professional development opportunities, the nature of the policy, and the educational philosophies of the teachers. A recurring conclusion drawn in this scholarship is that official documentation and teachers’ work often diverge, sometimes in profound ways.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how physical education teachers in Sweden describe their enactment of policy regarding the concept complex movement, which features in the latest Swedish curriculum.

    Methods: Interview data were generated with six specialist physical education teachers. Three questions guided the interviews: What is complex movement? What is not complex movement? And, can you give examples from your teaching of complex movement? Data were analyzed using a discourse analytic framework. Meaning was understood as a production of dialectical relationships between individuals and social practices. Two key concepts were utilized: intertextuality, which refers to the condition whereby all communicative events, not merely utterances, draw on earlier communication events, and interdiscursivity, which refers to discursive practices in which discourse types are combined in new and complex ways.

    Results: We identified three discourses regarding the teachers’ enactment of policy: (1) Complex movement as individual difficulty, (2) Complex movement as composite movements, and (3) Complex movement as situational adaptation. Several features were common to all three discourses: they were all related to issues of assessment; they suggested that complex movement is something students should be able to show or perform, and; they left open room for practically any activity done in physical education to be considered complex.

    Discussion: Three issues are addressed in the Discussion. The first concerns the intertextual nature of the teachers’ statements and how the statements relate to policy and research. The second concerns the way that knowledge, and specifically movement knowledge, becomes problematic in the teachers’ statements about complex movement. The third concerns more broadly the language used to describe the relationship between policy and practice.

    Conclusions: We propose that modest levels of overlap between teachers’ discursive resources, policy, and research is unsurprising. In line with earlier research, we suggest that the notion of ‘enactment’ is a more productive way to describe policy-oriented practice than notions such as ‘implementation’ or ‘translation’, which imply a uni-directional, linear execution of policy.

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    Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice – a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving
  • Raoof, Mustafa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Long term effects of gastric bypass on quality of life and bone mineral density2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a worldwide disease. Surgery is currently the only available management option which offers an adequate long-term effect on comorbidity, quality-of-life and weight loss. It is evident that overweight and obesity are associated with low health-related quality-of life (HRQoL) and multiple comorbidities. The aim of this thesis has been to explore the long-term effect of gastric bypass surgery on HRQoL and bone mineral density.

    In study 1: 486 patients (average age 50.7±10.0 years, 84 % female) operated with gastric bypass (GBP) from 1993 to 2003 at the University Hospitals of Örebro and Uppsala. Mean follow-up after GBP was 11.5±2.7 years (range 7–17). The study group was compared with two control groups. The study group scored better in the SF-36 domains and OP scale compared to obese controls, but their HRQoL scores were lower than those of the general population. HRQoL was better among younger patients and in the following subgroups: men; patients with satisfactory weight loss; those satisfied with the procedure; those free from comorbidity and gastrointestinal symptoms; employed; good oral status; and those not hospitalised or regularly followed up for non-bariatric reasons.

    In study 3: Patients operated with a primary GBP between January 2008 and December 2012 were identified in the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Register (SOReg). Patients with HRQoL data available at both baseline and 5 years after surgery were included. The study sample comprised 6998 patients (21% men). Gender differences in change in HRQoL were minor. Younger patients showed greater improvements in physical health scales. In general linear regression model analyses, age and weight loss correlated significantly with improvement in HRQoL after 5 years. Patients treated medically for depression preoperatively (13%) experienced less improvement in HRQoL than patients without such treatment. Patients with a postoperative complications (26%) had significantly less improvement in all aspects of HRQoL compared to those without any form of postoperative complication.This study confirmed the importance of weight loss for improvement in HRQoL after bariatric surgery. Preoperative medication for depression and suffering a complication during the five-year follow-up period were associated with less improvement in HRQoL.

    Studies 2 and 4: Included patients operated with laparoscopic gastric bypass at the department of surgery at the Örebro University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2005. Thirty-two females were prospectively recruited for this longitudinal study. In both studies, the following were measured at baseline, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively: bone mineral density (BMD); weight; height; S-calcium; S-albumin; S-creatinine; S-25(OH)-vitamin D; and fP-PTH. In study 4: Nine of the patients declined follow-up. BMD showed a statistically significant decline over the study period. The fall in BMD of the spine and femoral neck between baseline and 5 years after surgery was 19% and 25%,respectively. During the next five years period BMD continued to decline but at a lower rate. At 5 years 58 % had elevated PTH, this number declined at the next 5 years.

    List of papers
    1. Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) on an Average of 12 Years After Gastric Bypass Surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) on an Average of 12 Years After Gastric Bypass Surgery
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1119-1127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is evident that morbidly obese patients have a low health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), and this low HRQoL has become a common reason for them to seek bariatric surgery. Several HRQoL studies demonstrate a dramatic postoperative improvement, but most of these have had a short follow-up period.

    An observational, cross-sectional study for HRQoL was conducted to study 486 patients (average age of 50.7 +/- 10.0 years, with 84 % of them being female) operated with gastric bypass (GBP) in the period 1993 to 2003 at the University Hospitals of A-rebro and Uppsala. Mean follow-up after gastric bypass was 11.5 +/- 2.7 years (range 7-17). Two HRQoL instruments were used, SF-36 and the Obesity-related Problems scale (OP). The study group was compared with two control groups, both matched for age and gender, one from the general population and one containing morbidly obese patients evaluated and awaiting bariatric surgery.

    The study group scored better in the SF-36 domains (all four physical domains and the vitality subscore) and OP scale compared to obese controls, but their HRQoL scores were lower than those of the general population. HRQoL was better among younger patients and in the following subgroups: men, patients with satisfactory weight loss, satisfied with the procedure, free from co-morbidities and gastrointestinal symptoms, employment, good oral status and those not hospitalised or regularly followed up for non-bariatric reasons.

    Long-term follow-up after GBP for morbid obesity showed better scores in most aspects of HRQoL compared to obese controls but did not achieve the levels of the general population. Patients with better medical outcome after gastric bypass operation had better HRQoL.

