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  • Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Cervical screening with primary HPV: from research to clinical effectiveness2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organized cervical screening has greatly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer, and in later years, convincing evidence has led to cervical screening with HPV as the primary method being implemented around the world. The overall aim of this thesis is to improve cervical screening, with focus on HPV screening.

    Papers I–III were performed with focus on postmenopausal women. Women aged, 55–59 years, excluded from the screening with a normal cytology cervical sample were found to have a high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence of 5.5% in paper II. In a follow-up sample, 56% (71/126) had a persistent infection with the same genotype. Nineteen per cent of the women had dysplasia, where the majority of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) were associated with HPV types other than HPV 16/18.

    Women 55-59 has a lower attendance rate in the study region, and since self-sample has been proven to increase attendance, paper I was performed to compare self-sample and professionally collected samples in these postmenopausal women. The concordance between the sampling methods was 83%, and both tests detected all histological HSILs. When including a study with older women (aged 70 years) in paper III, 23% of histological HSILs were found in hrHPV-positive women.

    Paper IV is a scientific evaluation of an implemented HPV-based screening programme, comparing clinical effectiveness and cost with cytology screening. More HSIL+ were detected in the new programme but at a higher cost than the old cytology-based programme. The screening visits for sampling accounted for two thirds of the costs.

    Altogether, the results indicate the importance of having a negative HPVtest before exiting screening. Data also present the necessity to find biomarkers that are more specific than cytology and HPV 16/18 for triaging women with hrHPV to further follow-up, both among postmenopausal women and other age groups when screening with HPV, since many women without HSIL are coming for clinical follow-up and treatment. Extending the screening interval between hrHPV-negative tests as well as implementing selfsampling to a greater extent can be important changes, since two thirds of the costs in the programme come from screening visits for sampling.

    Delarbeten
    1. Comparison between professional sampling and self-sampling for HPV-based cervical cancer screening among postmenopausal women
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Comparison between professional sampling and self-sampling for HPV-based cervical cancer screening among postmenopausal women
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    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 142, nr 3, s. 359-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-sampling is as reliable as professional sampling for HPV testing and genotype detection among postmenopausal women.

    METHODS: In the present prospective cross-sectional study, women in Örebro County, Sweden, who had high-risk HPV (hrHPV) and normal cytology results in exit screening tests conducted in between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, were invited to follow-up screenings between February 24, 2015 and May 15, 2015, that included professional sampling and self-sampling. HPV genotypes were identified by a DNA-based assay that could detect 35 HPV genotypes. Findings between the different sampling methods were compared.

    RESULTS: Of 143 women who participated, 119 returned a self-sample. Completely concordant results were observed in 67 of these samples when both hrHPV and low-risk HPV genotypes were analyzed. Overall, 99 (83.2%) women had the same clinically relevant finding from both sampling methods. Twenty women had discordant hrHPV results (hrHPV detected in 10 self-samples vs 10 professionally collected samples; Cohen κ 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80). There was no significant difference between the two sampling methods for clinically significant infections (P>0.99) or extended genotyping (P=0.827).

    CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women could be offered self-sampling devices to increase screening-program coverage while maintaining test quality.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018
    Nyckelord
    Cervical cancer, HPV, Postmenopausal women, Professional sampling, Screening, Self-sample
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67134 (URN)10.1002/ijgo.12538 (DOI)000440652000017 ()29856071 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051073715 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee  

    Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  

    BBMRI.se

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-06-04 Skapad: 2018-06-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. HPV-based screening for cervical cancer among women 55-59 years of age
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>HPV-based screening for cervical cancer among women 55-59 years of age
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 6, artikel-id e0217108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Many cervical cancers occurs among women over 65 and prevalence of HPV genotypes in this age cohort is sparingly studied. One aim of this study was to study the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women 55-59 years, with normal cytology when exiting the screening program. Secondly, HPV clearance as well as the value of HPV genotyping and/or liquid based cytology as triage tests for identifying histological dysplasia among women with persistent HPV was studied.

    METHODS: Women that exited the screening program with normal cytology, between the years 2012-2014, in Örebro County, Sweden, were invited to this study. A total of 2946 samples were analyzed with a broad-spectrum assay to detect both hrHPV and lrHPV in order to investigate the distribution of genotypes. In the consent group, women with a positive hrHPV test were offered a follow-up test and a cone biopsy for histological confirmation, and a follow up sample 6 months post cone.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 7.4% and 59% of them remained hrHPV positive in a follow-up test after 12 months. A total of 99 women had a cone biopsy done, where 19% showed histological dysplasia. HPV 53 was the most common genotype, and among women with histology confirmed LSIL or HSIL, HPV 31 was most common. A positive hrHPV result showed a PPV of 25% for LSIL+ and 12.5%for HSIL+. Using detection of HPV 16/18 genotypes as a triage test for hrHPV positive tests, indicated FNR for histological LSIL+ and HSIL+ of 94% and 87.5% respectively, whilst triage based on cervical cytology had a FNR of 69% for LSIL+ and 37.5% for HSIL+.

    CONCLUSION: The most common hrHPV genotypes among women 55-59 years of age were non HPV16/18 genotypes, and in this population, these genotypes represented most of the histological verified HSIL lesions. This result does not support the proposition of a HPV 16/18 triaging test after a positive hrHPV test as a marker of histological HSIL+ cervical lesions in women over 55 years of age. Similarly, cytological triage after a positive hrHPV showed no additional benefit in this population. Specific triaging tests should be validated to follow post-menopausal women with a positive hrHPV test.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PLOS, 2019
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74701 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0217108 (DOI)000471587000007 ()31199811 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067434997 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee  

    Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  

    BBMRI.se 

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-06-17 Skapad: 2019-06-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 377-381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Örebro County introduced an updated screening program 2016 with primary HPV test for women over 30 years and prolonged screening, increasing the cut-off age from 56-60 to 64-70. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes and their correlation to histological changes in women, 10 years after exclusion from the screening program, due to an eventual implementation of a catch-up program including all women aged 60-70.

    METHODS: All women in Örebro County, born 1,946 (n = 1,968), were invited to a liquid-based cell sample with primary HPV screening. Samples were analyzed for hrHPV mRNA and positive samples were genotyped. hrHPV positive women were offered to do a conization.

    RESULTS: Out of 809 participants, 31 (3.8%) were hrHPV positive, of these 22 did a conization. Histologically, 5/22 (23%) had LSIL and 5/22 (23%) had HSIL. Normal histology was found in 12/22 (55%). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 33, 52, 56, and 68. Of the women with HSIL, one case of cervical cancer was confirmed in a recone biopsy after 4 months.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed considerable prevalence of hrHPV and histologically confirmed LSIL/HSIL. These data led to catch-up screening for women between 60 and 70 years when overlapping two screening strategies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2020
    Nyckelord
    Cervical cancer, HPV genotypes, HPV prevalence, Older women, Screening
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80175 (URN)10.1007/s10552-020-01278-0 (DOI)000516473600001 ()32076907 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079750054 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    Region Örebro County Research Committee and Örebro University Hospital Research Foundation  OLL-576341 OLL-616292 OLL-639751 OLL-811061

    Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-25 Skapad: 2020-02-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Effectiveness and costs of implemented primary HPV cervical screening: a populationbased cohort study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effectiveness and costs of implemented primary HPV cervical screening: a populationbased cohort study
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kirurgi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81302 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-23 Skapad: 2020-04-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-24Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • Kyvik Nordås, Hildegunn
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Is Skype a telecommunications company: and why does it matter?2019Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Telecommunications constitute the core of the digital economy. EU regulation of the sector aims at promoting connectivity and access to very high capacity networks. To that end, and to keep up with technical developments, the regulatory framework is revised from time to time with a view to roll back regulation as competitive markets take hold. Whether or not an activity falls under the regulatory framework for telecommunications, which is the main category under electronic communications services, makes a huge difference as the recent ECJ decision on Skype illustrates. A longer version of this brief was published in Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås (2019), Trade in telecommunications and international trade agreements, Working Paper no. 2019-01, Trade and Investment in Services Associates (TIISA).

