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Fiedler, H., van der Veen, I. & de Boer, J. (2020). Global interlaboratory assessments of perfluoroalkyl substances under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 124, Article ID 115459.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Global interlaboratory assessments of perfluoroalkyl substances under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 124, artikel-id 115459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) according to article 16 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) requires that POP laboratories must be capable – at any time – to analyse samples for POPs within a variation of ±25%. Based on this target error of 25%, a statistical model using z-scores was applied to assess the performance of analytical laboratories for POPs and a number of matrices. Since the second round of these ‘Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)’, carried out in 2012/2013, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been included into the proficiency tests. The third round was carried out in 2016/2017. The test materials included test solutions of PFASs analytical standards, the abiotic matrices sediment, air (extract) and water and the biotic matrices fish, human milk and human plasma. The number of laboratories submitting results for PFASs remained quite stable (IL2 = 27 laboratories; IL3 = 29), but there was broader geographic distribution observed in IL3: in addition to the laboratories from Asia and the Western Europe/other groups, two laboratories from Africa participated, two from Central-Eastern Europe and one from the Latin American/Caribbean region.

Considering that PFASs were introduced for the first time in round 2, the results were good to reasonable compared to those of a number of other POPs included in the same study. However, it shall also be mentioned that for some matrices and PFASs, the number of laboratories submitting results was too small and the results too scattered to derive a consensus value. This was especially true for the PFOS precursor compounds and the air matrix. Also, laboratories struggle with the analysis of the branched PFOS isomers.

These interlaboratory assessments on PFASs gave promising results and demonstrated the importance of proficiency tests in an international environment to generate trust in laboratory results. The need to participate regularly in such intercomparison assessments is highlighted. The results show the current level of PFAS analysis, which varies by laboratory and by matrix rather than per geographic region.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2020
Nyckelord
Global monitoring plan, Interlaboratory assessment, LC/MS methods, Perfluoroalkyl substances, Stockholm convention, Geographical distribution, Isomers, Laboratories, Matrix algebra, Monitoring, Global monitoring, Stockholm, Organic pollutants
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap Analytisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79699 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2019.03.023 (DOI)000518368000016 ()2-s2.0-85064387010 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agency:

Global Environment Facility (GEF) 

Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-03 Skapad: 2020-02-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Degrendele, C., Fiedler, H., Kocan, A., Kukucka, P., Pribylova, P., Prokes, R., . . . Lammel, G. (2020). Multiyear levels of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs in background air in central Europe and implications for deposition. Chemosphere, 240, Article ID UNSP 124852.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multiyear levels of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs in background air in central Europe and implications for deposition
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2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 240, artikel-id UNSP 124852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents four years ambient monitoring data of seventeen 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), twelve dioxin-like poly-chlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) designed by the US EPA at a background site in central Europe during 2011-2014. The concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs) using the WHO2005-scheme for PCDD/Fs (0.2 fg m(-3)-61.1 fg m(-3)) were higher than for dl-PCBs (0.01 fg m(-3)-2.9 fg m(-3)), while the opposite was found in terms of mass concentrations. Sigma PAHs ranged from 0.20 ng m(-3) to 134 ng(-3). The mass concentration profile of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs was similar throughout the four years. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations were dominated by primary sources peaking in winter, while those of dl-PCBs were controlled by secondary sources characterized by a spring-summer peak. During 2011-2014, no significant decrease in the atmospheric levels of Sigma PCDD/Fs was observed. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sigma dl-PCBs and Sigma PAHs were decreasing, with halving times of 5.7 and 2.7 years, respectively. We estimated that 422 pg m(-2) year pg m(-2) year TEQ PCDD/Fs and 3.48 pg m(-2) year(-1)-15.8 pg m(-2) year(-1) TEQ dl-PCBs were transferred from the air to the ground surfaces via dry particulate deposition during 2011-2014.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2020
Nyckelord
Persistent organic pollutants, Seasonal variations, Gas-particle partitioning, Multi-year variations, Atmospheric deposition
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78512 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124852 (DOI)000497600800001 ()31542585 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072275182 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

RECETOX - Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic  LM2015051

ACTRIS - Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic  LM2015037

European Structural and Investment Funds  CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001761 CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001315

Tillgänglig från: 2019-12-10 Skapad: 2019-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Sun, Z., Tang, Z., Yang, X., Liu, Q. S., Liang, Y., Fiedler, H., . . . Jiang, G. (2020). Perturbation of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole in adipogenesis of male mice with normal and high fat diets. Science of the Total Environment, 703, Article ID 135608.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Perturbation of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole in adipogenesis of male mice with normal and high fat diets
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2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 703, artikel-id 135608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