    Keywords
    Gastric bypass, Health-related quality-of-life, Long-term follow-up, SF-36, Morbid obesity
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45292 (URN)10.1007/s11695-014-1513-6 (DOI)000355921600004 ()25566743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84930760360 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-07-23 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Effect of Gastric Bypass on Bone Mineral Density, Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: 5 Years Follow-up
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Gastric Bypass on Bone Mineral Density, Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: 5 Years Follow-up
    2016 (English)In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1141-1145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study was to see if there are longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D or parathyroid hormone (PTH) in females 5 years after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB).

    Methods: Thirty-two women with mean age 41.6 ± 9.3 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 44.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) were included. Preoperatively, 2 and 5 years postoperatively, BMD, weight, height, S-calcium, S-albumin, S-creatinine, S-25(OH)-vitamin D and fP-PTH were measured.

    Results: The mean decrease in BMI between baseline and 5 years after surgery was 29.4 %. BMD of the spine and femur measured as z- and t-scores, showed a linear, statistically significant declining trend over the years. The fall in BMD of the spine and femoral neck between baseline and 5 years after surgery was 19 and 25 %, respectively. The mean fP-PTH showed a significant increase over the study period (20.2 μg/L increase, 95 % CI:-31.99 to -8.41). S-calcium, both free and corrected for albumin, showed a decrease between baseline and 5 years after surgery. Eight patients developed osteopenia and one osteoporosis after a 5-year follow-up.

    Conclusion: LRYGB is an efficient method for sustained long-term body weight loss. There is, however, a concomitant decrease in BMD and S-calcium, and an increase in fP-PTH.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, USA: Springer, 2016
    Keywords
    Bone mineral density, gastric bypass, BMI, parathyroid hormone, obesity, vitamin D
    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49206 (URN)10.1007/s11695-016-2114-3 (DOI)000374400900037 ()26926187 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959431689 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Improvements of health-related quality of life five years after gastric bypass. What is important besides weight loss? A study from Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Register
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvements of health-related quality of life five years after gastric bypass. What is important besides weight loss? A study from Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Register
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81372 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Bone mineral density, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D after gastric bypass surgery: a 10-year longitudinal follow-up
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mineral density, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D after gastric bypass surgery: a 10-year longitudinal follow-up
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81373 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
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  • Jämte, Jan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Örebro universitet.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Sociologi.
    Brottsförebyggande åtgärder mot radikala vänsterrörelser: effekter och erfarenheter2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har lokala myndigheter utvecklat brottsförebyggande åtgärder för att motverka politiskt motiverad våldsanvändning och ”våldsbejakande extremism”. I detta projekt undersöks hur lärare, socialarbetare och poliser på lokal nivå tolkar och utför sitt uppdrag inom det specifika arbetet mot ”vänsterextremism” samt hur vänsterradikala aktivister uppfattar och påverkas av dessa åtgärder.

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    Brottsförebyggande åtgärder mot radikala vänsterrörelser – effekter och erfarenheter
  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:15 Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L2, Örebro
    Thunberg, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Victimization, Positioning, and Support: Young Victims' Experiences of Crime2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Victimization early in life can result in a number of different short and long-term consequences, for which young people might need help and support. However, from previous research it is unclear what kind of support young people perceive as supportive. The present dissertation therefore aims to theoretically and empirically investigate young people’s experiences of victimization and support. The aim is operationalized in three questions: (1) To what extent do young people with experiences of various types of victimization seek and receive support, both from professionals and from family and friends? (2) How do young people understand and construct themselves as victims? (3) How is support constructed, and which needs for support do young people perceive themselves as having after their victimization? The dissertation uses a mixed methods approach building on a quantitative dataset consisting of a survey with 2500 participants, and a qualitative dataset consisting of 19 narrative interviews with young victims of crime. The results show that few young victims seek and receive professional psychosocial support, while a greater percentage of them receive support from family and friends. Theoretically, this can be understood through how young victims construct their own victimhood, which affects what kind of support they received and perceived as supportive. Each individual describes what he or she perceived as supportive with regard to the victimization, which included firstly information and practical help, and secondly talking about the victimizing event. Information enabled the young victims to participate in the judicial and support process more on their own conditions, as they understood what was going to happen. Because of this, support as a concept needs to include various types of support adapted to the individual’s specific needs and circumstances. This means that specific types of support need to be constructed by the support provider together with the individual victim. This calls for a collaborative practice when supporting young victims of crime and for the support to be as individualized as possible.

    List of papers
    1. Does Professional or Social Network Support Meet the Needs of Victimized and Polyvictimized Youths in Sweden?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Professional or Social Network Support Meet the Needs of Victimized and Polyvictimized Youths in Sweden?
    2018 (English)In: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 390-408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The authors use survey data on 2,160 young victims of crime and/or abuse in Sweden to examine whether professional psychosocial and/or social network support meets their needs. The results show that the likelihood of having sought and/or received professional psychosocial support increases with being a victim of more types of crime and/or abuse, as does the likelihood of experiencing anxiety and/or posttraumatic stress.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2018
    Keywords
    mental health problems; poly-victimization; support; victimization; youth
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59122 (URN)10.1080/15564886.2017.1340384 (DOI)000429940300006 ()2-s2.0-85024372759 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    National Board of Health and Welfare  21-13275/2009

    Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Young victims’ positioning: Narrations of victimhood and support
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young victims’ positioning: Narrations of victimhood and support
    2020 (English)In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 196-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to analyze how young people narratively negotiate their position as victims, how their social surroundings react to their victim positioning and what types of support they are offered. It is argued that those who position themselves as innocent victims receive support, while those who do not position themselves as such are left to fend for themselves. It is concluded that receiving support functions as a way for young victims to keep intact their narratives of who they are; while young people who did not receive support and acceptance for their positioning needed to re-negotiate their narrative to make sense of who they are after the victimization. Thereby, the victimizing event was incorporated into their narrative identity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2020
    Keywords
    Young people, youth, positioning, identity, support, victim
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74716 (URN)10.1177/0269758019854950 (DOI)000532352500004 ()2-s2.0-85067964343 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Brottsofferstöd i Sverige - Matchningen mellan ungdomars behov av stöd efter att ha utsatts för brott och det stöd som finns tillgängligt för dem
    Funder
    The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority, 08563/2016
    Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
    3. To Need or Not to Need Support? Understanding Young Victims’ Expressions of the Meaning of Support
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>To Need or Not to Need Support? Understanding Young Victims’ Expressions of the Meaning of Support
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81941 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-05-19 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
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    Victimization, Positioning, and Support: Young Victims' Experiences of Crime
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  • Stampfl, Jürgen
    et al.
    Institute for Materials Science and Technology, TU Vienna, Austria.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hribernik, Bruno
    The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, Austria.
    Hackl, Gerhard
    The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, Austria.
    AM’s industrial impact celebrated as Sweden hosts ASMET’s fourth Metal Additive Manufacturing Conference2020In: METAL AM, ISSN 2055-7183, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 159-167Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth Metal Additive Manufacturing Conference (MAMC 2019), organised by the Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET), took place in Örebro, Sweden, from November 25–27, 2019. The event, which attracted an international audience, covered a broad range of metal AM technologies and considered the technical challenges that need to be overcome to make the industry more economically competitive with conventional manufacturing. Prof Dr Jürgen Stampfl, Prof Nader Asnafi, Dr Bruno Hribernik, and Dr Gerhard Hackl review the event for Metal AM magazine.

