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Ugge, H., Udumyan, R., Carlsson, J., Andrén, O., Montgomery, S., Davidsson, S. & Fall, K. (2018). Acne in late adolescence and risk of prostate cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 1580-1585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acne in late adolescence and risk of prostate cancer
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, p. 1580-1585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accumulating evidence suggest that Propionibacterium acnes may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, but data are so far limited and inconclusive. The aim of this population-based cohort study was therefore to test whether presence of acne vulgaris during late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. We identified a large cohort of young men born in Sweden between 1952 and 1956, who underwent mandatory assessment for military conscription around the age of 18 (n= 243,187). Test information along with health data including medical diagnoses at time of conscription was available through the Swedish Military Conscription Register and the National Patient Register. The cohort was followed through linkages to the Swedish Cancer Register to identify the occurrence of prostate cancer until December 31st 2009. We used Cox regression to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between acne in adolescence and prostate cancer risk. A total of 1,633 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during a median follow-up of 36.7 years. A diagnosis of acne was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for prostate cancer (adjusted HR: 1.43 95%; CI: 1.06-1.92), particularly for advanced stage disease (HR: 2.37 95%; CI 1.19-4.73). A diagnosis of acne classified as severe conferred a 6-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (HR: 5.70 95% CI 1.42-22.85). Data from this large prospective population-based cohort add new evidence supporting a role of P acnes infection in prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Propionibacterium acnes; prostate cancer; acne vulgaris; inflammation; acne vulgaris
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63302 (URN)10.1002/ijc.31192 (DOI)000425184800009 ()29205339 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037982996 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Ugge, H., Udumyan, R., Carlsson, J., Davidsson, S., Andrén, O., Montgomery, S. & Fall, K. (2018). Appendicitis before age 20 years is associated with an increased risk of later prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 27(6), 660-664
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appendicitis before age 20 years is associated with an increased risk of later prostate cancer
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2018 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 660-664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis before age 20 years has been observed to influence the risk of several inflammatory conditions, possibly through underlying immunological mechanisms. Inflammation has further been suggested to be involved in prostate cancer development. We therefore hypothesized that immunological characteristics signaled by appendicitis before late adolescence might influence the risk of later prostate cancer, and aimed to evaluate this association in a population-based study.

METHODS: We identified a large cohort of Swedish men who underwent assessment for military conscription around the age of 18 years (n= 242,573). Medical diagnoses at time of conscription were available through the Swedish Military Conscription Register. The Swedish Cancer Register was used to identify diagnoses of prostate cancer. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between appendicitis and prostate cancer.

RESULTS: During a median of 36.7 years of follow-up, 1,684 diagnoses of prostate cancer occurred. We found a statistically significant association between appendicitis and overall prostate cancer (adjusted HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.08-2.67). The risk was notably increased for advanced (HR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.74-11.22) and lethal (HR: 8.95; 95% CI: 2.98-26.91) prostate cancer.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a diagnosis of appendicitis before adulthood potentially signals underlying immune characteristics and a pattern of inflammatory response relevant to prostate cancer risk.

IMPACT: The study lends support to the proposed role of inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis, and adds another area of investigation potentially relevant to prostate cancer development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66449 (URN)10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-1204 (DOI)000433945800006 ()29588305 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047896683 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Cheng, H., Montgomery, S., Treglown, L. & Furnham, A. (2018). Associations between childhood biomedical factors, maternal smoking, personality traits, Body and Mass Index and the prevalence of asthma in adulthood. Psychology and Health, 33(9), 1116-1129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between childhood biomedical factors, maternal smoking, personality traits, Body and Mass Index and the prevalence of asthma in adulthood
2018 (English)In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 1116-1129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The study set out to investigate socio-economic, biomedical, health and behavioural and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, drawing data from The National Child Development Studies (NCDS), a birth cohort in the UK.

DESIGN: The National Child Development Study, a nationally representative sample of 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33 and 50 years was used.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of asthma at age 50 was the outcome measure. The analytic sample consists of 5118 participants with complete data on a set of measures at birth, at ages 7, 11, 33 and 50 years.

RESULTS: Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood asthma (OR = 6.77: 4.38-10.48, p < .001) and respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.83: 1.18-2.86, p < .01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.26: 1.00-1.59, p < .05), Body and Mass Index (BMI) (OR = 1.03: 1.02-1.05, p < .001), traits Neuroticism (OR = 1.13: 1.01-1.21, p < .05) and Conscientiousness (OR = 0.76: 0.76-0.96, p < .01), as well as sex (OR = 1.49: 1.15-1.94, p < .001) were all significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood.