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    Is Skype a telecommunications company - and why does it matter?
  • Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the implications of family ownership and perceived growth barriers for firm decision-making and performance. The first article examines the inclusion of family business in economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden, as well as the views of professors and textbook authors and research on family business. It is found that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. The article concludes by discussing the causes of this omission, as well as strategies to overcome them in order to further our understanding of economic action. The second article presents a novel strategy for identifying domiciled family firms using total population data. By applying this strategy to Swedish data, family firms are found to contribute to one-third of Swedish employment and gross domestic product, and a significant share of Sweden’s largest firms are family-owned. In general, family firms are found to be smaller than their non-family equivalents, although they are more profitable. Meanwhile, differences between family firms and nonfamily firms are found to diminish with firm size. The third article examines whether family firms have a comparative employment growth advantage over nonfamily firms in regions with relatively low population density. As a group, family firms are found to be the main source of job creation in rural regions, largely as a result of their large numbers. Nevertheless, the average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm. Meanwhile, in line with the study’s conjecture, this difference is found to decrease across the urban-rural context, i.e., across metropolitan, urban and rural regions. The fourth paper examines the representation of women in top management teams1 in family firms and non-family firms. Moreover, the share of women in a firm’s top management team is found to be positively associated with the additional appointment of female managers. Lastly, kinship bonds between the owning families and prospective managers are found to be positively associated with the appointment of women on top management teams. The fifth paper aims to capture the relationship between perceived growth barriers and firm size, which is achieved by developing a novel data-driven strategy for identifying firm size groups. It is found that smaller firms typically face accessibility constraints on equity financing, whereas larger firms generally face barriers related to competition and accessibility to qualified staff. These results are benchmarked against those using prevailing strategies for measuring firm size, whereby it is suggested that there may be a need for methodological rethinking in the field regarding its treatment of firm size.

    Delarbeten
    1. Family business: A missing link in economics?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Family business: A missing link in economics?
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 100306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms account for a substantial share of economic activity and deviate from standard economic assumptions on firmbehavior. However, little is known about how these firms are represented in economic theory. This article examines the inclusion of family business in the curricula of economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden as well as professors’ and textbook authors’ views and research on family business. Textbooks, articles and course offerings used in doctoral programs are considered to indicate the state of established knowledge in the field. The findings show that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. This article concludes that family business is excluded from ‘core’ economic theory due to a lack of paradigmatic pluralism, axiomatic incompatibility, path dependency, institutional bias and data constraints. Lastly, it is speculated that integration of family business theory into standard economic modeling is likely to occur outside prestigious universities due to path dependency in research.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2020
    Nyckelord
    entrepreneurship, family business, family control, family firm, economics, teaching
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nationalekonomi
    Forskningsämne
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79162 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.100306 (DOI)000523660500003 ()2-s2.0-85076568655 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Tillväxtverket
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-14 Skapad: 2020-04-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 539-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Entrepreneur, Family firms, Employment, GDP, Register data
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nationalekonomi
    Forskningsämne
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61172 (URN)10.1007/s11187-017-9947-6 (DOI)000443439100003 ()2-s2.0-85030325971 (Scopus ID)
    Projekt
    Familjeföretagandets betydelse
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Jan Wallanders och Tom Hedelius stiftelseTillväxtverket
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-28 Skapad: 2017-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 293-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposition that family firms have comparative employment growth advantages in relation to non-family firms in regions with relatively low population density. This premise is tested across metropolitan, urban and rural regions using total population data on domestically and privately owned, single-plant, non-listed limited liability firms in Sweden. A panel of more than 89,000 firms is followed over a seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm across the urban-rural context. However, in line with the study’s conjecture, these differences are found to decrease across metropolitan, urban and rural regions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    family firms, employment, regional growth, entrepreneur, social capital
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nationalekonomi
    Forskningsämne
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69045 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2018.08.004 (DOI)000454963900006 ()2-s2.0-85057023468 (Scopus ID)
    Konferens
    The 2016 annual Swedish Graduate Program in Economics (SWEGPEC) workshop, the International Family Enterprise Research Academy (IFERA) 2017 Annual Conference
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Tillväxtverket
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-25 Skapad: 2018-09-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-03Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
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    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 303-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nationalekonomi
    Forskningsämne
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57683 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2018.095903 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055855794 (Scopus ID)
    Projekt
    Tillväxthinder i små och medelstora företag
    Forskningsfinansiär
    TillväxtverketJan Wallanders och Tom Hedelius stiftelse
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-16 Skapad: 2017-05-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Firm Size and Growth Barriers: A Data-driven Approach
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nationalekonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80350 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-03 Skapad: 2020-03-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-03Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Essays on Family Firms and Firm Growth Barriers
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  • Stålnacke, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Fonologisk utveckling hos barn med otitbenägenhet: En longitudinell studie i åldrarna 3;6 – 5;6 år2020Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hearing loss can act as a risk factor to poor linguistic development. One type of hearing loss is caused by fluid in the middle ear, a common consequence of acute otitis media (AOM). A number of children have ≥3 episodes of AOM within a 6-month period and are thus classifiedas otitis prones. Otitis proneness can result in fluctuation of the hearing experience that is believed to create inconsistency of the perceived speech signal and, thus, difficulties for the child to identify, categorize and produce speech sounds.

    Objective: The aims of the current study are to investigate, longitudinally the phonological development, concerning phonological production and phonological awareness, in children with otitis proneness and to compare their results with the results of the children without otitis proneness.

    Method: In total, 25 children with and 21 children without otitis proneness were involved in the study. Tests on phonological production (age 3;6 and 4;6) and phonological awareness (age 5;6) were performed onannual basis.

    Result: The comparisons between the study and the control group at the age 3;6, 4;6 and 5;6 years, reveal few significant results for either phonological production nor phonological development. For phonological production differences were seen at segmental level. The longitudinal development of phonological production indicate typical phonological development between age 3;6 and 4;6 for both test group and control group.

    Conclusion: Otitis proneness before 2;6 years of age does not appear to be an indicator of affected linguistic development at the ages 3;6 to 5;6 years, neither for phonological production nor concerning phonological awareness. However, there are great variations in the results, indicating that some children have greater difficulties than others do.

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    Fonologisk utveckling hos barn med otitbenägenhet
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  • Thomas, Ilias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Dickens, Alex M.
    Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Posti, Jussi P.
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Departments of Neurosurgery and Rehabilitation and Brain Trauma, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Mohammadian, Mehrbod
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Ledig, Christian
    Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Takala, Riikka S. K.
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Perioperative Services, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Integrative Analysis of Circulating Metabolite Profiles and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury2020Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, nr 4, artikel-id E1395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have a distinct circulating metabolic profile. However, it is unclear if this metabolomic profile corresponds to changes in brain morphology as observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to explore how circulating serum metabolites, following TBI, relate to structural MRI (sMRI) findings. Serum samples were collected upon admission to the emergency department from patients suffering from acute TBI and metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Most of these patients sustained a mild TBI. In the same patients, sMRIs were taken and volumetric data were extracted (138 metrics). From a pool of 203 eligible screened patients, 96 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Metabolites were summarized as eight clusters and sMRI data were reduced to 15 independent components (ICs). Partial correlation analysis showed that four metabolite clusters had significant associations with specific ICs, reflecting both the grey and white matter brain injury. Multiple machine learning approaches were then applied in order to investigate if circulating metabolites could distinguish between positive and negative sMRI findings. A logistic regression model was developed, comprised of two metabolic predictors (erythronic acid and myo-inositol), which, together with neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), discriminated positive and negative sMRI findings with an area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.85 (specificity = 0.89, sensitivity = 0.65). The results of this study show that metabolomic analysis of blood samples upon admission, either alone or in combination with protein biomarkers, can provide valuable information about the impact of TBI on brain structural changes.

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    Integrative Analysis of Circulating Metabolite Profiles and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Liao, Qianfang
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sun, Da
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Point Set Registration for 3D Range Scans Using Fuzzy Cluster-based Metric and Efficient Global OptimizationIngår i: IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0162-8828, E-ISSN 1939-3539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a new point set registration method to align 3D range scans. In our method, fuzzy clusters are utilized to represent a scan, and the registration of two given scans is realized by minimizing a fuzzy weighted sum of the distances between their fuzzy cluster centers. This fuzzy cluster-based metric has a broad basin of convergence and is robust to noise. Moreover, this metric provides analytic gradients, allowing standard gradient-based algorithms to be applied for optimization. Based on this metric, the outlier issues are addressed. In addition, for the first time in rigid point set registration, a registration quality assessment in the absence of ground truth is provided. Furthermore, given specified rotation and translation spaces, we derive the upper and lower bounds of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and develop a branch-and-bound (BnB)-based optimization scheme, which can globally minimize the metric regardless of the initialization. This optimization scheme is performed in an efficient coarse-to-fine fashion: First, fuzzy clustering is applied to describe each of the two given scans by a small number of fuzzy clusters. Then, a global search, which integrates BnB and gradient-based algorithms, is implemented to achieve a coarse alignment for the two scans. During the global search, the registration quality assessment offers a beneficial stop criterion to detect whether a good result is obtained. Afterwards, a relatively large number of points of the two scans are directly taken as the fuzzy cluster centers, and then, the coarse solution is refined to be an exact alignment using the gradient-based local convergence. Compared to existing counterparts, this optimization scheme makes a large improvementin terms of robustness and efficiency by virtue of the fuzzy cluster-based metric and the registration quality assessment. In the experiments, the registration results of several 3D range scan pairs demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method, as well as its superiority to state-of-the-art registration approaches.