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    Metal AM, Spring 2020
  • Lopez Valladares, Gloria
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Human listeriosis: Grouping of human Listeria monocytogenes isolates with PFGE and AscI restriction enzyme2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Division of Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Types Belonging to Lineage I (Serovar 4b, 1/2b, and 3b) into PFGE Groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Division of Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Types Belonging to Lineage I (Serovar 4b, 1/2b, and 3b) into PFGE Groups
    2015 (English)In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 447-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types identified among 427 clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes that were characterized in a previous study by serotyping and PFGE (AscI) could be further divided into 17 PFGE groups. While the 63 PFGE types, all part of lineage I, were established based on the number and distribution of all bands in each DNA profile, the 17 PFGE groups were based on the configuration of small bands with sizes L. monocytogenes serovar 4b isolates (n=334) were divided into 8 PFGE groups; the 32 PFGE types of serovar 1/2b isolates (n=90) and the serovar 3b isolates (n=3, 1 PFGE type) were divided into 9 PFGE groups. An association was observed between PFGE groups and serovars. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups I, J, Q, R, X, Z, o-4, and o-5 all shared serovar 4b, whereas isolates from PFGE groups D, G, O, P, T, U, o-1, o-2, and o-3 shared serovar 1/2b. Small fragments L. monocytogenes isolates. From the results of the present study, a procedure for accelerating the identification of PFGE types when analyzing new PFGE profiles can be suggested. Therefore, we propose a stepwise procedure to PFGE profiling by first identifying the PFGE group using the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then determining PFGE types based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Mary Ann Liebert, 2015
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44674 (URN)10.1089/fpd.2014.1880 (DOI)000353777800010 ()25803595 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Stiftelsen Grythytte Akademi Stipendiefond

    Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb
    2017 (English)In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Among 504 clinical lineage II isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during 1958-2010 in Sweden, 119 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (AscI) have been identified based on the number and distribution of all banding patterns in each DNA profile. In this study, these types were further divided into PFGE groups based on the configuration of small bands with sizes <145.5 kb. The 504 isolates included 483 serovar 1/2a isolates distributed into 114 PFGE types and 21 serovar 1/2c isolates distributed into 9 PFGE types; these were further divided into 21 PFGE groups. PFGE group, that is, configuration of small bands below 145.5 kb, and serovars were correlated. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, M, S, V, W, Y, and Ö-6 to Ö-12 shared serovar 1/2a, with one exception. PFGE group E also included two PFGE types sharing serovar 1/2c and four PFGE types belonging to either serovar 1/2a or 1/2c. Isolates belonging to PFGE group N shared serovar 1/2c. In contrast to lineage I isolates, small fragments <33.3 kb were visible in all L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to lineage II. In the results from both the present and previous studies, the genomic region of small bands was genetically more conservative than in large bands. The distribution of these small bands established the relatedness of strains and defined a genetic marker for both lineages I and II, while also establishing their serogroup. The division of L. monocytogenes PFGE types into PFGE groups is advantageous as the profile of every new isolate can be identified easily and quickly through first studying the PFGE group affiliation of the isolate based on the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then identifying the PFGE type based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2017
    Keywords
    PFGE type, PFGE group, Listeria monocytogenes, serovar, lineage II
    National Category
    Genetics Food Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53597 (URN)10.1089/fpd.2016.2173 (DOI)000391818800002 ()27860487 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009260194 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Stiftelsen Grythytte Akademi Stipendiefond

    Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010)
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    2014 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, p. 2251-2260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n=932) isolated in Sweden during 1958–2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.

    Keywords
    Cheese, Listeria monocytogenes, PFGE, serotyping, salmon
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40067 (URN)10.1017/S0950268813003385 (DOI)000344921000003 ()24480252 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84909991349 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Research Foundation of Ivar and Elsa Sandberg 

    Available from: 2014-12-30 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon, still a potential source of listeriosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon, still a potential source of listeriosis
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    2009 (English)In: Journal of Foodservice, ISSN 1748-0140, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gravad (Gravlax) and cold-smoked salmon are associated with human listeriosis in Sweden. The present investigation of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon was a follow-up of a similar study in the middle of the 1990s. Since our first study, there has been an increasing focus on food hygiene in general and specially on self-inspection and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points from the authorities and food producers. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11 (three manufacturers) of the 56 products analyzed. The highest level of L. monocytogenes was 1500 cfu/g from a cold-smoked salmon product; however, the level was low (<100 cfu/g) in most products. Serovar 1/2a was predominant, followed by 4b. restriction enzyme analysis/ pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of the 56 salmon isolates identified five types of L. monocytogenes. One type was identical to a human type, whereas two other were closely related. These findings suggest that gravad and coldsmoked salmon are still possible sources of listeriosis in Sweden.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2009
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science; Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2999 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-0159.2008.00118.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-05 Created: 2008-09-05 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
    5. More than one variant of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from each of two human cases of invasive listeriosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>More than one variant of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from each of two human cases of invasive listeriosis
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    2007 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 135, no 5, p. 854-856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two variants of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from blood cultures from each of two patients with listeriosis. Each variant displayed a two-band difference in DNA profile from the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although this difference in profile is insufficient to distinguish clearly between the variants, the possibility of co-infection with different strains of L. monocytogenes needs to be considered. We suggest that more than one colony should be selected for molecular typing to aid interpretation during investigation of the sources and routes of Listeria infection.