CONCLUSION: The study shows that both childhood and adulthood psychological and sociological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, though more work need to be done in this area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Asthma, cross -sectional and longitudinal, maternal smoking, personality traits, respiratory symptoms
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67013 (URN)10.1080/08870446.2018.1467014 (DOI)000442428700003 ()29737224 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Sato, Y., Hiyoshi, A., Melinder, C., Suzuki, C. & Montgomery, S. (2018). Asthma and atopic diseases in adolescence and antidepressant medication in middle age. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(6), 853-859
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asthma and atopic diseases in adolescence and antidepressant medication in middle age
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This Swedish register-based cohort study examined whether asthma, hay fever and allergic dermatitis in late adolescence identified in the early 1970s are associated with antidepressant medication in middle age, between 2006 and 2009. After adjustment for childhood and adulthood sociodemographic characteristics, psychological, cognitive and physical function, and comorbidity, the magnitude of the associations diminished for asthma, while hay fever and atopic dermatitis retained associations. Hay fever and atopic dermatitis in adolescence have potentially important implications for future mental health, while asthma may already have influenced an individual's ability to cope with stress by late adolescence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Adolescence, adults, allergy, asthma, cohort, depression
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51473 (URN)10.1177/1359105316660181 (DOI)000430332700009 ()27466290 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045628411 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-01365
Note

Funding Agencies:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-596-28-0001  ES/J019119/1 

Japan Allergy Foundation  

Scandinavia-Japan Sasakawa Foundation  15-15 

Lindhes Advokatbyrå AB  LA2015-0219 

Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-02 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Stegberg, M., Hasselgren, M., Montgomery, S., Lisspers, K., Ställberg, B., Janson, C. & Sundh, J. (2018). Changes in smoking prevalence and cessation support, and factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Swedish patients with asthma and COPD. European Clinical Respiratory Journal, 5, Article ID 1421389.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in smoking prevalence and cessation support, and factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Swedish patients with asthma and COPD
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2018 (English)In: European Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 5, article id 1421389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Our aim was to investigate changes in smoking prevalence, smoking cessation support and factors associated with successful smoking cessation in patients with asthma and COPD.

Methods: Questionnaires about available smoking cessation resources were completed by 54 primary health-care centers and 14 hospitals in central Sweden in 2005 and 2012. Patient data were collected using record reviews and patients questionnaires for two cohorts of randomly selected asthma and COPD patients in 2005 (n = 2306; with a follow up in 2012), and in 2014/ 2015 (n = 2620). Smoking prevalence, available individual and group smoking cessation support, and factors associated with successful smoking cessation were explored.

Results: Smoking prevalence decreased from 11% to 6% (p < 0.0001) in patients with asthma but was almost unchanged in patients with COPD (28 to 26%, p = 0.37). Smoking cessation support increased from 53% to 74% (p = 0.01). A high cardiovascular risk factor level, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension was associated with improved smoking cessation in patients with asthma (OR (95% CI) 3.87 (1.04-14.4), p = 0.04). A higher magnitude success was observed in men with asthma (OR (95% CI) 27.9 (1.73-449), p = 0.02). More highly educated women with asthma had successful greater smoking cessation (4.76 (1.22-18.7), p = 0.04). No significant associations were found in COPD.

Conclusions: The smoking prevalence in patients with asthma but not in COPD has almost halved in Sweden during a 7-year period. The availability of smoking cessation support has increased. Suggested factors related to successful smoking cessation are higher level of education in women with asthma and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with asthma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Smoking prevalence, smoking cessation support, primary care, secondary care, cardiovascular risk factors, high educational level
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64414 (URN)10.1080/20018525.2017.1421389 (DOI)000419510300001 ()29321831 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Kennedy, B., Ruoqing, C., Valdimarsdóttir, U., Montgomery, S., Fang, F. & Fall, K. (2018). Childhood Bereavement and Lower Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(1), 108-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood Bereavement and Lower Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Although childhood traumatic experiences are recognized as important determinants for adolescent psychiatric health in general, our objective was to explore the specific influence of childhood bereavement on the stress resilience development trajectory.