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    Point Set Registration for 3D Range Scans Using Fuzzy Cluster-based Metric and Efficient Global Optimization
  • Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, stockholm, Sweden.
    Organising Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Employee Involvement at Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses often refer to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) when asked about their responsibilities toward society. In this view, CSR includes social, environmental, and economic responsibilities, of which the latter is prevalently prioritised. The larger the organisation, the greater public scrutiny and external pressure exist to affect and control such tasks. It remains vague, however, how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) navigate their responsibilities since these are less visible to the public eye. Hence, it may not be surprising that the literature about CSR in SMEs is fragmented and prevalently refers to two extremes: SMEs as forward-thinking actors or SMEs as lacking CSR. This thesis sheds light upon how SMEs organise CSR by endorsing organising as a process of social construction and, thereby, focusing upon micro-foundations of CSR. This unveils specific organising mechanisms on the individual level (i.e. the employee) and on the organisational level (i.e. the SME). Based upon three case studies in the Swedish apparel industry, it is determined that organising CSR is not necessarily dictated by the owner-manager’s ideas and ideals; instead, employees are the ones who propel CSR. These employees exhibit moral motives for CSR as well as demonstrate entrepreneurial spirit by instrumentalising SME peculiarities and, therewith, contribute to shaping their organisational environments’ social and environmental responsibilities

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    Organising Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Employee Involvement at Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar: Ett konceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockhult, H. (2005) Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar. Enkonceptualisering av medarbetarnas ansvar och ansvarstagande i callcenter.(Employee responsibility – a way of expressing values. A conceptual study ofresponsibility and how it is assumed in call center). Written in Swedish. ÖrebroStudies in Business 1. 219 pp.The focus of this study is on responsibility and how it is assumed in call centers.Call centers have developed during the last few decades and they are representinga new way of providing customer service. In scientific management there is asharp division between the planning and the execution of work. This division isalso very evident in most call centers today. But managers today often implicitlyexpect employees to take responsibility for more than the ascribed work task.The employees also expect a working situation where they are trusted with a lotof opportunities to take responsibility. In the light of these facts, the question thatshould be answered in this study is: In what ways are employees takingresponsibility in the call center organization?The knowledge acquired is based on theoretical assumptions aboutresponsibility. It is assumed that responsibility is partly given to the employee bymanagement, but also assumes responsibility on the basis of other criteria, thatcome from within the individual. The theories of responsibility are used forinterpreting actions in the call center organization. Empirically the study includestwo call center organizations. One of the call centers is mostly selling products orservices for other companies. The other call center is a nordic bank that givessupport to and sells products to the customers of its own.The results from the study confirm that besides the responsibility given bymanagement, the employees assume some other responsibilities that they perceiveas their own, self-imposed, responsibilities as employees. These self-imposedresponsibilities include responsibility for the customer, for the colleagues and foronesself. To assume these self-imposed responsibilities, the employees must tosome extent, act in reverse regarding the responsibilities given by the employer.Another conclusion is that the role of the group manager is important for the callcenter operators’ way of assuming responsibility. The last conclusion is thatalthough employers often state that they want the employee to take personalresponsibility, this favourable attitude does not show in the call center practice.

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    Medarbetaransvar – ett sätt att visa värderingar
  • Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Swedish Version of the Electronic Health Literacy Scale: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study Including Thresholds Levels2020Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id e16316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To enhance the efficacy of information and communication, health care has increasingly turned to digitalization. Electronic health (eHealth) is an important factor that influences the use and receipt of benefits from Web-based health resources. Consequently, the concept of eHealth literacy has emerged, and in 2006 Norman and Skinner developed an 8-item self-report instrument to measure these skills: the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). However, the eHEALS has not been tested for reliability and validity in the general Swedish population and no threshold values have been established.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt eHEALS into a Swedish version; evaluate convergent validity and psychometric properties; and determine threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient eHealth literacy.

    Methods: Prospective psychometric evaluation study included 323 participants equally distributed between sexes with a mean age of 49 years recruited from 12 different arenas.

    Results: There were some difficulties translating the English concept health resources. This resulted in this concept being translated as health information (ie, Halsoinformation in Swedish). The eHEALS total score was 29.3 (SD 6.2), Cronbach alpha .94, Spearman-Brown coefficient .96, and response rate 94.6%. All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, supporting convergent validity. The test-retest reliability indicated an almost perfect agreement, .86 (P<.001). An exploratory factor analysis found one component explaining 64% of the total variance. No floor or ceiling effect was noted. Thresholds levels were set at 8 to 20 = inadequate, 21 to 26 = problematic, and 27 to 40 = sufficient, and there were no significant differences in distribution of the three levels between the Swedish version of eHEALS and the HLS-EU-Q16.

    Conclusions: The Swedish version of eHEALS was assessed as being unidimensional with high internal consistency of the instrument, making the reliability adequate. Adapted threshold levels for inadequate, problematic, and sufficient levels of eHealth literacy seem to be relevant. However, there are some linguistic issues relating to the concept of health resources.

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    The Swedish Version of the Electronic Health Literacy Scale: Prospective Psychometric Evaluation Study Including Thresholds Levels
  • Disputation: 2020-05-29 09:00 Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C1, Örebro
    Lange, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical presentation, and outcome of infections are affected by host-, and etiology- (focus of infection and pathogen) related factors. The immune response is controlled by a network of regulating pathways.

    This thesis focuses on Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), a protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties, and the previously non-studied soluble isoform of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (sBTLA), a membrane-associated regulatory protein. Plasma concentrations of SLPI and sBTLA were assessed in relation to etiology, severity, mortality, and markers of inflammation and immunosuppression, in i) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (SLPI), ii) intensive care unit (ICU) treated severe sepsis and septic shock (sBTLA), and iii) dynamically in BSI (SLPI and sBTLA).

    Main findings were: higher expression of SLPI in pneumonia, compared to other sources, higher initial concentrations in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus BSI, compared to Escherichia coli BSI, and higher SLPI concentrations in sepsis compared to non-septic BSI. Interestingly, men with pneumonia had higher plasma levels of SLPI, both in CAP and BSI. Likewise, sBTLA was associated with severity, but preferentially at higher organ failure scores. High sBTLA was associated with increased risk of early death (28 days) in ICU-treated septic patients, and with mortality at 90 days and one year in BSI. In particular, failure to normalize sBTLA on day 7, was indicative of worse long-term outcome. SLPI was associated with decreased monocytic HLA-DR expression, and sBTLA with decreased lymphocyte count, which might indicate a connection to sepsis-associated immunosuppression.

    In conclusion, SLPI and sBTLA show association with severity, and markers of immune dysfunction, in sepsis and BSI. SLPI differs depending on etiology, while sBTLA may have prognostic implications. Our results propose that the pathobiological role of sBTLA, and the possible utility of SLPI and sBTLA in sepsis immune-profiling, should be further addressed in future studies.

    Delarbeten
    1. Antimicrobial peptide plasma concentrations in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Antimicrobial peptide plasma concentrations in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 432-437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe. Methods: Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects. Results: In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively), but less markedly increased in patients with non-RTI (68 ng/ml, p = 0.06 and 41 ng/ml, p = 0.43). LL-37 and human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP 1-3) levels were not increased in subjects with CAP. Levels of BPI and SLPI did not correlate to severity of disease, and AMP levels did not differ depending on the causative agent. Interestingly, male subjects with CAP displayed increased concentrations of SLPI compared to females. This was not observed in subjects with non-RTI and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Subjects with CAP showed increased plasma concentrations of SLPI and BPI compared to healthy control subjects. The finding of higher SLPI levels in male subjects with CAP implies that there are sex-dependent immunological differences in SLPI turnover.

    Nyckelord
    Community-acquired pneumonia, antimicrobial peptides, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Infektionsmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56572 (URN)10.3109/00365548.2012.760844 (DOI)000318940400003 ()23317166 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-20 Skapad: 2017-03-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Soluble B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Correlates to Disease Severity in Sepsis and High Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Mortality
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Soluble B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Correlates to Disease Severity in Sepsis and High Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Mortality
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id e0169176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims: B- and T-lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA), Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) are co-inhibitory receptors that regulate T cell activation. In the present study of ICU-treated patients we measured plasma concentrations of their soluble isoforms, with the aim to evaluate their potential as sepsis biomarkers and utility as prognostic indicators.

    Methods: 101 patients with sepsis, 28 patients with non-infectious critical illness (ICU controls) and 31 blood donors (healthy controls, HC) were included in the study. Plasma concentrations of soluble BTLA (sBTLA), CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) and PD-1 (sPD-1) were measured with ELISA in serial blood samples. Comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test and correlations were assessed with Spearman's Rank correlation test. Cox proportional hazard models, with sBTLA and sPD-1 as fixed and sBTLA as time-varying covariates, were used to determine association with 28-day mortality.