    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science; Household Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6162 (URN)10.1017/S0950268806007503 (DOI)17109771 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-03-30 Created: 2009-03-30 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
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    HUMAN LISTERIOSIS – GROUPING OF HUMAN LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ISOLATES WITH PFGE AND ASCI RESTRICTION ENZYME
  • Nguyen, Hoang
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Bayesian inference for high dimensional factor copula models2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Copulas have been applied to many research areas as multivariate probability distributions for non-linear dependence structures. However, extending copula functions in high dimensions is challenging due to the increase of model parameters and computational intensity. Fortunately, in many circumstances, high dimensional dependence can be explained by a few common factors. This dissertation focuses on using factor copula models to analyze the high dimensional dependence structure of random variables. Different factor copula models are proposed as a solution for the curse of dimensionality. Then, a parallel Bayesian inference or a Variational Inference (VI) is employed to speed up the computation time. Chapter 2 concentrates on a dynamic one factor model for group generalized hyperbolic skew Student-t copulas. Chapter 3 and 4 extend the multi-factor copula models to suit with different high dimensional data sets. These models have applications in a wide variety of disciplines, such as financial stock returns, spatial time series, and economic time series, among others. Chapter 2 develops a class of dynamic one factor copula models for tackling the curse of dimensionality. The asymmetric dependence is taken into account by group generalized hyperbolic skew Student-t copulas. The study is influenced by Creal and Tsay [2015], Oh and Patton [2017b], but instead, the dynamic factor loading equation follows a generalized autoregresive score process which depends on the copula density conditional on the factor rather than the unconditional copula density, as proposed in Oh and Patton [2017b]. As the conditional posterior distributions of parameters in groups can be inferred independently due to model specifications, a parallel Bayesian inference is employed. This reduces the time of computation for a sizable problem from several days to one hour using a personal computer. The model is illustrated for 140 firms listed in v the S&P500 index and the optimal portfolio allocation is obtanied based on minimum Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR). The major content of this chapter resulted into a paper by Nguyen et al. [2019] which had been accepted for publication in Journal of Financial Econometrics. Chapter 3 takes advantage of the static structured factor copula models proposed by Krupskii and Joe [2015a] for the dependence of homogenerous variables in different groups. To extend one factor copula models, Krupskii and Joe [2015a] assume a hierarchical structure for the latent factors and model the dependence of the observables through a serial of bivariate copula links between the observables and the latent variables. This topology stems from vine copulas and becomes very flexible to capture both asymmetric tail dependence as well as correlation among variables. The VI is used to estimate the different specifications of structured factor copula models. VI aims to approximate the joint posterior distribution of model parameters by a simpler distribution which resuls in a very fast inference algorithm in comparison to the MCMC approach. Secondly, an automated procedure is proposed to recover the dependence linkages. By taking advantage of the posterior modes of the latent variables, the initial assumptions of bivariate copula functions are inspected and replaced for better copula functions based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Chapter 3 shows an empirical example where the structured factor copula models help to predict the missing temperatures of 24 locations among 479 stations in Germany. The major content of this chapter resulted into a working paper by Nguyen et al. [2018]. Chapter 4 supplements the factor copula model with a combination of a factor copula model at the first tree level and a truncated vine copula structure at a higher tree level. The model is not only suitable to capture different behaviors at the tail of the distribution but also remains parsimonious with interpretable economic meanings. The truncated factor vine copula models can outperform the multi-factor copula model in cases that there is weak dependence among variables in higher tree levels and the inference of group latent factors becomes inaccurate. The VI strategy is used and the dependence structure can be recovered with a similar copula selection procedure. Chapter 4 compares the statistical criteria of different factor models for the dependence structure of stock returns from 218 companies listed in 10 different European countries.

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    Bayesian inference for high dimensional factor copula models
  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlberg-Traav, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hultgren, Anna
    Örebro University. Högskolepedagogiskt centrum.
    Alverland, Vicky
    Student Sjuksköterskeprogrammet.
    Edgren, Gudrun
    Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Förslag till pedagogisk strategi och åtgärder för att stärka genomströmningen i medicinsk vetenskap inom sjuksköterske-programmet2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Förslag till pedagogisk strategi och åtgärder för att stärka genomströmningen i medicinsk vetenskap inom sjuksköterskeprogrammet
  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Lammgård, Tomas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ringnander, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Diskussion om styrkor och utvecklingsbehov av färdighetsträning på KTC. Enkät till lärare, extern feedback och workshop.2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Diskussion om styrkor och utvecklingsbehov av färdighetsträning på KTC. Enkät till lärare, extern feedback och workshop.
  • Henrekson, Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    The Rise and Decline of Industrial Foundations as Controlling Owners of Swedish Listed Firms: The Role of Tax Incentives2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning in the interwar period, industrial foundations became a vehicle for the corporate control of large listed firms in Sweden, but in the 1990s they were replaced by wealthy individuals who either directly own controlling blocks or who own them through holding companies. We study potential explanations for this change and propose two taxation-related candidates: shifts in the relative effective taxation across owner types and the dismantling of the inheritance taxation that prevented the generational transfer of the ownership of large controlling blocks. Our analysis exploits newly computed marginal effective capital income tax rates across capital owners, accounting for all relevant factors, including rules governing tax exemptions. We show that the 1990–91 tax reform, abolition of the wealth tax for controlling owners in 1997, 2003 tax exemption of dividends and capital gains on listed stock for holding companies with a voting or equity share of at least 10 percent, and abolition of the inheritance and gift taxes in 2004 reversed the rules of the game. Recently, control has largely been wielded through direct ownership, and the role of foundations is rapidly declining. These findings point to the importance of tax incentives for the use of foundations as the control vehicles of listed firms.