As one of the widely used anthropogenic food additives, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) has been found to perturb adipogenesis in vitro and induce lipid accumulation in some strains of oleaginous microalgae. The impact of this chemical on adipocyte development and lipid metabolism in mammals remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed 18-week oral administration of 3-BHA to male C57BL/6J mice with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated its impacts on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in vivo. The results indicated that long-term exposure to 3-BHA impacted the mouse body weight gain, white adipose tissue accumulation, and plasma lipids through transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and adipocyte endocrine function, while glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity remained unaffected. HFD-fed mice responded to 3-BHA stimulation differently from ND-fed animals, suggesting potential risks for the human burden of 3-BHA in lean and obese subjects. The findings herein validate 3-BHA as an environmental obesogen, and more caution is recommended for its authorized use as a food antioxidant against lipid rancidity.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2020
Nyckelord
3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, Food additive, Obesity, Adipogenesis, Lipid metabolism
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79598 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135608 (DOI)000505924300129 ()31767314 (PubMedID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2018YFA0901101

National Natural Science Foundation of China 21876195 21621064

Chinese Academy of Sciences

QYZDJ-SSW-DQC017 Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen  SZSM201811070   21461142001

Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-31 Skapad: 2020-01-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-31Bibliografiskt granskad
Sun, Z., Yang, X., Liu, Q. S., Li, C., Zhou, Q., Fiedler, H., . . . Jiang, G. (2019). Butylated hydroxyanisole isomers induce distinct adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 379, Article ID UNSP 120794.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Butylated hydroxyanisole isomers induce distinct adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 379, artikel-id UNSP 120794Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) isomers, as the widely used anthropogenic antioxidants in food, have been revealed to induce endocrine disrupting effects, while the mechanism how BHA isomers regulate the lipogenic differentiation remains to be elucidated. Using 3T3-L1 differentiation model, the effects of BHA isomers, including 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (2-BHA), 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) and their mixture (BHA), on adipogenesis were tested. The results showed that 3-BHA and BHA promoted adipocyte differentiation and enhanced the cellular lipid accumulation through the regulation of the transcriptional and protein levels of the adipogenetic biomarkers, while 2-BHA had no effect. The effective window for 3-BHA induced lipogenesis was the first four days during 3T3-L1 differentiation. BHA isomers showed no binding affinities for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Instead, the upstream of PPAR gamma signaling pathway, i.e. the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), upregulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBP beta) and elevated cell proliferation during postconfluent mitosis stage were induced by 3-BHA exposure. Altogether, this study revealed the adipogenic effect of 3-BHA through interference with the upstream events of the PPAR gamma signaling pathway. The authorized usage of BHA as food additives and its occurrence in human sera can potentially contribute to the incidence of obesity, which is of high concern.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) isomers, 3T3-L1 cells, Adipogenesis, Lipogenesis, Obesity
Nationell ämneskategori
Cellbiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77431 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120794 (DOI)000488419700010 ()31238218 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067595649 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

Major International (Regional) Joint Project 21461142001

National Natural Science Foundation of China 21876195 21621064

Chinese Academy of Sciences 14040302 QYZDJ-SSW-DQC017

Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen  SZSM201811070

Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-18 Skapad: 2019-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Zhang, T., Hu, L., Zhang, M., Jiang, M., Fiedler, H., Bai, W., . . . Li, Z. (2019). Cr(VI) removal from soils and groundwater using an integrated adsorption and microbial fuel cell (A-MFC) technology. Environmental Pollution, 252(Pt B), 1399-1405
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cr(VI) removal from soils and groundwater using an integrated adsorption and microbial fuel cell (A-MFC) technology
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 252, nr Pt B, s. 1399-1405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Remediation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has been widely studied for its high mobility and toxicity. As Cr(VI) migrates in natural environment, both soils and groundwater are contaminated simultaneously. In the present study, a novel reactor combining adsorption and microbial fuel cell (A-MFC) using Platanus acerifolia leaves was developed for removing Cr(VI) from groundwater and soils. When initial Cr(VI) concentration was 50 mg/L, the adsorption efficiency of A-MFC achieved 98% after 16 h. Afterwards, the leaves were used for fabricating an MFC-integrated leaching reactor. The A-MFC significantly improved the overall Cr(VI) removal efficiency through leaching and 40% of Cr(VI) in the soil column was removed. The electrical voltage and current of A-MFC reactor achieved averagely 343 mV and 141 μA to maintain the system operation without extra energy supply. This novel A-MFC reactor is an environmentally friendly technology which achieved efficient Cr(VI) removal from groundwater and soils using natural materials, proving the concept that integrated self-remediation of Cr(VI) in contaminated soil and groundwater with natural material and energy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Biosorbent, Chromium(VI), Electricity generation, Integrated remediation, Microbial fuel cell (MFC)
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan naturresursteknik Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76113 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.051 (DOI)000483405400049 ()31260939 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067854411 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