    Results: sBTLA levels were significantly higher in the sepsis cohort (median 14 ng/mL, IQR 8-29) compared to ICU controls (9 ng/mL, IQR 5-26, p = 0.048) and HC (2.9 ng/mL, IQR 0.9-9.1, p<0.01), and correlated to SOFA score. sBTLA levels were higher in 28 day sepsis non-survivors than in survivors (baseline median 28 ng/mL, IQR 13-41 vs 13 ng/mL, IQR 8-23, p = 0.04). After adjustment for age and comorbidities, the relative risk of 28 day mortality was nearly 5-fold higher in sepsis patients with a baseline sBTLA > 21 ng/mL, compared to those with a level below this threshold. sBTLA was even more associated with mortality in the time-varying analysis. sPD-1 levels were lower in the sepsis cohort compared to HC but not compared to ICU controls and were not associated with mortality. sCTLA-4 was detectable in only one subject.

    Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of soluble BTLA were increased early in sepsis/septic shock and correlated to severity of disease. A baseline concentration >21ng/mL was associated with a poor prognosis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    San Francisco: Public Library of Science, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kardiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54384 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0169176 (DOI)000391639100023 ()28056053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85008970210 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee Region Örebro County

    Nyckelfonden Region Örebro County

    Olle Engkvist fund

    Signe and Olof Wallenius trust

    ALF

    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Research Foundation

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-07 Skapad: 2017-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) differ depending on etiology and severity in community-onset bloodstream infection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) differ depending on etiology and severity in community-onset bloodstream infection
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, nr 8, s. 1425-1434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The severity of bloodstream infections (BSI) depends on pathogen, source, and host factors. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) counteracts tissue damage, balances inflammation, and is increased in pneumonia and sepsis. We aimed to evaluate whether SLPI production differs depending on etiology, disease severity, and sex in BSI and to correlate SLPI with markers of inflammation and immunosuppression. Of the adult patients with BSI, 109 were included and sampled repeatedly, from hospital admission through day 28. Controls (blood donors) were sampled twice. SLPI in plasma was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus etiology were associated with higher SLPI than Escherichia coli on days 1-2 and 3. On day 1-2, subjects with sepsis had higher SLPI concentrations than those with non-septic BSI. Pneumonia was associated with higher SLPI than a non-pulmonary source of infection. SLPI co-varied with inflammatory markers. SLPI concentrations did not differ with regard to sex in the full cohort, but men with pneumonia had higher SLPI than women on day 1-2. S. pneumoniae and S. aureus BSI were associated with higher SLPI, when compared to E. coli. Severity and pneumonia, as well as male sex in the pneumonia sub-cohort, were factors independently associated with higher SLPI.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Bloodstream infection, SLPI, Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, Sepsis, Sepsis immunology
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Infektionsmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74324 (URN)10.1007/s10096-019-03567-2 (DOI)000476492200005 ()31089838 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065985128 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Committee of Region Örebro County

    Nyckelfonden Region Orebro County

    Signe and Olof Wallenius trust

    ALF project funding

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-20 Skapad: 2019-05-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Sustained elevation of soluble B- and T- lymphocyte attenuator predicts long-term mortality in patients with bacteremia and sepsis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sustained elevation of soluble B- and T- lymphocyte attenuator predicts long-term mortality in patients with bacteremia and sepsis
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Infektionsmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81440 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-05-04 Skapad: 2020-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-04Bibliografiskt granskad
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    SLPI and soluble BTLA as immunological markers in severe bacterial infections
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  • Saju, Jolly M.
    et al.
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Hossain, Mohammad Sorowar
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Liew, Woei Chang
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Thevasagayam, Natascha May
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tan, Lydia Shun En
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Anand, Amit
    Bioimaging and Biocomputing, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Orbán, László
    Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; Frontline Fish Genomics Research Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, Keszthely, Hungary; Centre for Comparative Genomics, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.
    Heat Shock Factor 5 Is Essential for Spermatogenesis in Zebrafish2018Ingår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 25, nr 12, s. 3252-3261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are transcription factors that regulate responses to heat shock and other environmental stimuli. Four heat shock factors (Hsf1-4) have been characterized from vertebrates to date. In addition to stress response, they also play important roles in development and gametogenesis. Here, we study the fifth member of heat shock factor family, Hsf5, using zebrafish as a model organism. Mutant hsf5(-/-) males, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technique, were infertile with drastically reduced sperm count, increased sperm head size, and abnormal tail architecture, whereas females remained fertile. We show that Hsf5 is required for progression through meiotic prophase 1 during spermatogenesis as suggested by the accumulation of cells in the leptotene and zygotene-pachytene stages and increased apoptosis in post-meiotic cells. hsf5(-/-) mutants show gonadal misregulation of a substantial number of genes with roles in cell cycle, apoptosis, protein modifications, and signal transduction, indicating an important role of Hsf5 in early stages of spermatogenesis.

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    Heat Shock Factor 5 Is Essential forSpermatogenesis in Zebrafish
  • Karlsson, Sune
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige2020Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 7-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel analyseras sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige under en period där inflationsmålspolitiken kan ses som etablerad. Resultaten indikerar att sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation – vilket ofta benämns phillipskurvan – inte nödvändigtvis har varit stabilt över tiden. Vi finner dock inget stöd för att inflationen under de senaste åren skulle ha blivit mindre känslig för förändringar i arbetslösheten. Analysen pekar också på vikten av att överväga huruvida makroekonomiska samband samt de störningar som drabbar ekonomin bör modelleras som tidsvarierande, såväl för att kunna besvara akademiska frågeställningar som att ha policymodeller med relevanta empiriska egenskaper.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige
  • Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Svensson, Robert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Fransson, Dan
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Techno-challenge: Implications of technology on sports coaching in Sweden2019Ingår i: Svensk förening för beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforsknings (SVEBI) årliga konferens 2019: (Idrotts)tendenser i tiden, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduktion/Introduction: Over the past century, we have seen technology and applied science contribute to increasing performance levels in sports (e.g. Haake 2009, Park 2011, Fouché 2017). While the use of technologies is part of a broader sportification process (e.g. Guttmann 1978, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019), the types of technologies used has changed over time. At present, global positioning systems, microtechnology sensors and video- and computer-assisted performance analysis (PA) has gained prominence (Cummins et al. 2013, Rein & Memmert 2016). British football clubs have been driving the techno-scientific development, a development which is currently starting to establish itself in Sweden. The use of PA methods has been found to benefit training, performance, and safety (esp. injury prevention) and to create positive effects on coach-athlete relations and athlete learning and agency (Cronin et al. 2018, Kerr 2014). However, uses of PA technologies also have negative consequences for coaches and athletes. For instance, research demonstrates that PA technologies monitor athletes (Williams & Manley 2016); depend on effective communication between stakeholders (i.e., performance analyst and coach; coach and athlete) (Baerg 2017) and generate unrealistic training and performance expectations (Kohe & Purdy 2018). Despite these emerging insights, many research gaps exist. Knowledge on how governing bodies understand and implement PA and how PA affects the coaching process and practice are currently key questions that remain unanswered.

    Syfte och teoretisk ram/Aim and theoretical framework: We use historical sociology (e.g. Abrams 1982) to critically reflect over the development, use and consequences of PA methods in sport. Specifically, we (1) demonstrate that a number of historical, contextual, and situational factors indicate that PA is about to become implemented on a large scale in Sweden; and (2) critically reflect on what this upcoming change means. Our theoretical framework will consist of the sportification model (Guttmann 1978, Yttergren 1996, Svensson 2016, Svensson 2019) to historicize the increasing role of technology in elite sport and to predict its current and future role in Sweden.

    Metod/Method: The empirical material included in our presentation is taken from existing research on the sportification in Swedish elite sport (e.g. Andersson 2019, Svensson 2019, Svensson 2016a, Yttergren 1996), existing literature that documents the use and consequences of technologies in elite sport in the UK (e.g. Williams & Manley 2016, Cummins et. al 2013), and our own insider observations of the developments and current situation of PA in Sweden. To make sense of this material, the authors met on several occasions to discuss meanings and draw out implications for science, education, and practice.

     

    Resultat/Results

    The interest for and impact of PA methods in Swedish elite sports coaching is growing. Scientific production has increased incredibly since 2015, courses and lectures on PA are popular among students, and more clubs are buying (into) these new technologies. Historical examples analyzed through the sportification model suggest that this development will accelerate. Despite the rising interest in techno-scientific PA, critical discussion is lacking about how potential risks (e.g. for personal integrity, coaching) can be managed.

     

    Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions

    The uses of new technology in PA has implications for elite sports in general and coaching in particular. Experiences from British football suggest that there are potential risks with uncritically adopting new technologies. We argue that these risks can be addressed through adopting a more reflective approach. One area where this could be done is within coach education.