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    The Rise and Decline of Industrial Foundations as Controlling Owners of Swedish Listed Firms: The Role of Tax Incentives
  • Bourbour Hosseinbeigi, Maryam
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digital technologies in preschool education: The interplay between interactive whiteboards and teachers' teaching practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at exploring the ways in which a digital technology, the interactive whiteboard (IWB), interplays with preschool teachers’ teaching practices. In the literature and ongoing debates there are different claims about if and how digital technologies can contribute to children’s development and solving preschool educational challenges. The ways children learn from and by digital technologies have been widely studied, however, there is relatively little research on how digital technologies interplay with teachers’ teaching. Correspondingly, the approach taken here to the ways in which digital technologies contribute to early childhood education is based on preschool teachers’ practices and reasonings.In particular the focus is placed on the following research questions. How do preschool teachers reason about the embedding of IWB into their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers use IWB to structure their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers scaffold children’s learning processes in a context where IWB is used? How do IWBs mediate teaching actions? and What is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions?

    To address these research questions, three sets of empirical data have been collected. These datasets, including interviews with preschool teachers and video observations of their teaching using IWB, were collected in 2012-2013 within the frame of the licentiate thesis and in late 2017 and early 2018 within the framework of the PhD thesis. Analytically, the study is built on a sociocultural perspective that assumes that learning is a constant social process.

    The findings of this study provide empirical knowledge regarding how preschool teachers reason about their use of IWB in teaching. The findings of the study, further, show that preschool teachers use diverse strategies to structure their teaching practice using the opportunities that IWB offers. The teachers’ use of IWBs exemplifies the ways they take into account the available technological features to support children’s learning within their ZPD.

    In its identification of scaffolding actions, this study provides rich details about how preschool teachers use a particular digital technology, IWB, in their teaching to support children’s learning and development. Scaffolding is seen as a collaborative process where preschool teachers’ active participation and emotional support plays an important role in fulfilling the given practices, and leads children’s learning to a higher level. By exploring how teachers’ teaching actions are meditated by the mediational aspects of IWB and what is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions, the current study, moreover, contributes to mapping the desirable or undesirable consequences of using digital technologies in early childhood education. It also exemplifies how the use of IWB interplays with preschoolt eachers’ teaching practices.

    The new dimensions to scaffolding theory constructed in this thesis, further, contribute to expanding of Wood et al. (1976) theory. This can have significance for other studies using digital technologies in educational settings and can contribute to early childhood education, since early interventions, such as the ways preschool teachers support children, are particularly crucial for a child’s learning and their development later on in life.

    List of papers
    1. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in mathematics education in Swedish preschools
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Nordic Early Childhood Education Research, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematics education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, 2014
    Keywords
    Mathematics education, interactive whiteboard, young children, Preschool teacher
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80992 (URN)10.7577/nbf.608 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of interactive whiteboard in Swedish preschool practices
    2015 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 185, no 1, p. 100-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided the primary data sources. The findings suggest that the use of IWB in preschool can be viewed as 'Multisensory resources to engage young children's reasoning', 'Challenging young children to engage in problem-solving activities' and 'Taking the child's interest as a point of departure'. This study also highlights the importance of preschool teachers' pedagogical and technological knowledge that shape and mediate the ways they embed IWB in preschool pedagogical practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2015
    Keywords
    preschool, interactive whiteboard, preschool teacher, mathematics education
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80989 (URN)10.1080/03004430.2014.908865 (DOI)000354280400007 ()2-s2.0-84916936551 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putting Scaffolding Into Action: Preschool Teachers' Actions Using Interactive Whiteboard
    2020 (English)In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore preschool teachers' actions in order to support children's learning processes in a context where an interactive whiteboard (IWB) is used. Five preschool teachers and 22 children aged 4-6 were video observed in 2017 and early spring 2018 over a period of 5 months. The findings of the study revealed 21 scaffolding actions which preschool teachers used including: Concretizing, Questioning, Instructing, Providing space, Affirming, Providing feedback, Inviting, Watching, Laughing together, Approaching, Standing/sitting beside, Simplifying, Filling in the blanks, Confirming, Participating, Challenging perception, Challenging thought, Explaining facts, Displaying, Explaining solutions, and Referring back. By characterizing teachers' actions in relation to different scaffolding functions, the relationship between action and scaffolding function was particularly clarified. Six of the functions, including recruitment, direction maintenance, marking critical features, reduction in degrees of freedom, frustration control and demonstration were aligned with Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. By identifying two additional functions, i.e., mutual enjoyment and participation in the activity, more importantly the study contributed to the development of Wood et al.'s (Child Psychol Psychiatry 17:88-100, 1976) theoretical framework. It can be said that the findings of the study expanded and deepened our understanding regarding scaffolding processes and the ways they can be implemented in teaching practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2020
    Keywords
    Scaffolding, Preschool teachers' actions, Interactive whiteboard, Scaffolding functions
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80255 (URN)10.1007/s10643-019-00971-3 (DOI)000512062600009 ()2-s2.0-85073984905 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using digital technology in early education teaching: Learning from teachers’ teaching practice with Interactive Whiteboard
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80991 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
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  • Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Cervical screening with primary HPV: from research to clinical effectiveness2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organized cervical screening has greatly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer, and in later years, convincing evidence has led to cervical screening with HPV as the primary method being implemented around the world. The overall aim of this thesis is to improve cervical screening, with focus on HPV screening.

    Papers I–III were performed with focus on postmenopausal women. Women aged, 55–59 years, excluded from the screening with a normal cytology cervical sample were found to have a high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence of 5.5% in paper II. In a follow-up sample, 56% (71/126) had a persistent infection with the same genotype. Nineteen per cent of the women had dysplasia, where the majority of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) were associated with HPV types other than HPV 16/18.

    Women 55-59 has a lower attendance rate in the study region, and since self-sample has been proven to increase attendance, paper I was performed to compare self-sample and professionally collected samples in these postmenopausal women. The concordance between the sampling methods was 83%, and both tests detected all histological HSILs. When including a study with older women (aged 70 years) in paper III, 23% of histological HSILs were found in hrHPV-positive women.

    Paper IV is a scientific evaluation of an implemented HPV-based screening programme, comparing clinical effectiveness and cost with cytology screening. More HSIL+ were detected in the new programme but at a higher cost than the old cytology-based programme. The screening visits for sampling accounted for two thirds of the costs.

