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Westberg, J. (2019). A comparative history from below?: Social and economic perspectives on the international rise of mass schooling. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Educational Research Association Conference (NERA 2019), Uppsala, Sweden, March 6-8, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative history from below?: Social and economic perspectives on the international rise of mass schooling
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79280 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Educational Research Association Conference (NERA 2019), Uppsala, Sweden, March 6-8, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Basic Schools in Each and Every Parish: The School Act of 1842 and the Rise of Mass Schooling in Sweden (1ed.). In: Johannes Westberg, Lukas Boser, Ingrid Brühwiler (Ed.), School Acts and the Rise of Mass Schooling: Education Policy in the Long Nineteenth Century (pp. 195-222). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basic Schools in Each and Every Parish: The School Act of 1842 and the Rise of Mass Schooling in Sweden
2019 (English)In: School Acts and the Rise of Mass Schooling: Education Policy in the Long Nineteenth Century / [ed] Johannes Westberg, Lukas Boser, Ingrid Brühwiler, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 195-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The School Act of 1842, revised in 1882 and 1897, organized a decentralized national school system in Sweden, based on about 2,300 parishes. The role of this school act in the rise of schooling in Sweden is fundamental to the Swedish historiography of schooling. This paper examines the precondition, contents and consequences of the school act in order to examine whether it actually was a revolutionary event or merely a confirmation of already pending processes. This paper will thus be able to show how the school act was the result of a lengthy political debate, spanning decades, on popular education and whether it should the provide the population with an minimum of knowledge or form the basis of the knowledge necessary for Swedish citizenship. This tension was also apparent in the formulation of the school act which included formulations on a minimum of instruction. While the education promoted by the school act thus certainly was limited, and did not form a clear break from the previously dominating home instruction, the school act had major consequences in organizational terms, contributing to establishment of schools in the many regions of Sweden where schools previously had been uncommon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019 Edition: 1
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, folkskolestadgan
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78867 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-13570-6_9 (DOI)978-3-030-13569-0 (ISBN)978-3-030-13570-6 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-05230
Available from: 2020-01-06 Created: 2020-01-06 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Designing preschools for an independent and social child: visions of preschool space in the Swedish welfare state. Early years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing preschools for an independent and social child: visions of preschool space in the Swedish welfare state
2019 (English)In: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The physical environment in early years education and care is crucial. This paper examines the Swedish government’s vision of preschool design in the welfare state of the 1970s and the conceptions of children and society upon which it was based. Presenting an investigation of reports, booklets, and study materials published by various branches of the central government, this paper analyses an ambitious preschool design intended to provide children with a diverse and stimulating environment that supported their independence and freedom of choice. Unlike similar designs in postwar Europe, this preschool design was not formulated in response to the experiences of the world wars. Inspired by the theories of Piaget and Erikson and based on the rationality of the Swedish welfare state, this preschool design was instead intended to remedy the shortcomings of a perceived anonymous, sterile and barren modern society. In relation to existing research, this paper contributes to the study of the so-called nursery heritage by examining how it was formulated in the setting of the Swedish welfare state. In so doing, the paper also provides ample ground for a continued critical discussion on contemporary strands of neoliberal preschool design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Preschool, early childhood, material culture, space, piaget, history of education, förskolan, materiell kultur, utbildningshistoria
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73972 (URN)10.1080/09575146.2019.1608426 (DOI)000470487800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03542
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. & Cappelli, G. (2019). Divergent paths to mass schooling at Europe’s poles?: Regional differences in Italy and Sweden, 1840-1900. IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, 9(1), 11-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divergent paths to mass schooling at Europe’s poles?: Regional differences in Italy and Sweden, 1840-1900
2019 (English)In: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we present a comparative analysis of regional differences in Italy and Sweden in the late 19th century. Using both quantitative and qualitative evidence, our comparison indicates how the character of these regional inequalities differed, despite the decentralized nature of schooling in both of these countries. As a result, this article raises important questions regarding whether these differences may be explained by the demand for schooling, the supply of schooling, or institutional arrangements, including the use of ambulatory schools and so-called junior schools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, 2019
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, skola
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73971 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Förskolans historia (3ed.). In: Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg (Ed.), Utbildningshistoria: En introduktion (pp. 107-126). Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förskolans historia
2019 (Swedish)In: Utbildningshistoria: En introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2019, 3, p. 107-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2019 Edition: 3
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, förskola
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78872 (URN)9789144121192 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-06 Created: 2020-01-06 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). How were nineteenth-century teachers paid?. In: : . Paper presented at 13th Swedish Economic History Meeting and 1st Annual Conference of the Scandinavian Society for Economic and Social History, Uppsala, Sweden, October 10-12, 2019. Uppsala
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How were nineteenth-century teachers paid?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: , 2019
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79285 (URN)
Conference
13th Swedish Economic History Meeting and 1st Annual Conference of the Scandinavian Society for Economic and Social History, Uppsala, Sweden, October 10-12, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Montessori educational empire: Cultural Criticism and politics between the wartime Montessori Movement [Review]. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(3), 630-631
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Montessori educational empire: Cultural Criticism and politics between the wartime Montessori Movement
2019 (English)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 630-631Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2019
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77600 (URN)000489081500020 ()
Available from: 2019-10-25 Created: 2019-10-25 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Om 1900-talets progressivism, skolpolitik och skola [Review]. Pekpinnar: Historiska perspektiv på utbildning, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Om 1900-talets progressivism, skolpolitik och skola
2019 (Swedish)In: Pekpinnar: Historiska perspektiv på utbildning, p. 1-8Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Utbildningshistoria
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78874 (URN)
Note