National Natural Science Foundation of China  41807133 

Special fund of State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control  18K05ESPCT 

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation  2018M631314 

Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities  PT1905 

Open Research Fund Program of Key Laboratory of Cleaner Production and Integrated Resource Utilization of China National Light Industry 

Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-10 Skapad: 2019-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Guan, Q., Tan, H., Yang, L., Liu, X., Fiedler, H., Li, X. & Chen, D. (2019). Isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate isomers in house dust from South China and Midwestern United States. Science of the Total Environment, 686, 1113-1119
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate isomers in house dust from South China and Midwestern United States
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 686, s. 1113-1119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study we determined the concentrations and compositions of a suite of isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate ester (ITP and TBPP) isomers in house dust from the city of Guangzhou located in South China and the city of Carbondale in Midwestern United States. These two groups of organophosphate esters (OPE) are structurally analogous to triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), but have rarely been investigated for environmental occurrences and human exposure risks. The majority of target ITP and TBPP isomers were 100% detected in house dust from the two locations. Median concentrations of Sigma ITPs (including all ITP isomers) and Sigma TBPPs (including all TBPP isomers) were 63.4 ng/g (range: 16.0-500 ng/g) and 35.4 ng/g (8.1-198 ng/g) in South China house dust, respectively, compared with 476 ng/g (140-1610 ng/g) for Sigma ITPs and 81.3 ng/g (352-800 ng/g) for Sigma TBPPs in Midwestern US. dust. The profiles of ITP or TBPP isomers were similar between the two locations and were dominated by 2-isopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (2IPPDPP) and 4-tertbutylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (4tBPDPP), respectively. Although the levels of Sigma ITPs and Sigma TBPPs were generally one order of magnitude lower than those of TPHP in the same dust samples, the broad occurrences of most of these isomers in house dust from the two locations likely suggest their wide applications in household consumer products. Estimated intakes of Sigma ITPs and Sigma ITBPPs via dust ingestion were generally three orders of magnitude lower than the reference dose proposed for TPHP. However, these emerging OPE chemicals merit continuous environmental surveillance, given their possible applications as specific commercial mixtures or as components/impurities in other flame retardant/plasticizer mixtures. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Isopropylated triarylphosphate esters, tert-butylated triarylphosphate esters, Organophosphate esters, House dust, Daily intake
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75944 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.055 (DOI)000479029700100 ()31412507 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067026936 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program  2016ZT06N258 

National Natural Science Foundation of China  21777059 

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation  2018M633281 

Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-30 Skapad: 2019-08-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Chen, P., Gong, W., Yu, G. & Fiedler, H. (2019). Preliminary release inventories of unintentionally generated dl-PCB and HCB from sources in China: Base year 2015. Chemosphere, 219, 875-881
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Preliminary release inventories of unintentionally generated dl-PCB and HCB from sources in China: Base year 2015
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 219, s. 875-881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This research presents release inventories of unintentionally generated dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which so far have not been developed or assessed. For the inventory development, the amended Toolkit methodology as developed for reporting under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, has been applied. Based on the activity rate (AR) obtained from various statistical yearbooks, reports, or scientific literature, and the emission factors (EFs) suited to each technology level, we estimated the preliminary release inventories of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and HCB from 36 source categories in China for the reference year 2015. The result showed that in 2015, 656 g TEQ of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and 2,145,504 g (or 2146 kg) of unintentionally generated HCB were released in China from these 36 source categories. Most of dl-PCB and HCB was released to air, 71% or 60%, respectively. For comparison and for the sources which could be estimated for all three unintentional POPs the total releases of PCDD/PCDF were 5695 g TEQ per year. Of these, 78% were released to air. For dl-PCB and HCB, the vast majority of the releases from the source group 7 Production and use of consumer goods - is found in the products and not in air. With respect to source attribution and releases to air, the source groups SG3 - Heat and power generation and SG2 - Ferrous and non-ferrous metal production dominate the air emission inventory. Due to the lack of EFs, the calculated releases to the water and land were not well covered, which overall results in an underestimation of the total releases for all unintentional POPs.