    Altogether, the results indicate the importance of having a negative HPVtest before exiting screening. Data also present the necessity to find biomarkers that are more specific than cytology and HPV 16/18 for triaging women with hrHPV to further follow-up, both among postmenopausal women and other age groups when screening with HPV, since many women without HSIL are coming for clinical follow-up and treatment. Extending the screening interval between hrHPV-negative tests as well as implementing selfsampling to a greater extent can be important changes, since two thirds of the costs in the programme come from screening visits for sampling.

    List of papers
    1. Comparison between professional sampling and self-sampling for HPV-based cervical cancer screening among postmenopausal women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison between professional sampling and self-sampling for HPV-based cervical cancer screening among postmenopausal women
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    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 142, no 3, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-sampling is as reliable as professional sampling for HPV testing and genotype detection among postmenopausal women.

    METHODS: In the present prospective cross-sectional study, women in Örebro County, Sweden, who had high-risk HPV (hrHPV) and normal cytology results in exit screening tests conducted in between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, were invited to follow-up screenings between February 24, 2015 and May 15, 2015, that included professional sampling and self-sampling. HPV genotypes were identified by a DNA-based assay that could detect 35 HPV genotypes. Findings between the different sampling methods were compared.

    RESULTS: Of 143 women who participated, 119 returned a self-sample. Completely concordant results were observed in 67 of these samples when both hrHPV and low-risk HPV genotypes were analyzed. Overall, 99 (83.2%) women had the same clinically relevant finding from both sampling methods. Twenty women had discordant hrHPV results (hrHPV detected in 10 self-samples vs 10 professionally collected samples; Cohen κ 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80). There was no significant difference between the two sampling methods for clinically significant infections (P>0.99) or extended genotyping (P=0.827).

    CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women could be offered self-sampling devices to increase screening-program coverage while maintaining test quality.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018
    Keywords
    Cervical cancer, HPV, Postmenopausal women, Professional sampling, Screening, Self-sample
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67134 (URN)10.1002/ijgo.12538 (DOI)000440652000017 ()29856071 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051073715 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee  

    Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  

    BBMRI.se

    Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
    2. HPV-based screening for cervical cancer among women 55-59 years of age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>HPV-based screening for cervical cancer among women 55-59 years of age
    2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0217108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Many cervical cancers occurs among women over 65 and prevalence of HPV genotypes in this age cohort is sparingly studied. One aim of this study was to study the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women 55-59 years, with normal cytology when exiting the screening program. Secondly, HPV clearance as well as the value of HPV genotyping and/or liquid based cytology as triage tests for identifying histological dysplasia among women with persistent HPV was studied.

    METHODS: Women that exited the screening program with normal cytology, between the years 2012-2014, in Örebro County, Sweden, were invited to this study. A total of 2946 samples were analyzed with a broad-spectrum assay to detect both hrHPV and lrHPV in order to investigate the distribution of genotypes. In the consent group, women with a positive hrHPV test were offered a follow-up test and a cone biopsy for histological confirmation, and a follow up sample 6 months post cone.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 7.4% and 59% of them remained hrHPV positive in a follow-up test after 12 months. A total of 99 women had a cone biopsy done, where 19% showed histological dysplasia. HPV 53 was the most common genotype, and among women with histology confirmed LSIL or HSIL, HPV 31 was most common. A positive hrHPV result showed a PPV of 25% for LSIL+ and 12.5%for HSIL+. Using detection of HPV 16/18 genotypes as a triage test for hrHPV positive tests, indicated FNR for histological LSIL+ and HSIL+ of 94% and 87.5% respectively, whilst triage based on cervical cytology had a FNR of 69% for LSIL+ and 37.5% for HSIL+.

    CONCLUSION: The most common hrHPV genotypes among women 55-59 years of age were non HPV16/18 genotypes, and in this population, these genotypes represented most of the histological verified HSIL lesions. This result does not support the proposition of a HPV 16/18 triaging test after a positive hrHPV test as a marker of histological HSIL+ cervical lesions in women over 55 years of age. Similarly, cytological triage after a positive hrHPV showed no additional benefit in this population. Specific triaging tests should be validated to follow post-menopausal women with a positive hrHPV test.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PLOS, 2019
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74701 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0217108 (DOI)000471587000007 ()31199811 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067434997 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee  

    Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  

    BBMRI.se 

    Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
    2020 (English)In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Örebro County introduced an updated screening program 2016 with primary HPV test for women over 30 years and prolonged screening, increasing the cut-off age from 56-60 to 64-70. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes and their correlation to histological changes in women, 10 years after exclusion from the screening program, due to an eventual implementation of a catch-up program including all women aged 60-70.

    METHODS: All women in Örebro County, born 1,946 (n = 1,968), were invited to a liquid-based cell sample with primary HPV screening. Samples were analyzed for hrHPV mRNA and positive samples were genotyped. hrHPV positive women were offered to do a conization.

    RESULTS: Out of 809 participants, 31 (3.8%) were hrHPV positive, of these 22 did a conization. Histologically, 5/22 (23%) had LSIL and 5/22 (23%) had HSIL. Normal histology was found in 12/22 (55%). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 33, 52, 56, and 68. Of the women with HSIL, one case of cervical cancer was confirmed in a recone biopsy after 4 months.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed considerable prevalence of hrHPV and histologically confirmed LSIL/HSIL. These data led to catch-up screening for women between 60 and 70 years when overlapping two screening strategies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2020
    Keywords
    Cervical cancer, HPV genotypes, HPV prevalence, Older women, Screening
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80175 (URN)10.1007/s10552-020-01278-0 (DOI)000516473600001 ()32076907 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079750054 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee and Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  OLL-576341 OLL-616292 OLL-639751 OLL-811061

    Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
    4. Effectiveness and costs of implemented primary HPV cervical screening: a populationbased cohort study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness and costs of implemented primary HPV cervical screening: a populationbased cohort study
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81302 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-23 Last updated: 2020-04-24Bibliographically approved
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  • Kyvik Nordås, Hildegunn
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Is Skype a telecommunications company: and why does it matter?2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Telecommunications constitute the core of the digital economy. EU regulation of the sector aims at promoting connectivity and access to very high capacity networks. To that end, and to keep up with technical developments, the regulatory framework is revised from time to time with a view to roll back regulation as competitive markets take hold. Whether or not an activity falls under the regulatory framework for telecommunications, which is the main category under electronic communications services, makes a huge difference as the recent ECJ decision on Skype illustrates. A longer version of this brief was published in Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås (2019), Trade in telecommunications and international trade agreements, Working Paper no. 2019-01, Trade and Investment in Services Associates (TIISA).