Recension av Glädjeparadoxen” av Gabriel Heller-Sahlgren och Nima Sanandaji.

Available from: 2020-01-06 Created: 2020-01-06 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Reconstructing long lost classrooms: evidence from scattered and threatened Swedish school museums. In: : . Paper presented at 18. symposium for school museums and history of education collections - Challenges for the school museums and history of education in a time of globalization and digitization, Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark, July 3-5, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstructing long lost classrooms: evidence from scattered and threatened Swedish school museums
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79281 (URN)
Conference
18. symposium for school museums and history of education collections - Challenges for the school museums and history of education in a time of globalization and digitization, Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark, July 3-5, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Regulating regional variations in primary schooling: the case of state subsidy reform in early twentieth century Sweden. In: Luís Grosso Correia and Sara Poças (Ed.), ISCHE 41 – Spaces and Place of Education – Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at ISCHE 41st Annual Conference (ISCHE 2019), Porto, Portugal, July 16-20, 2019 (pp. 450-451). Porto, Portugal: International Standing Conference for the History of Education & Centre for Research and Intervention in Education of the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Porto
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulating regional variations in primary schooling: the case of state subsidy reform in early twentieth century Sweden
2019 (English)In: ISCHE 41 – Spaces and Place of Education – Book of Abstracts / [ed] Luís Grosso Correia and Sara Poças, Porto, Portugal: International Standing Conference for the History of Education & Centre for Research and Intervention in Education of the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Porto , 2019, p. 450-451Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The historiography of state intervention generally, and the historiography of state subsidies in particular, has indicated that state intervention may have a wide variety of effects on school systems, depending on the kind of intervention and its context. A centralization of the school systems funding and organization have been perceived as resulting in increased regional equality in Massachusetts (Kaestle & Vinovskis, 1980, 199) and France (Grew & Harrigan, 1991, 227). Matching grant formulas have, on the contrary, been said to increase differences between poor and rich school districts, since they allocate funding depending on how much districts spend on their schools (Swanson & King, 1991, 197). Studies have also shown of state grants have been used to increase the funding gap between schools for the white and the African-American communities in the USA (Margo, 1982), and that cost per pupil did not seem to converge after the introduction of payments by results in England and Wales after 1862 (Mitch, 2010).

This paper examines the efforts to reform and centralize the funding of the Swedish primary school system in the early twentieth century. From the 1870s and onwards, the funds of the Swedish primary schools had been distributed according to a matching grants system. In 1871, previous state subsidies were replaced with a system of matching grants that covered half of school teacher salaries (with a maximum subsidy of 250 SEK per primary school teacher (folkskollärare) and 75 SEK per junior school teacher (småskollärare). In 1875, the grants were made more generous to match two-thirds of teacher salaries with a maximum of 400 SEK for primary school teachers and 125 SEK for junior school teachers. This was later followed by minor adjustments of the maximum level of the subsidies.

In 1913, this system of matching grants was reformed. After parliamentary debate on raising the level of state subsidies, starting already in 1878, the Swedish parliament decided in 1913 that the state was to cover 90% of teacher minimum salary and all of the add-ons that teacher received after a certain number of years. As a result, the government grants increased from contributing to 30 percent of the local school districts’ revenues in 1910 to 49 percent in 1920 (Westberg 2017).

By examining available statistical data, and contemporary parliamentary debate, this paper studies the intentions behind this reform, and the impact that this reform had on regional disparity of Swedish schooling in the early twentieth century. As a result, this paper contributes to the historiography of state subsidies, and the literature on the centralization of primary school systems during the end of the nineteenth century in Sweden and elsewhere in the West.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Porto, Portugal: International Standing Conference for the History of Education & Centre for Research and Intervention in Education of the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Porto, 2019
Keywords
primary school, school finance, inequality
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79284 (URN)
Conference
ISCHE 41st Annual Conference (ISCHE 2019), Porto, Portugal, July 16-20, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3444-952X

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