METHODS: In this national register-based cohort study, we identified 407,639 men born in Sweden between 1973 and 1983, who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations in late adolescence, including measures of psychological stress resilience. We defined exposure as loss of a first-degree family member in childhood, and estimated relative risk ratios (RRRs) for reduced (moderate or low), compared with high, stress resilience with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multinomial logistic regression.

RESULTS: Loss of a parent or sibling in childhood conferred a 49% increased risk of subsequent low stress resilience (RRR, 1.49, 95% CI, 1.41-1.57) and an 8% increased risk of moderate stress resilience (RRR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13) in late adolescence. There was also a graded increase in risk with increasing age at loss; teenagers were at higher risk for low resilience (RRR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.52-1.77) than children aged 7-12 (RRR, 1.47, 95% CI, 1.34-1.61) and ≤6 years (RRR, 1.16 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). The excess risk was observed for all causes of death, including suicide and unexpected deaths as well as deaths due to other illnesses. The associations remained after exclusion of parents with a history of hospitalization for psychiatric diagnoses.

CONCLUSIONS: The long-term consequences of childhood bereavement may include lower stress resilience in late adolescence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Adolescent health, Childhood bereavement, Stress resilience
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67020 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.02.002 (DOI)000439962200021 ()29724669 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046361970 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Sundin, P.-O., Udumyan, R., Fall, K. & Montgomery, S. (2018). Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study. Clinical Epidemiology, 10, 971-979
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospital admission with pneumonia and subsequent persistent risk of chronic kidney disease: national cohort study
2018 (English)In: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, p. 971-979Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although acute onset kidney complications associated with severe infections including pneumonia are well characterized, little is known about possible subsequent delayed risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Patients and methods: Associations between hospital admission with pneumonia in adulthood and raised risks of subsequent CKD were evaluated in a cohort of all male residents in Sweden born from 1952 to 1956 (n=284,198) who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence (n=264,951) and were followed up through 2009. CKD and pneumonia were identified using Swedish national registers, and their associations were evaluated using Cox regression. Excluding the first year, the subsequent period was divided into <= 5, > 5-<= 15, and > 15 years after hospital admission with pneumonia. Follow-up ended on the date of first incident diagnosis of kidney disease, death, emigration, or December 31, 2009, whichever occurred first.

Results: During a median follow-up of 36.7 (interquartile range 35.3-37.9) years from late adolescence, 5,822 men had an inpatient pneumonia diagnosis without contemporaneous kidney disease. Among exposed men, 136 (2.3%) were later diagnosed with CKD compared with 2,749 (1.2%) of the unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first year after the first episode of pneumonia was 14.55 (95% confidence interval, 10.41-20.32), identifying early onset kidney complications and possibly pre-existing undiagnosed CKD. Starting follow-up 1 year after pneumonia to reduce the potential influence of surveillance bias and the risk of reverse causation, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD in the first 5 years of follow-up was 5.20 (95% confidence interval, 3.91-6.93) and then attenuated with increasing time.

Conclusion: Pneumonia among inpatients is associated with a persistently increased risk for subsequent CKD, with the highest risk during the years immediately after pneumonia. Health care professionals should be aware of this period of heightened risk to facilitate early diagnosis and secondary preventive interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DOVE Medical Press Ltd., 2018
Keywords
pneumonia, kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, inflammation, cohort study
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68653 (URN)10.2147/CLEP.S169039 (DOI)000441779100001 ()30147376 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, C., Rundquist, S., Cao, Y., Montgomery, S. & Halfvarson, J. (2018). Impact of thiopurines on the natural history and surgical outcome of ulcerative colitis: a cohort study. Gut, Article ID gutjnl-2017-315521.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of thiopurines on the natural history and surgical outcome of ulcerative colitis: a cohort study
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2018 (English)In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, article id gutjnl-2017-315521Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Thiopurines are used as maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC), but whether these drugs influence the natural history of the disease is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of thiopurines in terms of colectomy, hospital admission, progression in disease extent and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy within 10 years from initiation.

DESIGN: Patients diagnosed with UC within the Örebro University Hospital catchment area, during 1963-2010, who initiated thiopurines (n=253) were included. To overcome the risk of confounding by indication, we compared patients who stopped treatment within 12 months because of an adverse reaction (n=76) with patients who continued therapy or discontinued due to other reasons (n=177) and assessed long-term outcomes using Cox regression with adjustment for potential confounding factors.