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    Is Skype a telecommunications company - and why does it matter?
  • Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the implications of family ownership and perceived growth barriers for firm decision-making and performance. The first article examines the inclusion of family business in economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden, as well as the views of professors and textbook authors and research on family business. It is found that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. The article concludes by discussing the causes of this omission, as well as strategies to overcome them in order to further our understanding of economic action. The second article presents a novel strategy for identifying domiciled family firms using total population data. By applying this strategy to Swedish data, family firms are found to contribute to one-third of Swedish employment and gross domestic product, and a significant share of Sweden’s largest firms are family-owned. In general, family firms are found to be smaller than their non-family equivalents, although they are more profitable. Meanwhile, differences between family firms and nonfamily firms are found to diminish with firm size. The third article examines whether family firms have a comparative employment growth advantage over nonfamily firms in regions with relatively low population density. As a group, family firms are found to be the main source of job creation in rural regions, largely as a result of their large numbers. Nevertheless, the average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm. Meanwhile, in line with the study’s conjecture, this difference is found to decrease across the urban-rural context, i.e., across metropolitan, urban and rural regions. The fourth paper examines the representation of women in top management teams1 in family firms and non-family firms. Moreover, the share of women in a firm’s top management team is found to be positively associated with the additional appointment of female managers. Lastly, kinship bonds between the owning families and prospective managers are found to be positively associated with the appointment of women on top management teams. The fifth paper aims to capture the relationship between perceived growth barriers and firm size, which is achieved by developing a novel data-driven strategy for identifying firm size groups. It is found that smaller firms typically face accessibility constraints on equity financing, whereas larger firms generally face barriers related to competition and accessibility to qualified staff. These results are benchmarked against those using prevailing strategies for measuring firm size, whereby it is suggested that there may be a need for methodological rethinking in the field regarding its treatment of firm size.

    List of papers
    1. Family business: A missing link in economics?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family business: A missing link in economics?
    2020 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 100306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms account for a substantial share of economic activity and deviate from standard economic assumptions on firmbehavior. However, little is known about how these firms are represented in economic theory. This article examines the inclusion of family business in the curricula of economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden as well as professors’ and textbook authors’ views and research on family business. Textbooks, articles and course offerings used in doctoral programs are considered to indicate the state of established knowledge in the field. The findings show that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. This article concludes that family business is excluded from ‘core’ economic theory due to a lack of paradigmatic pluralism, axiomatic incompatibility, path dependency, institutional bias and data constraints. Lastly, it is speculated that integration of family business theory into standard economic modeling is likely to occur outside prestigious universities due to path dependency in research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2020
    Keywords
    entrepreneurship, family business, family control, family firm, economics, teaching
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79162 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.100306 (DOI)000523660500003 ()2-s2.0-85076568655 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2020-04-20Bibliographically approved
    2. The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
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    2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2018
    Keywords
    Entrepreneur, Family firms, Employment, GDP, Register data
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61172 (URN)10.1007/s11187-017-9947-6 (DOI)000443439100003 ()2-s2.0-85030325971 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Familjeföretagandets betydelse
    Funder
    The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius FoundationSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    2018 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposition that family firms have comparative employment growth advantages in relation to non-family firms in regions with relatively low population density. This premise is tested across metropolitan, urban and rural regions using total population data on domestically and privately owned, single-plant, non-listed limited liability firms in Sweden. A panel of more than 89,000 firms is followed over a seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm across the urban-rural context. However, in line with the study’s conjecture, these differences are found to decrease across metropolitan, urban and rural regions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    family firms, employment, regional growth, entrepreneur, social capital
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69045 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2018.08.004 (DOI)000454963900006 ()2-s2.0-85057023468 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    The 2016 annual Swedish Graduate Program in Economics (SWEGPEC) workshop, the International Family Enterprise Research Academy (IFERA) 2017 Annual Conference
    Funder
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
    Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
    4. Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
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    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57683 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2018.095903 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055855794 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tillväxthinder i små och medelstora företag
    Funder
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthThe Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80350 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-03 Created: 2020-03-03 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
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    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers
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  • Stålnacke, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fonologisk utveckling hos barn med otitbenägenhet: En longitudinell studie i åldrarna 3;6 – 5;6 år2020Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hearing loss can act as a risk factor to poor linguistic development. One type of hearing loss is caused by fluid in the middle ear, a common consequence of acute otitis media (AOM). A number of children have ≥3 episodes of AOM within a 6-month period and are thus classifiedas otitis prones. Otitis proneness can result in fluctuation of the hearing experience that is believed to create inconsistency of the perceived speech signal and, thus, difficulties for the child to identify, categorize and produce speech sounds.

    Objective: The aims of the current study are to investigate, longitudinally the phonological development, concerning phonological production and phonological awareness, in children with otitis proneness and to compare their results with the results of the children without otitis proneness.

    Method: In total, 25 children with and 21 children without otitis proneness were involved in the study. Tests on phonological production (age 3;6 and 4;6) and phonological awareness (age 5;6) were performed onannual basis.

    Result: The comparisons between the study and the control group at the age 3;6, 4;6 and 5;6 years, reveal few significant results for either phonological production nor phonological development. For phonological production differences were seen at segmental level. The longitudinal development of phonological production indicate typical phonological development between age 3;6 and 4;6 for both test group and control group.

    Conclusion: Otitis proneness before 2;6 years of age does not appear to be an indicator of affected linguistic development at the ages 3;6 to 5;6 years, neither for phonological production nor concerning phonological awareness. However, there are great variations in the results, indicating that some children have greater difficulties than others do.