For comparison, the release inventories from Japan and from several other countries that were developed using methodologies other than the UNEP Toolkit are presented as well.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Pergamon Press, 2019
Nyckelord
Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, Hexachlorobenzene, Release inventory for China, Toolkit methodology under the Stockholm, convention on persistent organic pollutants
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72523 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.098 (DOI)000457511700093 ()30572237 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059329379 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies:

NSFC-UNEP Joint Research Project  21561142001 

Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University  1RT1261 

Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality of Tsinghua University 

Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-19 Skapad: 2019-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Fiedler, H., Ohno, K. & Camelo MArtinez, E. (2019). REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN PCB ELIMINATION UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON POPS: STATUS REPORT 2019. Paper presented at Dioxin2019, Kyoto, Japan, August 25-30, 2019. Organohalogen Compounds, 81, 290-293, Article ID 1080.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN PCB ELIMINATION UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON POPS: STATUS REPORT 2019
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 81, s. 290-293, artikel-id 1080Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Highlights of progress report by intersessional working group to assess present status towards elimination of PCB under the Stockholm Convention.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Davis, CA: Eco-Informa Press, 2019
Nyckelord
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), International regulation, elimination of POPs, POPs waste
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljöledning
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79690 (URN)
Konferens
Dioxin2019, Kyoto, Japan, August 25-30, 2019
Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-03 Skapad: 2020-02-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-02-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Fiedler, H., Kallenborn, R., de Boer, J. & Sydnes, L. K. (2019). The Stockholm Convention: A Tool for the Global Regulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants. Chemistry International, 41(2), 4-11
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Stockholm Convention: A Tool for the Global Regulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemistry International, ISSN 0193-6484, E-ISSN 1365-2192, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 4-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is to eliminate persistent organic chemicals worldwide by either prohibiting their production and use or gradually reducing them. The Stockholm Convention was adopted in 2001 and entered into force in 2004, 90 days after receiving the 50th instrument of ratification. The Parties to the Convention have to regularly report progress in implementation of their measures taken to achieve the goals. The Convention has a mechanism to add more compounds; today 28 POPs are covered, 16 more than the initial ones.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Walter de Gruyter, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap Miljöledning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79715 (URN)10.1515/ci-2019-0202 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-02-03 Skapad: 2020-02-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-02-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Henry, B. J., Carlin, J. P., Hammerschmidt, J. A., Buck, R. C., Buxton, L. W., Fiedler, H., . . . Hernandez, O. (2018). A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 14(3), 316-334
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 316-334Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of fluorinated substances that are in the focus of researchers and regulators due to widespread presence in the environment and biota, including humans, of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Fluoropolymers, high molecular weight polymers within the PFAS group, have unique properties that constitute a distinct class within the PFAS group. Fluoropolymers have thermal, chemical, photochemical, hydrolytic, oxidative and biological stability. They have negligible residual monomer and oligomer content and low to no leachables. Fluoropolymers are practically insoluble in water and not subject to long-range transport. With a molecular weight well over 100,000 Da, fluoropolymers cannot cross the cell membrane. Fluoropolymers are not bioavailable or bioaccumulative, as evidenced by toxicology studies on PTFE: acute and subchronic systemic toxicity, irritation, sensitization, local toxicity on implantation, cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity, hemolysis, complement activation, and thrombogenicity. Clinical studies of patients receiving permanently implanted PTFE cardiovascular medical devices demonstrate no chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity, reproductive or developmental or endocrine toxicity. This paper brings together fluoropolymer toxicity data, human clinical data, and physical-chemical-thermal-biological data for review and assessment to show that fluoropolymers satisfy widely accepted assessment criteria to be considered as "Polymers of Low Concern". This review concludes that fluoropolymers are distinctly different from other polymeric and non-polymeric per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and should be separated from them for hazard assessment or regulatory purposes. Grouping fluoropolymers with all classes of PFAS for "read across" or structure activity relationship assessment is not scientifically appropriate.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2018
Nyckelord
Fluoropolymer; International regulation; Polytetrafluoroethylene; Polymer of low concern; PFAS
Nationell ämneskategori
Farmakologi och toxikologi Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64981 (URN)10.1002/ieam.4035 (DOI)000430059200002 ()29424474 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044537689 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-02-12 Skapad: 2018-02-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1496-9245

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