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    Techno-challenge: Implications of technology on sports coaching in Sweden
  • Köckemann, Uwe
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Morberg, Daniel
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    School of Innovation Design and Engineering (IDT), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Open-Source Data Collection and Data Sets for Activity Recognition in Smart Homes2020Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikel-id E879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As research in smart homes and activity recognition is increasing, it is of ever increasing importance to have benchmarks systems and data upon which researchers can compare methods. While synthetic data can be useful for certain method developments, real data sets that are open and shared are equally as important. This paper presents the E-care@home system, its installation in a real home setting, and a series of data sets that were collected using the E-care@home system. Our first contribution, the E-care@home system, is a collection of software modules for data collection, labeling, and various reasoning tasks such as activity recognition, person counting, and configuration planning. It supports a heterogeneous set of sensors that can be extended easily and connects collected sensor data to higher-level Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning modules. Our second contribution is a series of open data sets which can be used to recognize activities of daily living. In addition to these data sets, we describe the technical infrastructure that we have developed to collect the data and the physical environment. Each data set is annotated with ground-truth information, making it relevant for researchers interested in benchmarking different algorithms for activity recognition.

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    Open-Source Data Collection and Data Sets for Activity Recognition in Smart Homes
  • Hansson-Nylund, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Siegel, Aki
    Östlund, Karl
    Retoriska budskap vid sanering efter kärnteknisk olycka2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Retoriska budskap vid sanering efter kärnteknisk olycka (REKO)
  • Edholm, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in physical function, accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, leading to loss of independency. In this respect, physical activity and healthy diet represent key lifestyle factors with potential to delay onset of age-related physical disability. The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore the effects of physical activity behaviours in general and resistance training (RT) in particular, with or without addition of a healthy diet (HD), on muscle mass and physical function in older community-dwelling women. A main finding was that physical activity of at least moderate intensity at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a previously sedentary lifestyle. Additionally, engagement in exercise-related activities during middleage years is linked to better physical function and higher muscle massat old age, regardless of present physical activity level. This thesis further highlights that in older women RT combined with HD rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elicits significant gains in muscle mass, whereas no corresponding gain was induced by RT alone. Likewise, larger improvements in muscle strength and physical function were evident in response to combined effects by RT and HD compared to RT alone. Taken together, findings from this thesis support public health efforts aiming to promote physical activity of at least moderate intensity together with a healthy diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to combat age-related decline in muscle mass and physical function.

    Delarbeten
    1. Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 415-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Nyckelord
    aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Centrum för Idrottsforskning, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-25 Skapad: 2019-02-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Muscle Mass and Aerobic Capacity at Old Age: Impact of Regular Exercise at Middle Age
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80862 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-26 Skapad: 2020-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, nr 8, s. 918-925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Physiological Society, 2015
    Nyckelord
    aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idrottsvetenskap Fysiologi
    Forskningsämne
    Fysiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-10 Skapad: 2015-11-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 190-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Physiological Society, 2017
    Nyckelord
    aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Idrottsvetenskap Sjukgymnastik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-19 Skapad: 2017-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet
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  • Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Research and Outcome, Mumbai, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Information frictions make non-simultaneous exchange risky, particularly across borders. Therefore, many countries insure cross-border exchange. We investigate the effects on firm trade, jobs, value added and productivity, using uniquely detailed, comprehensive and longitudinal transaction-level Swedish data on insurance and granular data on exporters and foreign buyers. For identification, we employ matching and differencein-difference and fuzzy regression discontinuity estimators and exploit a quasi-natural experiment. We find strikingly heterogeneous effects across firm size and response variables. The strongest positive effects are for small traders and new users. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from export insurance to firm performance.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance
  • Stockhult, Helén
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Utvärdering av utvecklingsprojektet: Kompetenslyftet för läkarsekreterare2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    UTVÄRDERING AV UTVECKLINGSPROJEKTET: Kompetenslyftet för läkarsekreterare
  • Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Gadolin, Christian
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Stockhult, Helen
    Institutionen för handel och företagande, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Samverkan i komplexitet: Resultat från utvärdering av samverkansmodell social hållbarhet/folkhälsa2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    SAMVERKAN I KOMPLEXITET: Resultat från utvärdering av samverkansmodell social hållbarhet/folkhälsa
  • Sakellari, Marianthi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Functional analysis of the proteasome in eukaryotic organisms2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteasome degradation machinery is responsible for the turnover of a huge variety of normal and abnormal proteins, thus regulating a plethora of cellular processes. Aging is an inevitable biological process that is characterized by reduced proteasome function that leads to proteotoxic stress. Compound-related interventions, that ameliorate proteasome system collapse, retard aging process. In the present thesis, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), a natural compound with known proteasome activating properties in cells, was indicated to activate proteasome also in the multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Evaluation of the antiaging and protein anti-aggregation effects of this bioactive compound indicated that 18α-GA promoted longevity in nematodes through proteasome-and SKN-1-mediated activation and decelerated Alzheimer’sdisease progression and neuropathology both in nematodes and neuronal cells. Additionally, the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation was analyzed in eukaryotic organisms under various cellular conditions. Protein synthesis inhibition was observed to increase proteasome function and assembly in human primary embryonic fibroblasts, with heat shock protein chaperone machinery to contribute to the elevated proteasome assembly. Alternatively, protein synthesis inhibition increased the protein levels of specific proteasome subunits without influencing the proteasome activity in C. elegans. Furthermore, proteasome activation by means which have also pro-longevity effects decreased the protein synthesis rate both in human fibroblast cellsand nematodes. This thesis suggests: 1) that a diet-derived compound could act as a pro-longevity and anti-aggregation agent in the context of amulticellular organism and 2) the existence of a complex interplay between anabolic and catabolic processes under different cellular conditions, across species.

    Delarbeten
    1. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 855-869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.

    Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment.

    Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    New Rochelle, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Proteasome activation, lifespan extension, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, aggregation, proteostasis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49639 (URN)10.1089/ars.2015.6494 (DOI)000388262600001 ()26886723 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    U.S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources

    Thales GenAge QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    MAESTRO by the European Union (European Social Fund)

    Operational Program, Education and Lifelong Learning, of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)

    European Union 266486

    IKYDA fellowship

    Empirikion Foundation Scientific Project

    John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation

    Academy of Finland 259797

    COST Actions PROTEOS-TASIS BM1307

    GENiE BM1408

    COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-20 Skapad: 2016-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Protein synthesis inhibition induces proteasome assembly and function
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 514, nr 1, s. 224-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Protein synthesis and degradation balance have a crucial role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis and function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the major cellular proteolytic machineries responsible for the removal of normal, abnormal, denatured or in general damaged proteins. Proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme that consists of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complexes giving rise to multiple active forms. In the present study we investigated the crosstalk between protein synthesis and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Pharmacological protein synthesis inhibition led to increased proteasome function and assembly of 30S/26S proteasome complexes, in human primary embryonic fibroblasts. The enhancement in proteasome function counted for the degradation of ubiquitinated, misfolded and oxidized proteins. Additionally, it was found that heat shock proteins 70 and 90 are probably involved in the elevated proteasome assembly. Our results provide an insight on how the mechanisms of protein synthesis, protein degradation and heat shock protein chaperones machinery interact under various cellular conditions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Proteasome, Proteasome activation, Protein synthesis inhibition, Hsp70, Hsp90
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79901 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.114 (DOI)000469406800033 ()31029420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064700180 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies:

    Research Funding Program: Thales "GenAge" - European Union  QALHS AP:10479/3.7.12 MIS380228

    Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 

    Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-14 Skapad: 2020-02-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Study of the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan medicinsk grundvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80902 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Study of the effects of increased proteasome-mediated proteolysis on protein synthesis rate
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan medicinsk grundvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80903 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-30 Skapad: 2020-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-30Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Functional Analysis of the Proteasome in Eukaryotic Organisms
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  • Stockhult, Helén
    Högskolan Skövde, Skövde.
    Nyföretagande och inkubatorverksamhet: En studie av entreprenörers syn på företagande och inkubatorverksamhet2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Nyföretagande och inkubatorverksamhet: En studie av entreprenörers syn på företagande och inkubatorverksamhet
  • Sun, Da
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liao, Qianfang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Single Master Bimanual Teleoperation System with Efficient Regulation2020Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new single master bimanual teleoperation (SMBT) system with an efficient position, orientation and force regulation strategy. Unlike many existing studies that solely support motion synchronization, the first contribution of the proposed work is to propose a solution for orientation regulation when several slave robots have differing motions. In other words, we propose a solution for self-regulated orientation for dual-arm robots. A second contribution in the paper allows the master with fewer degrees of freedom to control the slaves (with higher degrees of freedom), while the orientation of the slaves is self-regulated. The system further offers a novel force regulation that enables the slave robots to have a smooth and balanced robot-environment interaction with proper force directions. Finally, the proposed approach provides adequate force feedback about the environment to the operator and assists the operator in identifying different motion situations of the slaves. Our approach demonstrates that the forces from the slaves will not interrupt the operator’s perception of the environment. To validate the proposed system, experiments are conducted using a platform consisting of two 7-Degree of Freedom (DoF) slave robots and one 3-DoF master haptic device. The experiments demonstrated good results in terms of position, orientation and force regulation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Single Master Bimanual Teleoperation System With Efficient Regulation
  • Lernborg, Clara My
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sendlhofer, Tina
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The case of [partial] organising for CSR: Bridging the responsibility gap for SMEs2017Ingår i: Sustainable development and business / [ed] Markus Kallifatides and Lin Lerpold (eds.), Stockholm: SSE and the Stockholm School of Economics Institute for Research (SIR) , 2017, 1, s. 285-308Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    The case of [partial] organising for CSR: Bridging the responsibility gap for SMEs
  • Isenström, Lisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching children about human rights is an important step towards strengthening human rights internationally and schools are considered primary sites for children to develop human rights understandings, attitudes and behaviours. This dissertation explores the teachers’ role in educating children about their human rights. Focusing on the everyday school life of young children, a holistic approach to rights-learning is applied that includes not only learning about human rights but also developing rights-conscious values, attitudes and behaviours. Also included in the concept rights-learning is the formation of a self-conception as a rights-holder. Against this background the aim of this dissertation is to clarify the impact of teachers’ actions on the construction of young children’s rights-learning, and their self-conceptions as rights-holders.

    Theoretically, the dissertation combines: (i) rights theorisation; (ii) theorisation of differing discourses of children and childhood; and (iii) Foucauldian governmentality. From these, analytical concepts of rights-learning situations, teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities and privileged rightssubject positions are constructed. The data used in the study derives from classroom observations and interviews with teachers, as well as drawing on previous research.

    The findings highlight that in everyday school practice the teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities will privilege different rights-subject positions for the children and thereby construct children’s rights-learning in different ways. With a holistic approach to rights-learning, as something that occurs in various interactions and situations in everyday school life, the findings presented in this dissertation can provide new perspectives and enrich discussions on teaching and learning children’s human rights.

    Delarbeten
    1. Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Governing rationalities in children’s human rights education
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Pedagogik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80552 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-11 Skapad: 2020-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Teachers’ rights-teaching mentalities – What teachers do and why
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Pedagogik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80553 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-11 Skapad: 2020-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Children as growing rights subjects – the significance of teachers’ actions
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Pedagogik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80554 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-11 Skapad: 2020-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-11Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Att utbilda rättighetsbärare: Med läraren i fokus när undervisning för mänskliga rättigheter i skolans yngre åldrar studeras
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  • Hou, Hui-Rang
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Meng, Qing-Hao
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 7227-7235, artikel-id 8945323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas source localization (including gas source declaration) is critical for environmental monitoring, pollution control and chemical safety. In this paper we approach the gas source declaration problem by constructing a tetrahedron, each vertex of which consists of a gas sensor and a three-dimensional (3D) anemometer. With this setup, the space sampled around a gas source can be divided into two categories, i.e. inside (“source in”) and outside (“source out”) the tetrahedron, posing gas source declaration as a classification problem. For the declaration of the “source in” or “source out” cases, we propose to directly take raw gas concentration and wind measurement data as features, and apply a median value filtering based extreme learning machine (M-ELM) method. Our experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed method, yielding accuracies of 93.2% and 100% for gas source declaration in the regular and irregular tetrahedron experiments, respectively. These results are better than that of the ELM-MFC (mass flux criterion) and other variants of ELM algorithms.

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    Gas Source Declaration with Tetrahedral Sensing Geometries and Median Value Filtering Extreme Learning Machine
  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bader, Eveline
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schindler, Florian
    TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Schabmann, Alfred
    Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students with Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study2019Ingår i: Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, ISSN 1937-6928, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 5-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity recognition in whole number representations is a fundamental skill children need to acquire in their mathematical development. Despite the observed correlation to mathematics achievement, however, the abil-ity to recognize quantities in structured whole number representations has not been studied extensively. In this article, we investigate how stu-dents with mathematical difficulties (MD) differ from typically develop-ing (TD) students in quantity recognition in structured whole number representations. We use eye tracking (ET), which can help to identify stu-dents’ quantity recognition strategies. In contrast to methods that include collecting verbal answers and reports, ET avoids an additional verbal-ization step, which may be affected by poor language skills and by low meta-cognitive abilities or memory issues when monitoring, recalling,and explaining one’s thoughts. We present an ET study with 20 students of which ten were found to have MD in initial tests (using qualitative and quantitative diagnostics). We used ET glasses, which allow seeing the students’ view of the scene with an augmented visualization of the gaze point projected onto the scene. The obtained gaze-overlaid videos also include audio data and records of students’ answers and utterances. In our study, we did not find significant differences between the error rates of MD and TD students. Response times, however, were longer for students with MD. The analysis of the ET data brought students’ quantity recogni-tion strategies to light, some of which were not found in previous research. Our analyses revealed differences in the use of these quantity recognition strategies between MD and TD students. Our study illustrates the power of ET for investigating students’ quantity recognition strategies and the potential of ET to support MD students.

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    Quantity Recognition in Structured Whole Number Representations of Students With Mathematical Difficulties: An Eye-Tracking Study
  • Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Scheuschner, Nils
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE SENSORS, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors mounted on mobile robotsenable the mapping of gas distributions in large or hardlyaccessible areas. A challenging task, however, is the generation ofthree-dimensional distribution maps from the gas measurements.Suitable reconstruction algorithms can be adapted, for instance,from the field of computed tomography (CT), but both theirperformance and strategies for selecting optimal measuring posesmust be evaluated. For this purpose simulations are used, since, incontrast to field tests, they allow repeatable conditions. Althoughseveral simulation tools exist, they lack realistic models of remotegas sensors. Recently, we introduced a model for a Tunable DiodeLaser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor taking intoaccount the conical shape of its laser beam. However, the novelmodel has not yet been validated with experiments. In this paperwe compare our model with a real sensor device and show thatthe assumptions made hold.

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    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model
  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modeling in Human-Robot Navigation2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence: Volume 1 (FCTA), SciTePress, 2019, s. 296-305Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the crossings of the trajectories of humans and robots. We discuss the intersection calculation and its fuzzy version in the context of human-robot navigation with respect to noise information. Based on known parameters of the Gaussian input distributions at the orientations of human and robot the parameters of the output distributions at the intersection are to be found by analytical and fuzzy calculation. Furthermore the inverse task is discussed where the parameters of the output distributions are given and the parameters of the input distributions are searched. For larger standard deviations of the orientation signals we suggest mixed Gaussian models as approximation of nonlinear distributions.

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    Uncertainty and Fuzzy Modelingin Human-robot Navigation
  • Vintr, Tomas
    et al.
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Molina, Sergi
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems (L-CAS), University of Lincoln.
    Senanayake, Ransalu
    Stanford University.
    Broughton, George
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Yan, Zhi
    Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Laboratory (CIAD), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), France.
    Ulrich, Jiri
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Kucner, Tomasz P.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Swaminathan, Chittaranjan Srinivas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Majer, Filip
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Stachova, Maria
    University of Matej Bel, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Krajnik, Tomas
    Artificial Intelligence Center, Czech Technical University.
    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots2019Ingår i: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, artikel-id 8870909Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a human-centric spatio-temporal model for service robots operating in densely populated environments for long time periods. The method integrates observations of pedestrians performed by a mobile robot at different locations and times into a memory efficient model, that represents the spatial layout of natural pedestrian flows and how they change over time. To represent temporal variations of the observed flows, our method does not model the time in a linear fashion, but by several dimensions wrapped into themselves. This representation of time can capture long-term (i.e. days to weeks) periodic patterns of peoples’ routines and habits. Knowledge of these patterns allows making long-term predictions of future human presence and walking directions, which can support mobile robot navigation in human-populated environments. Using datasets gathered by a robot for several weeks, we compare the model to state-of-the-art methods for pedestrian flow modelling.

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    Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots
  • Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    A Submap per Perspective: Selecting Subsets for SuPer Mapping that Afford Superior Localization Quality2019Ingår i: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets high-precision robot localization. We address a general problem for voxel-based map representations that the expressiveness of the map is fundamentally limited by the resolution since integration of measurements taken from different perspectives introduces imprecisions, and thus reduces localization accuracy.We propose SuPer maps that contain one Submap per Perspective representing a particular view of the environment. For localization, a robot then selects the submap that best explains the environment from its perspective. We propose SuPer mapping as an offline refinement step between initial SLAM and deploying autonomous robots for navigation. We evaluate the proposed method on simulated and real-world data that represent an important use case of an industrial scenario with high accuracy requirements in an repetitive environment. Our results demonstrate a significantly improved localization accuracy, up to 46% better compared to localization in global maps, and up to 25% better compared to alternative submapping approaches.

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    A Submap per Perspective - Selecting Subsets for SuPer Mapping that Afford Superior Localization Quality
  • Lilienthal, Achim J.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Special Education, University of Cologne, Germany.
    Current Trends in Eye Tracking Research in Mathematics Education: A PME Literature Review: A PME Survey2019Ingår i: 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2019, Vol. 4, s. 62-62Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking (ET) is a research method that receives growing interest in mathematics education research (MER). This paper aims to give a literature overview, specifically focusing on the evolution of interest in this technology, ET equipment, and analysis methods used in mathematics education. To capture the current state, we focus on papers published in the proceedings of PME, one of the primary conferences dedicated to MER, of the last ten years. We identify trends in interest, methodology, and methods of analysis that are used in the community, and discuss possible future developments.

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    Lilienthal and Schindler (PME 2019) Current Trends in Eye Tracking in MER
  • Palm, Rainer
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Gaussian Noise and the Intersection Problem in Human-Robot Systems: Analytical and Fuzzy Approach2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), IEEE, 2019, s. 1-6, artikel-id 8858796Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the intersection problem in humanrobot systems with respect to noisy information is discussed. The interaction between humans and mobile robots in shared areas requires a high level of safety especially at the intersections of trajectories. We discuss the intersection problem with respect to noisy information on the basis of an analytic geometrical model and its TS fuzzy version. The transmission of a 2-dimensional Gaussian noise signal, in particular information on human and robot orientations, through a non-linear static system and its fuzzy version, will be described. We discuss the problem: Given the parameters of the input distributions, find the parameters of the output distributions.

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    Gaussian noise and the intersection problem in Human-Robot Systems: Analytical and fuzzy approach
  • Chadalavada, Ravi Teja
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schindler, Maike
    Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Cologne, Germany, Cologne, Gemany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Implicit intention transference using eye-tracking glasses for improved safety in human-robot interaction2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye gaze can convey information about intentions beyond what can beinferred from the trajectory and head pose of a person. We propose eye-trackingglasses as safety equipment in industrial environments shared by humans androbots. In this work, an implicit intention transference system was developed and implemented. Robot was given access to human eye gaze data, and it responds tothe eye gaze data through spatial augmented reality projections on the sharedfloor space in real-time and the robot could also adapt its path. This allows proactivesafety approaches in HRI for example by attempting to get the human'sattention when they are in the vicinity of a moving robot. A study was conductedwith workers at an industrial warehouse. The time taken to understand the behaviorof the system was recorded. Electrodermal activity and pupil diameter wererecorded to measure the increase in stress and cognitive load while interactingwith an autonomous system, using these measurements as a proxy to quantifytrust in autonomous systems.

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    Implicit intention transference using eye-tracking glasses for improved safety in human-robot interaction
  • Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Opportunities for Education for Sustainability through multidimensional preschool science2019Ingår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 3, nr 15, s. 358-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we exemplify and discuss how preschool science education may contribute to Education forSustainability (EfS). We draw on data from science activities in fourteen Swedish preschools, in which wehave previously identified examples of ‘multidimensional science teaching’, hence, teaching that intertwineschildren’s science learning with multiple dimensions of children’s lives, such as emotions, fantasy,play and aesthetic modes of expressions. By re-analysing these activities through an EfS lense, we showseveral examples of how multidimensional science teaching provide opportunities for children to developagency and empowerment as well as connectedness with the environment, and some examples of creativeproblem solving. Yet, we advocate that teachers’ active participation is crucial for realising multidimensionalscience teaching in a way that contributes to EfS.

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    Opportunities for Education for Sustainability through multidimensional preschool science
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hobson, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing2020Ingår i: The New Handbook of Political Sociology / [ed] T. Janoski, C. de Leon, J. Misra and I. Martin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 1, s. 153-190Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    The concept of citizenships, in the plural, reflects different research traditions in citizenship theorizing: citizenship as legal status in a sovereign state, as a bearer of rights and obligations; citizenship as participation (civic republicanism); and citizenship as social membership. Each of these enhance the capabilities of individuals to become participants in political, economic and social spheres of life. Citizenships as a concept also embraces practices: how these aspects of citizenship are experienced in everyday encounters and the relationships of power:  in families, workplaces, welfare offices, social movements and their variations in institutional contexts.

    We focus on how gender has become more salient in theorizing across these citizenship domains, extending the boundaries of social membership and inclusion (Lister 2003; Hobson and Lister 2002). Implicit in the pluralizing of citizenships is the recognition of the need for a dynamic concept that engages with multi-dimensional aspects of gender, citizenships and social memberships within, below and beyond the state. This approach allows us to capture both the diversity in locations and situations of individuals and groups and the multi-scalar structures of governance: by national and transnational institutions and actors, as well as the opportunities and constraints for social movements to transform them. Finally, this chapter engages with the theoretical terrain on intersectionalities, viewing gender through the lens of complex inequalities across age, citizenship/migrant status, class, ethnicity/race, region, and their intersections. Throughout we engage with the dilemmas and challenges in theorizing gender, citizenships and social memberships: if and how gender matters in the framing of citizenship and what processes shape social divisions and citizenship identities.  

    This chapter comprises two main sections and a concluding discussion. The first focuses on feminist theorizing within two main research traditions in citizenship theorizing: first, social membership: T.H. Marshall’s framework, its legacy in welfare regime paradigm, and the dialogues on gender, states and citizenship that arose from them; second, civic republicanism and participatory citizenship, addressing agency (citizenship in practice), frames of gendered citizenship. In the second section, we focus on the changing landscape of feminist theorizing on citizenships emerging from critical analysis of men and masculinities, postcolonial critical race theory, intersectionality, migration and transnationalism. We conclude with Challenges, Dilemmas and Debates, addressing the implications of these complexities and dilemmas and challenges in gendered citizenships, in particular, the fragmentation in solidarities reflected in the widening gap in capabilities and inequalities and polarization across citizenship identities expressed in new forms of nationhood, nationalism and populism.  

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    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing_Part1
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    Gender, state and citizenships: Challenges and dilemmas in feminist theorizing_Part2
  • Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency: The role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency2019Ingår i: The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    The Role of Whistleblowers at the Swedish Tax Agency
  • Schindler, Maike
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Differences in Quantity Recognition Between Students with and without Mathematical Difficulties Analyzed Through Eye: Analysis Through Eye-Tracking and AI2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 43rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] M. Graven, H. Venkat, A. Essien & P. Vale, PME , 2019, Vol. 3, s. 281-288Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties in mathematics learning are an important topic in practice and research. In particular, researchers and practitioners need to identify students’ needs for support to teach and help them adequately. However, empirical research about group differences of students with and without mathematical difficulties (MD) is still scarce. Previous research suggests that students with MD may differ in their quantity recognition strategies in structured whole number representations from students without MD. This study uses eye-tracking (ET), combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular pattern recognition methods, to analyze group differences in gaze patterns in quantity recognition of N=164 fifth grade students.

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    Differences in Quantity Recognition Between Students with and without Mathematical Difficulties Analyzed Through Eye
  • Larsson, Ylva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Visselblåsare och skatt2019Ingår i: Svensk Skattetidning, ISSN 0346-2218, Vol. 8, s. 493-500Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    Visselblåsare och skatt
  • Lagriffoul, Fabien
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Perceiving and acting out of the box2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition / [ed] Angelo Cangelosi, Antonio Lieto, CEUR-WS , 2019, Vol. 2483Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses potential limitations in learning in au-tonomous robotic systems that integrate several specialized subsystemsworking at different levels of abstraction. If the designers have antici-pated what the system may have to learn, then adding new knowledgeboils down to adding new entries in a database and/or tuning parametersof some subsystem(s). But if this new knowledge does not fit in prede-fined structures, the system can simply not acquire it, hence it cannot“think out of the box” designed by its creators. We show why learningout of the box may be difficult in integrated systems, hint at some exist-ing potential approaches, and finally suggest that a better approach maycome by looking at constructivist epistemology, with focus on Piaget’sschemas theory.

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    Perceiving and Acting Out of the Box
  • Lowry, Stephanie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Similarity criteria: evaluating perceptual change for visual localization2019Ingår i: 2019 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), IEEE, 2019, artikel-id 8870962Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual localization systems may operate in environments that exhibit considerable perceptual change. This paper proposes a method of evaluating the degree of appearance change using a similarity criteria based on comparing the subspaces spanned by the principal components of the observed image descriptors. We propose two criteria - θmin measures the minimum angle between subspaces and Stotal measures the total similarity between the subspaces. These criteria are introspective - they evaluate the performance of the image descriptor using nothing more than the image descriptor itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these similarity criteria reflect the ability of the image descriptor to perform visual localization successfully, thus allowing a measure of quality control on the localization output.

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    Similarity criteria: Evaluating perceptual change for visual localization
  • Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Petersson, Joakim
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Risk management of Domestic Violence2019Ingår i: The EU Mutual Learning Programme in Gender Equality: Preventing domestic violence with Men and Boys: Challenges and Opportunities, European Commission, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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    Risk Management of Domestic Violence
  • Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. University of Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Finland; University of South Africa, South Africa.
    Young Working-Class Men in Transition 2019Ingår i: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 202-204Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
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    Steven Roberts Young Working-Class Men in Transition
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Hanken School of Economics, Finland .
    Thym, Anika
    University of Basel, Switzerland; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Masculinities under Neoliberalism (A. Cornwall, F. G. Karioris and N. Lindisfarne, eds.)2019Ingår i: Gender and Development, ISSN 1355-2074, E-ISSN 1364-9221, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 407-409Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
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    Masculinities under Neoliberalism (A. Cornwall, F. G. Karioris and N. Lindisfarne, eds.)
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of Huddersfield, UK.
    Howson, Richard
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    The institutionalization of (Critical) Studies on Men and Masculinities: Geopolitical perspectives2019Ingår i: Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström and Tamara Shefer, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, s. 19-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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    The institutionalization of (Critical) Studies on Men and Masculinities: Geopolitical perspectives
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Vasquez del Aquila, Ernesto
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughson, Marina
    Institute of Criminology, Serbia.
    Unsustainable institutions of men: transnational dispersed centres and immanent contradictions2019Ingår i: Unsustainable Institutions of Men: Transnational Dispersed Centres, Gender Power, Contradictions / [ed] Jeff Hearn, Ernesto Vasquez del Aquila, Marina Hughson, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, s. 1-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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    Introduction: unsustainable institutions of men: Transnational dispersed centres and immanent contradictions
  • Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hall, Matthew
    Arden University, Coventry, UK.
    New technologies, image distribution and cyberabuse2019Ingår i: NOTA News, nr 88, s. 10-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    New Technologies, Image Distribution and Cyberabuse – Jeff Hearn and Matthew Hall
  • Arad, Boaz
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Balendonck, Jos
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Barth, Ruud
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ben-Shahar, Ohad
    Department of Computer Science, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Hellström, Thomas
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hemming, Jochen
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Kurtser, Polina
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beer‐Sheva, Israel .
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tielen, Toon
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van Tuijl, Bart
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Development of a sweet pepper harvesting robot2020Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, E-ISSN 1556-4967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development, testing and validation of SWEEPER, a robot for harvesting sweet pepper fruit in greenhouses. The robotic system includes a six degrees of freedom industrial arm equipped with a specially designed end effector, RGB-D camera, high-end computer with graphics processing unit, programmable logic controllers, other electronic equipment, and a small container to store harvested fruit. All is mounted on a cart that autonomously drives on pipe rails and concrete floor in the end-user environment. The overall operation of the harvesting robot is described along with details of the algorithms for fruit detection and localization, grasp pose estimation, and motion control. The main contributions of this paper are the integrated system design and its validation and extensive field testing in a commercial greenhouse for different varieties and growing conditions. A total of 262 fruits were involved in a 4-week long testing period. The average cycle time to harvest a fruit was 24 s. Logistics took approximately 50% of this time (7.8 s for discharge of fruit and 4.7 s for platform movements). Laboratory experiments have proven that the cycle time can be reduced to 15 s by running the robot manipulator at a higher speed. The harvest success rates were 61% for the best fit crop conditions and 18% in current crop conditions. This reveals the importance of finding the best fit crop conditions and crop varieties for successful robotic harvesting. The SWEEPER robot is the first sweet pepper harvesting robot to demonstrate this kind of performance in a commercial greenhouse.

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    Development ofasweetpepper harvesting robot
  • Kurtser, Polina
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Arad, Boaz
    Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Ben-Shahar, Ohad
    Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    van Bree, Milan
    Irmato Industrial Solutions Veghel B.V., Veghel, The Netherlands .
    Moonen, Joep
    Irmato Industrial Solutions Veghel B.V., Veghel, The Netherlands .
    van Tujil, Bart
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Robotic data acquisition of sweet pepper images for research and development2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A main problem limiting the development of robotic harvesters is robust fruit detection [5]. Despite intensive research conducted in identifying the fruits and their location [2,3], current fruit detection algorithms have a limited detection rate of 0.87 which is unfeasible from an economic perspective [5]. The complexity of the fruit detection task is due to the unstructured and dynamic nature of both the objects and the environment [4-6]: the fruit have inherent high variability in size, shape, texture, and location; occlusion and variable illumination conditions significantly influence the detection performance[3].

    A common practice for image processing R&D for complicated problems is the acquisition of a large database (e.g., Labelme open source labeling database [1], Oxford building dataset [2]). These datasets enable to advance vision algorithms development [7] and provide a benchmark for evaluating new algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, to date there is no open dataset available for R&D in image processing of agricultural objects. Evaluation of previously reported algorithms was based on limited data [5]. Previous research indicated the importance of evaluating algorithms for a wide range of sensory, crop, and environmental conditions [5].

    A robotic acquisition system and procedure was developed using a 6 degree of freedom manipulator, equipped with 3 different sensors to automatically acquire images from several viewpoints with different sensors and illumination conditions. Measurements were conducted along the day and at night in a commercial greenhouse and resulted in a total of 1764 images from 14 viewpoints for each scene. Additionally, drawbacks and advantages of the proposed approach as compared to other approaches previously utilized will be discussed along with recommendations for future acquisitions.

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    Robotic Data Acquisition of Sweet Pepper Images for Research and Development
  • Hedbrant, Alexander
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Andersson, Lena
    Region Örebro län. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Quartz Dust Exposure Affects NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Plasma Levels of IL-18 and IL-1Ra in Iron Foundry Workers2020Ingår i: Mediators of Inflammation, ISSN 0962-9351, E-ISSN 1466-1861, artikel-id 8490908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study the association between inhalation of particulate matter or quartz in Swedish iron foundries and the effects on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 

    Methods: Particle exposure measurements were performed during an eight-hour work day for 85 foundry workers at three Swedish iron foundries. Personal sampling was used for measurement of respirable quartz and dust and stationary measurements to obtain exposure measurements for inhalable dust and PM10. The NLRP3 inflammasome markers, interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-18, and inhibitors IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) were measured in plasma. Inflammasome activation was measured by caspase-1 enzymatic activity in monocytes in whole blood by flow cytometry, and expression of inflammasome-related genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between PM exposures and inflammatory markers. Sex, age, smoking, current infection, BMI, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the inflammasome regulating genes CARD8 (C10X) and NLRP3 (Q705K) were included as covariates. 

    Results: The average exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. A significant exposure-response was found for respirable dust and IL-18 and for inhalable dust and IL-1Ra. Whole blood, drawn from study participants, was stimulated ex vivo with inflammasome priming stimuli LPS or Pam3CSK4, resulting in a 47% and 49% increase in caspase-1 enzymatic activity in monocytes. This increase in caspase-1 activity was significantly attenuated in the higher exposure groups for most PM exposure measures. 

    Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure levels of PM in the iron foundry environment can affect the NLRP3 inflammasome and systemic inflammation.

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    Quartz Dust Exposure Affects NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Plasma Levels of IL-18 and IL-1Ra in Iron Foundry Workers
  • Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Kurtser, Polina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Barth, Ruud
    Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Edan, Yael
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel .
    Operational flow of an autonomous sweetpepper harvesting robot2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced automation is required for greenhouse production systems due to the lack of skilled workforce and increasing labour costs [1]. As part of the EU project SWEEPER, we are working on developing an autonomous robot able to harvest sweet pepper fruits in greenhouses. This paper focuses on the operational flow of the robot for the high level task planning.

    In the SWEEPER project, an RGB camera is mounted on the end effector to detect fruits. Due to the dense plant rows, the camera is located at a maximum of 40 cm from the plants and hence cannot provide an overview of all fruit locations. Only a few ripe fruits at each acquisition can be seen. This implies that the robot must incorporate a search pattern to look for fruits. When at least one fruit has been detected in the image, the search is aborted and a harvesting phase is initiated. The phase starts with directing the manipulator to a point close to the fruit and then activating a visual servo control loop. This motion approach ensures that the fruit is grasped despite the occlusions caused by the stems and leaves. When the manipulator has reached the fruit, it is harvested and automatically released into a container. If there are more fruits that have already been detected, the system continues to pick them. When all detected fruits have been harvested, the system resumes the search pattern again. When the search pattern is finished and no more fruits are detected, the robot base is advanced along the row to the next plant and repeats the operations above.

    To support implementation of the workflow into a program controlling the actual robot, a generic software framework for development of agricultural and forestry robots was used [2]. The framework is constructed with a hybrid robot architecture, using a state machine implementing the following flowchart.

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    Operational flow of an autonomous sweet pepper harvesting robot