RESULTS: The cumulative probability of colectomy within 10 years was 19.5% in tolerant patients compared with 29.0% in intolerant (adjusted HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.73). The probability of hospital admission was 34.0% in tolerant versus 56.2% in intolerant patients (adjusted HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.56). The risk for progression in disease extent was 20.4% in tolerant patients compared with 48.8% in intolerant (adjusted HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.06). Within 10 years, 16.1% of tolerant and 27.5% of intolerant patients received anti-TNF therapy (adjusted HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.92).

CONCLUSION: Based on the novel approach of comparing patients tolerant and intolerant to thiopurines, we reveal that thiopurines have a profound beneficial impact of the natural history and long-term colectomy rates of UC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
Keywords
6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, chronic ulcerative colitis, tnf-alpha
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66417 (URN)10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315521 (DOI)29618498 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, C., Henriksson, I., Brus, O., Zhulina, Y., Nyhlin, N., Tysk, C., . . . Halfvarson, J. (2018). Incidence, prevalence and clinical outcome of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 48(6), 638-645
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incidence, prevalence and clinical outcome of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study
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2018 (English)In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-2813, E-ISSN 1365-2036, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The incidence and short-term outcome of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are largely unknown.

AIM: To determine the incidence, prevalence and clinical outcome of anaemia in terms of resolution of anaemia within 12 months. We also planned to assess risk factors for anaemia in IBD.

METHODS: A random sample of 342 patients was obtained from the population-based IBD cohort of Örebro University Hospital, Sweden, consisting of 1405 patients diagnosed between 1963 and 2010. Haemoglobin measurements recorded from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 were extracted from the Clinical Chemistry data system.

RESULTS: In Crohn's disease, the incidence rate of anaemia was 19.3 (95% CI: 15.4-23.7) per 100 person-years and the prevalence was 28.7% (CI: 22.0-36.2), compared with 12.9 (CI: 9.8-16.5) and 16.5% (CI: 11.2-22.9) for ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease was associated with an increased incidence (OR = 1.60; CI: 1.02-2.51) and prevalence of anaemia (OR = 2.04; CI: 1.20-3.46) compared to ulcerative colitis. Stricturing disease phenotype in Crohn's disease (HR = 2.59; CI: 1.00-6.79) and extensive disease in ulcerative colitis (HR = 2.40; CI: 1.10-5.36) were associated with an increased risk of anaemia. Despite a higher probability of receiving specific therapy within 3 months from the diagnosis of anaemia, Crohn's disease patients had a worse outcome in terms of resolution of anaemia within 12 months (56% vs 75%; P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: Anaemia is a common manifestation of IBD even beyond the first years after the diagnosis of IBD. Crohn's disease is associated with both an increased risk and a worse outcome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Science Ltd., 2018
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68681 (URN)10.1111/apt.14920 (DOI)000442338900006 ()30069892 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051863489 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency:

Swedish government's Agreement on Medical Training and Research

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Maghsoudlou, S., Cnattingius, S., Montgomery, S., Aarabi, M., Semnani, S., Wikström, A.-K. & Bahmanyar, S. (2018). Opium use during pregnancy and infant size at birth: a cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), Article ID 358.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opium use during pregnancy and infant size at birth: a cohort study
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2018 (English)In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The reported positive association between opiatic drug use during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviors, including the use of other harmful substances. In rural areas of Iran, opium use during pregnancy is relatively common among women who otherwise do not have a hazardous lifestyle, which reduces the risk of residual confounding and increasing the possibility to identify its effects. We aimed to examine the association of antenatal exposure to opium with risks of small for gestational age, short birth length, and small head circumference at birth.

METHOD: In this cohort study in the rural area of the Golestan province, Iran, we randomly selected 920 women who were exposed to opium during pregnancy and 920 unexposed women during 2008-2010. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between prenatal exposure to opium and risks of small for gestational age, short birth length, and small head circumference at birth.

RESULTS: Compared with non-use of opium and tobacco during pregnancy, using opium only and dual use of opium and tobacco were associated with increased risks of small for gestational age at births (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.34-2.18 and RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.30, respectively). Compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, exposure to only opium or dual use of opium and tobacco were also associated with more than doubled increased risks of short birth length, and small head circumference in term infants.

CONCLUSION: Maternal opium use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of giving birth to a small for gestational age infant, as well as a term infant with short birth length or small head circumference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Birth size, Iran, Opium, Pregnancy, Small for gestational age
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69213 (URN)10.1186/s12884-018-1994-8 (DOI)000446222200001 ()30269686 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054477744 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6328-5494

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