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Pan, Y., Wang, J., Yeung, L. W. Y., Wei, S. & Dai, J. (2020). Analysis of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Progress and current issues. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 124, Article ID 115481.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analysis of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Progress and current issues
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2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 124, artikkel-id 115481Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasingly stringent restrictions on legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have led to the compensatory use of new fluorinated replacements. These new compounds, hereafter referred to as emerging PFASs, continue to be discovered and are now showing ubiquity in abiotic and biotic environments. Thus, there is an urgent need for robust, yet sensitive analytical methods to determine their occurrence and understand their behavior, fate, impact, and toxicity. Here, we review the up-to-date sample preparation and analytical methodologies for emerging PFASs based on peer-reviewed literature published in the past three years (2015-2018). The determination of emerging PFASs is similar to that of legacy PFASs, with satisfactory performances for most emerging PFASs achieved using conventional extraction and analytical approaches. However, the determination of certain specific analytes remains challenging due to the unavailability of standards and reference materials, low recoveries and matrix effects, background contamination, and poor sensitivities due to in-source fragmentation. Despite recent progress in identifying ionic semi-volatile PFASs with liquid chromatograph-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), our knowledge on new types of neutral volatile PFASs remains poor due to limited non-target analysis using gas chromatograph (GC)-HRMS.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Emerging contaminants, Extraction, Liquid chromatography, Triple quadrupole, Quantification, Non-target screening, High-resolution mass spectrometry, In-source fragmentation, Isomer-specific analysis
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80850 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2019.04.013 (DOI)000518368000003 ()2-s2.0-85064568538 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding Agencies:

National Natural Science Foundation of China 21737004

Chinese Academy of Sciences XDB14040202

Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-26 Laget: 2020-03-26 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Dubocq, F., Wang, T., Yeung, L. W. Y., Sjöberg, V. & Kärrman, A. (2020). Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(1), 245-254
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis
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2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 245-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are widely used to extinguish liquid fires due to their film-forming properties. AFFF formulation historically contains per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that can be very persistent and pose a health risk to biota and humans. Detailed analysis of the chemical composition of AFFFs can provide a better understanding on the potential environmental impact of the ingredients. In this study, a novel workflow combining target analysis, nontarget screening analysis (NTA), total fluorine (TF) analysis, and inorganic fluoride (IF) analysis was applied to disclose the chemical composition of 24 foams intended for liquid fires. Foams marketed as containing PFASs as well as fluorine-free foams were included. By comparing the sum of targeted PFASs and total organofluorine concentrations, a mass balance of known and unknown organofluorine could be calculated. Known organofluorine accounted for <1% in most fluorine-containing AFFFs, and it was confirmed that the foams marketed as fluorine-free did not contain measurable amounts of organofluorine substances. Five fluorinated substances were tentatively identified, and non-fluorinated zwitterionic betaine compounds, which are considered to be replacement substances for PFASs, were tentatively identified in the organofluorine-free foams.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ACS Publications, 2020
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78825 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b05440 (DOI)000506723200027 ()31789512 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Civil Contingencies AgencyKnowledge Foundation
Merknad

Funding Agency:

Swedish Chemicals Agency

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-20 Laget: 2019-12-20 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Koch, A., Aro, R., Wang, T. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2020). Towards a comprehensive analytical workflow for the chemical characterisation of organofluorine in consumer products and environmental samples. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 123, Article ID 115423.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards a comprehensive analytical workflow for the chemical characterisation of organofluorine in consumer products and environmental samples
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 123, artikkel-id 115423Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This review summarizes and discusses eight analytical methods for organofluorine (OF) analysis, which offer detection limits suitable for consumer products and environmental samples. Direct sample analysis of OF only applies to some techniques on consumer products, whereas others require sample pretreatment or concentration before measurements. Comparison between methods for OF analysis were found to be difficult because of different selectivity (between OF and fluoride), sensitivity and type of samples (bulk, extract, surface) analysed. Neither inter-laboratory comparison on OF analysis nor suitable certified reference materials have been used for method validation, which makes data comparability between studies challenging. A top down approach for the comprehensive assessment of OF is proposed, where OF/extractable OF is first measured, followed by target analysis to obtain unquantifiable OF concentrations using the mass balance approach. For further identification of unquantifiable OF, approaches such as total oxidizable precursor assay, suspect and non-target screening are briefly discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Fluorine mass balance, Extractable organofluorine (EOF), Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), Combustion ion chromatography (CIC), Particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE), Inductively coupled plasma MS/MS (ICP-MS/MS)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80250 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2019.02.024 (DOI)000512979800001 ()2-s2.0-85062809595 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00320Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01158Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-02-28 Laget: 2020-02-28 Sist oppdatert: 2020-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Mullin, L. G., Katz, D. R., Riddell, N., Plumb, R., Burgess, J. A., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Ericson Jogsten, I. (2019). Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 118, 828-839
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 118, s. 828-839Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyse HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H](-) signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several mu g/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2019
Emneord
HFPO-DA, GenX, Negative polarity electrospray ionisation, Liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76970 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.015 (DOI)000486383900064 ()31501636 (PubMedID)
Merknad

Funding Agency:

Intramural EPA  EPA999999

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-10-02 Laget: 2019-10-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Yeung, L. W. Y., Yamashita, N. & Falandysz, J. (2019). Legacy and emerging perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds: An update. Chemosphere, 237, Article ID UNSP 124506.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Legacy and emerging perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds: An update
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 237, artikkel-id UNSP 124506Artikkel i tidsskrift, Editorial material (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78515 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124506 (DOI)000496896700130 ()31400742 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073703038 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-10 Laget: 2019-12-10 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Koch, A., Kärrman, A., Yeung, L. W. Y., Jonsson, M., Ahrens, L. & Wang, T. (2019). Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 21(11), 1887-1898
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1887-1898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76827 (URN)10.1039/c9em00281b (DOI)000498711800007 ()31552402 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074962116 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00320Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01158Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-09-30 Laget: 2019-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Uwayezu, J.-N., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Bäckström, M. (2019). Sorption of PFOS isomers on goethite as a function of pH, dissolved organic matter (humic and fulvic acid) and sulfate. Chemosphere, 233, 896-904
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sorption of PFOS isomers on goethite as a function of pH, dissolved organic matter (humic and fulvic acid) and sulfate
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 233, s. 896-904Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the distribution of PFOS isomers between the aqueous phase and goethite is crucial, since it is an abundant sorbent and thus may have a large influence on the mobility of PFOS. This study was conducted to understand the effects of pH, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and sulfate on sorption of PFOS isomers. The results will increase the understanding about what parameters may control the fate and transport of PFOS in surface and ground water.

The study was conducted by adding PFOS spiked water to a goethite slurry with different aqueous chemistry. Levels of total PFOS and PFOS isomers were quantified using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatograph coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results showed that sorption of PFOS was mainly dependent on pH; sorption decreased as pH increased. Presence of HA increased log K-d from 1.29 to 2.03, 1.76 to 1.92 and 1.51 to 1.96 at pH 5.50-7.50 for 3-/4-/4-PFOS, 6-/2-PFOS and L-PFOS, respectively. Changes in the aqueous chemistry also affected the behaviour of PFOS as the addition of Na2SO4 enhanced the sorption of PFOS. Results showed that L-PFOS was more readily sorbed to goethite at pH < 4.35 both in the presence and in the absence of humic or fulvic acids. At pH > 4.5 the 3-/4-/5-PFOS isomer group was more associated to goethite. Besides electrostatic interactions, which controlled the sorption of PFOS, this study indicate that the presence of dissolved humic substances in the aqueous phase enhances the sorption via hydrophobic mechanisms.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2019
Emneord
Goethite, Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Sorption, Humic substances, Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75699 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.252 (DOI)000477691500099 ()31340417 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067315052 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-08-14 Laget: 2019-08-14 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Hu, X. C., Tokranov, A. K., Liddie, J., Zhang, X., Grandjean, P., Hart, J. E., . . . Sunderland, E. M. (2019). Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 127(6), Article ID 67006.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women
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2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, nr 6, artikkel-id 67006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.

POPULATION:

METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.

RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
National Institute of Environmental Health Science, 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74653 (URN)10.1289/EHP4093 (DOI)000474528700004 ()31170009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067472608 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding Agencies:

Harvard National Institute of Environmental Health and Sciences (NIEHS) Center Grant  P30 ES000002 

NIH  CA186107  CA49449  ES021372 

NIH Superfund Research Program  P42ES027706 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-10 Laget: 2019-06-10 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Björnsdotter, M., Yeung, L. W. Y., Kärrman, A. & Ericson Jogsten, I. (2019). Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(19), 11093-11101
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 11093-11101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76642 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b02211 (DOI)000488993500006 ()31496234 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072791157 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01284Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-030 2219-17-012Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-09-24 Laget: 2019-09-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Parajulee, A., Lei, Y. D., Cao, X., McLagan, D. S., Yeung, L. W. Y., Mitchell, C. P. J. & Wania, F. (2018). Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 20(5), 767-779
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds
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2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 767-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of pesticides in streams in winter, five to six years following bans on their municipal use suggests that complicated transport behaviour, such as subsurface retention and/or accumulation of pesticides and its release during storms, could be important for understanding recovery time frames following bans or legislation that aim to reduce chemical inputs. We investigated late fall and winter dynamics of four herbicides in paired urban and rural watersheds in Toronto, Canada during rainfall and snowmelt. The range of average concentrations and loads of the sum of atrazine, metolachlor, 2,4-D and mecoprop overlapped in the two types of watersheds, with slightly higher average concentrations in the rural watershed. Relatively consistent herbicide concentration-discharge patterns (i. e. dilution) were observed in the urban sub-watersheds during rainfall, while concentration-discharge patterns were much more variable in the rural watershed. This suggests relatively uniform transport pathways across the urban sub-watersheds, compared to the rural watershed. Concentration-discharge patterns of the neutral herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were similar in both watersheds during snowmelt, though varying discharge patterns resulted in divergent timings of peak concentrations. In contrast, the acidic pesticides 2,4-D and mecoprop, which are primarily associated with urban uses, showed much more variable behavior across both watersheds and merit further investigation. Overall, this work highlights the need to consider pesticide dynamics throughout the year in order to more thoroughly assess the longterm efficacy of legislation governing their use.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67271 (URN)10.1039/c7em00596b (DOI)000433191900005 ()29578561 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047605361 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding Agencies:

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada  

FedDev Ontario  

Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation via the Southern Ontario Water Consortium  

Ontario Graduate Scholarship  

TD Canada Trust 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-15 Laget: 2018-06-15 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6800-5658