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    Fonologisk utveckling hos barn med otitbenägenhet
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  • Thomas, Ilias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Dickens, Alex M.
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Posti, Jussi P.
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Departments of Neurosurgery and Rehabilitation and Brain Trauma, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Mohammadian, Mehrbod
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Ledig, Christian
    Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Takala, Riikka S. K.
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Perioperative Services, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Integrative Analysis of Circulating Metabolite Profiles and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury2020In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, no 4, article id E1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have a distinct circulating metabolic profile. However, it is unclear if this metabolomic profile corresponds to changes in brain morphology as observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to explore how circulating serum metabolites, following TBI, relate to structural MRI (sMRI) findings. Serum samples were collected upon admission to the emergency department from patients suffering from acute TBI and metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Most of these patients sustained a mild TBI. In the same patients, sMRIs were taken and volumetric data were extracted (138 metrics). From a pool of 203 eligible screened patients, 96 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Metabolites were summarized as eight clusters and sMRI data were reduced to 15 independent components (ICs). Partial correlation analysis showed that four metabolite clusters had significant associations with specific ICs, reflecting both the grey and white matter brain injury. Multiple machine learning approaches were then applied in order to investigate if circulating metabolites could distinguish between positive and negative sMRI findings. A logistic regression model was developed, comprised of two metabolic predictors (erythronic acid and myo-inositol), which, together with neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), discriminated positive and negative sMRI findings with an area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.85 (specificity = 0.89, sensitivity = 0.65). The results of this study show that metabolomic analysis of blood samples upon admission, either alone or in combination with protein biomarkers, can provide valuable information about the impact of TBI on brain structural changes.

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    Integrative Analysis of Circulating Metabolite Profiles and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Liao, Qianfang
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sun, Da
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Point Set Registration for 3D Range Scans Using Fuzzy Cluster-based Metric and Efficient Global OptimizationIn: IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0162-8828, E-ISSN 1939-3539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a new point set registration method to align 3D range scans. In our method, fuzzy clusters are utilized to represent a scan, and the registration of two given scans is realized by minimizing a fuzzy weighted sum of the distances between their fuzzy cluster centers. This fuzzy cluster-based metric has a broad basin of convergence and is robust to noise. Moreover, this metric provides analytic gradients, allowing standard gradient-based algorithms to be applied for optimization. Based on this metric, the outlier issues are addressed. In addition, for the first time in rigid point set registration, a registration quality assessment in the absence of ground truth is provided. Furthermore, given specified rotation and translation spaces, we derive the upper and lower bounds of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and develop a branch-and-bound (BnB)-based optimization scheme, which can globally minimize the metric regardless of the initialization. This optimization scheme is performed in an efficient coarse-to-fine fashion: First, fuzzy clustering is applied to describe each of the two given scans by a small number of fuzzy clusters. Then, a global search, which integrates BnB and gradient-based algorithms, is implemented to achieve a coarse alignment for the two scans. During the global search, the registration quality assessment offers a beneficial stop criterion to detect whether a good result is obtained. Afterwards, a relatively large number of points of the two scans are directly taken as the fuzzy cluster centers, and then, the coarse solution is refined to be an exact alignment using the gradient-based local convergence. Compared to existing counterparts, this optimization scheme makes a large improvementin terms of robustness and efficiency by virtue of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and the registration quality assessment. In the experiments, the registration results of several 3D range scan pairs demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method, as well as its superiority to state-of-the-art registration approaches.

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    Point Set Registration for 3D Range Scans Using Fuzzy Cluster-based Metric and Efficient Global Optimization
  • Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, stockholm, Sweden.
    Organising Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Employee Involvement at Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses often refer to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) when asked about their responsibilities toward society. In this view, CSR includes social, environmental, and economic responsibilities, of which the latter is prevalently prioritised. The larger the organisation, the greater public scrutiny and external pressure exist to affect and control such tasks. It remains vague, however, how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) navigate their responsibilities since these are less visible to the public eye. Hence, it may not be surprising that the literature about CSR in SMEs is fragmented and prevalently refers to two extremes: SMEs as forward-thinking actors or SMEs as lacking CSR. This thesis sheds light upon how SMEs organise CSR by endorsing organising as a process of social construction and, thereby, focusing upon micro-foundations of CSR. This unveils specific organising mechanisms on the individual level (i.e. the employee) and on the organisational level (i.e. the SME). Based upon three case studies in the Swedish apparel industry, it is determined that organising CSR is not necessarily dictated by the owner-manager’s ideas and ideals; instead, employees are the ones who propel CSR. These employees exhibit moral motives for CSR as well as demonstrate entrepreneurial spirit by instrumentalising SME peculiarities and, therewith, contribute to shaping their organisational environments’ social and environmental responsibilities

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    Organising Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Employee Involvement at Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar: Ett konceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockhult, H. (2005) Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar. Enkonceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter.(Employee responsibility – a way of expressing values. A conceptual study ofresponsibility and how it is assumed in call center). Written in Swedish. ÖrebroStudies in Business 1. 219 pp.The focus of this study is on responsibility and how it is assumed in call centers.Call centers have developed during the last few decades and they are representinga new way of providing customer service. In scientific management there is asharp division between the planning and the execution of work. This division isalso very evident in most call centers today. But managers today often implicitlyexpect employees to take responsibility for more than the ascribed work task.The employees also expect a working situation where they are trusted with a lotof opportunities to take responsibility. In the light of these facts, the question thatshould be answered in this study is: In what ways are employees takingresponsibility in the call center organization?The knowledge acquired is based on theoretical assumptions aboutresponsibility. It is assumed that responsibility is partly given to the employee bymanagement, but also assumes responsibility on the basis of other criteria, thatcome from within the individual. The theories of responsibility are used forinterpreting actions in the call center organization. Empirically the study includestwo call center organizations. One of the call centers is mostly selling products orservices for other companies. The other call center is a nordic bank that givessupport to and sells products to the customers of its own.The results from the study confirm that besides the responsibility given bymanagement, the employees assume some other responsibilities that they perceiveas their own, self-imposed, responsibilities as employees. These self-imposedresponsibilities include responsibility for the customer, for the colleagues and foronesself. To assume these self-imposed responsibilities, the employees must tosome extent, act in reverse regarding the responsibilities given by the employer.Another conclusion is that the role of the group manager is important for the callcenter operators’ way of assuming responsibility. The last conclusion is thatalthough employers often state that they want the employee to take personalresponsibility, this favourable attitude does not show in the call center practice.

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    Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar