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Smirnova, J., von Kobyletzki, L., Lindberg, M., Svensson, Å., Langan, S. M. & Montgomery, S. (2019). Atopic dermatitis, educational attainment and psychological functioning: a national cohort study. British Journal of Dermatology, 180(3), 559-564
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atopic dermatitis, educational attainment and psychological functioning: a national cohort study
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2019 (English)In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 180, no 3, p. 559-564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) might adversely affect academic performance, possibly through influences on psychological functioning such as stress resilience.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of atopic dermatitis with stress resilience, cognitive function and educational attainment.

METHODS: We used data from a national cohort of men who underwent a military conscription examination at ages 17 to 20 years in Sweden between 1969 and 1976. All potential conscripts met a physician who assessed current or previous history of AD. Stress resilience was measured by a psychologist using a semi-structured interview. The conscription assessment included a written cognitive function test. Highest level of achieved education was obtained through record linkage.

RESULTS: The study population included 234 715 men, 1 673 (0·7%) had an AD diagnosis. AD was associated with a greater risk of low stress resilience (adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1·60; 95% confidence interval 1·38 to 1·86). AD was associated with higher cognitive function (b coefficient 0·15; 0·05 to 0·24) and higher educational level (RRR 1·29; 1·13 to 1·47) but adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics of the family of origin attenuated the magnitude of the associations and eliminated statistical significance (b coefficient 0·06; -0·03 to 0·15) and (RRR 1·16; 1·00 to 1·35).

CONCLUSIONS: Swedish males with AD had lower stress resilience in late adolescence but did not have lower cognitive function or poorer educational attainment. The lower stress resilience associated with AD is consistent with an increased risk of possible long-term adverse health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Science Ltd., 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69903 (URN)10.1111/bjd.17330 (DOI)30339272 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Cheng, H., Montgomery, S., Green, A. & Furnham, A. (2019). Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Public Health, Article ID fdz009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a nationally representative sample
2019 (English)In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1741-3842, E-ISSN 1741-3850, article id fdz009Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To identify personality, biomedical and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a large longitudinal sample.

METHOD: In total, 5360 participants with data on personality, neurological functioning, maternal smoking during pregnancy, education and occupation, physical exercise, adult self-reported BMI and obesity were included in the study. Obesity at 55 years was the outcome variable.

RESULTS: The rates of obesity increased from 9.5 to 22.8% from age 33 to 55 years. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted estimates) showed that childhood neurological functioning (OR = 1.32: 1.07-1.63, P < 0.01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.42: 1.22-1.65, P < 0.001), educational qualifications (OR = 0.54: 0.37-0.79, P < 0.01), trait conscientiousness (OR = 0.80:0.74-0.86, P < 0.001) and physical exercise (OR = 0.87: 0.82-0.92, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of obesity at age 55 years for both men and women. Trait extraversion for men (OR = 1.16: 1.07-1.26, P < 0.001) and trait emotional stability for women (OR = 0.90: 0.82-0.99, P < 0.05) were also significant predictors of the outcome variable.

CONCLUSION: Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors were all associated with adult obesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Childhood neurological conditions, longitudinal, maternal smoking, obesity, personality traits, physical exercise
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72882 (URN)10.1093/pubmed/fdz009 (DOI)30799484 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Cheng, H., Montgomery, S., Green, A. & Furnham, A. (2019). Childhood heart problems, adulthood emotional stability, and sex associated with self-report heart conditions in adulthood. Journal of Health Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood heart problems, adulthood emotional stability, and sex associated with self-report heart conditions in adulthood
2019 (English)In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated biomedical, social, and psychological factors associated with self-reported heart conditions in adulthood in a British cohort. In total, 5697 (50.7% males) participants with data on parental socioeconomic status, childhood cognitive ability, childhood heart problems, educational qualifications, current occupational levels, adulthood personality traits, and the prevalence of self-reported heart conditions in adulthood were included in the study. The prevalence of self-reported heart conditions measured at age 54 years was the outcome variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that childhood heart problems identified by physicians (OR = 3.47:1.74-6.92, p < 0.001) and trait emotional stability (OR = 0.83:0.75-0.93, p < 0.001) were the significant and independent predictors of self-reported heart conditions in adulthood. There were also significant sex effects on the prevalence of the outcome variable (OR = 0.53:0.42-0.63, p < 0.001). Both a biomedical and a psychological factor were significantly associated with self-reported heart conditions in adulthood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
adulthood personality traits, childhood cognitive ability, childhood heart problems, heart conditions in adulthood, longitudinal, United Kingdom
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71184 (URN)10.1177/1359105318820107 (DOI)000454878400001 ()30599789 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-594-28-0001

Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Kennedy, B., Ruoqing, C., Fang, F., Valdimarsdottir, U., Montgomery, S., Larsson, H. & Fall, K. (2019). Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of smoking, high alcohol consumption and drug use later in life. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Article ID jech-2018-211815.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of smoking, high alcohol consumption and drug use later in life
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, article id jech-2018-211815Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: While compromised stress resilience constitutes a recognised risk factor for somatic and psychiatric disease development in general, the knowledge about how individual variation in vulnerability to stress may specifically influence the long-term risks of disadvantageous health behaviours is limited.

METHODS: In this Swedish cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between stress resilience in late adolescence and adult use of addictive substances. We included 9381 men with information on psychological stress resilience measured during military conscription examinations, who later responded to an extensive health survey (mean age 34.0±7.2 years) including detailed information on substance use. We modelled continuous outcomes using linear regression, binary outcomes with logistic regression and other categorical outcomes with multinomial logistic regression.

RESULTS: We found that low stress resilience in adolescence conferred increased risks of all studied measures of addictive behaviour. After adjusting for childhood socioeconomic information, low stress resilience was associated with adult current regular smoking (relative risk ratio: 5.85, 95% CI 4.32 to 7.93), higher nicotine dependence scores (beta: 0.76, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.23), hazardous use of alcohol (>14 alcoholic drink-equivalents per week, OR: 1.72, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.16), DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence (OR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.25), and drug use (OR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.08). The results remained largely unchanged after further adjustments for adult educational attainment and occupation as well as for additional conscription covariates.

CONCLUSION: Low stress resilience in late adolescence appears to be associated with an increased risk of disadvantageous and addictive health behaviours in adulthood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019
Keywords
alcohol, epidemiology, health behaviour, psychological stress, smoking
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72375 (URN)10.1136/jech-2018-211815 (DOI)30718261 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Landberg, A., Fält, A., Montgomery, S., Sundqvist, P. & Fall, K. (2019). Overweight and obesity during adolescence increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma. International Journal of Cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overweight and obesity during adolescence increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

) at conscription assessment and subsequent RCC was evaluated using multivariable Cox regression. During a follow-up of up to 37 years, 266 men were diagnosed with RCC. We observed a trend for higher RCC risk with increasing BMI during adolescence, where one-unit increase in BMI conferred a 6% increased risk of RCC (95% CI 1.01-1.10). compared to normal weight men (BMI 18.5- < 25), men with overweight (BMI 25- < 30) or obesity (BMI ≥30) had hazard ratios for RCC of 1.76 (95% CI 1.16-2.67) and 2.87 (95% CI 1.26-6.25), respectively. The link between overweight/obesity and RCC appear to be already established during late adolescence. Prevention of unhealthy weight gain during childhood and adolescence may thus be a target in efforts to decrease the burden of RCC in the adult population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
adolescence, cancer epidemiology, obesity, overweight, renal cell carcinoma
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72780 (URN)10.1002/ijc.32147 (DOI)30790271 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Udumyan, R., Montgomery, S., Fang, F., Valdimarsdóttir, U. & Fall, K. (2019). Stress resilience in late adolescence and survival among cancer patients: a Swedish register-based cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 28(2), 400-408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress resilience in late adolescence and survival among cancer patients: a Swedish register-based cohort study
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2019 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 400-408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress has been suggested to play a role in cancer progression, but few studies have so far examined the potential influence of stress susceptibility. This national register-based cohort study utilizes a unique data source to investigate whether a stress resilience measure is associated with survival in cancer patients.

METHODS: The cohort includes 9,318 Swedish male cancer patients born during 1952-1956 who had their stress resilience evaluated at a semi-structured interview with a psychologist during mandatory conscription examination in late adolescence.

RESULTS: Over a median of 3 years of follow-up from cancer diagnosis, a total of 2,541 patients died (2,322 from cancer). Overall, low (23%) compared with high (25%) stress resilience was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio estimated by Cox regression 1.45; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.65), particularly among men with carcinomas of the oropharynx (2.62, 1.24-5.56), upper respiratory tract (4.64, 1.05-20.41), and prostate (2.20, 1.04-4.62), as well as with Hodgkin's lymphoma (3.52, 1.40-8.86). An association was evident both for cancer types associated with smoking (1.35, 1.10-1.66) and malignancies without an established smoking aetiology (1.32, 1.12-1.56). The association between low stress resilience and mortality could partly be explained by tumour stage, marital status, and psychiatric comorbidity at cancer diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between low stress resilience and mortality among men diagnosed with cancer, particularly, oropharyngeal cancer, upper respiratory tract cancers, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

IMPACT: These results suggest that individual variation in stress resilience may influence survival among men with some cancer types.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2019
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69907 (URN)10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0451 (DOI)30333220 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Burkill, S., Montgomery, S., Kockum, I., Piehl, F., Strid, P., Hillert, J., . . . Bahmanyar, S. (2019). The association between multiple sclerosis and pain medications. Pain, 160(2), 424-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between multiple sclerosis and pain medications
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2019 (English)In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 160, no 2, p. 424-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at greater risk of pain than people without the disease, however the occurrence and characteristics of pain among these patients are incompletely described. We aimed to assess characteristics of pain amongst MS patients using MS patients who were recruited to participate in three studies in Sweden (n=3,877), and were matched with individuals without MS (n=4,548) by sex, year of birth, and region of residence. The Prescribed Drugs Register identified prescribed pain medication, overall and restricted to those given four or more prescriptions in one year to assess chronic pain. Anatomical therapeutic chemical codes classified whether pain was neuropathic, musculoskeletal, or migraine. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations. Our findings showed MS patients were at increased risk of pain treatment, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.52 (95% confidence interval 2.38-2.66). The largest magnitude HR was for neuropathic pain (5.73, 5.07-6.47) for which 34.2% (n=1,326) of the MS and 7.15% (n=325) of the non-MS cohort were prescribed a treatment. The HR for chronic pain treatment was 3.55 (3.27-3.84), indicating an increased effect size relative to any pain treatment. Chronic neuropathic pain showed the largest HR at 7.43 (6.21-8.89).Neuropathic pain was shown to be the primary mechanism leading to increased risk of pain in MS patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Neurology Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69998 (URN)10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001429 (DOI)30376533 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060386676 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Lybeck, C., Bruce, D., Montgomery, S., Aleman, S. & Duberg, A.-S. (2018). A national study of risk for non-liver cancer in people with hepatitis C treated with direct acting antivirals or an interferon-based regimen. In: : . Paper presented at The International Liver Congress, Paris, France, April 11-15, 2018 (pp. S263-S264). , 68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A national study of risk for non-liver cancer in people with hepatitis C treated with direct acting antivirals or an interferon-based regimen
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Series
Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71319 (URN)10.1016/S0168-8278(18)30740-2 (DOI)
Conference
The International Liver Congress, Paris, France, April 11-15, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Ugge, H., Udumyan, R., Carlsson, J., Andrén, O., Montgomery, S., Davidsson, S. & Fall, K. (2018). Acne in late adolescence and risk of prostate cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 1580-1585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acne in late adolescence and risk of prostate cancer
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, p. 1580-1585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accumulating evidence suggest that Propionibacterium acnes may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, but data are so far limited and inconclusive. The aim of this population-based cohort study was therefore to test whether presence of acne vulgaris during late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. We identified a large cohort of young men born in Sweden between 1952 and 1956, who underwent mandatory assessment for military conscription around the age of 18 (n= 243,187). Test information along with health data including medical diagnoses at time of conscription was available through the Swedish Military Conscription Register and the National Patient Register. The cohort was followed through linkages to the Swedish Cancer Register to identify the occurrence of prostate cancer until December 31st 2009. We used Cox regression to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between acne in adolescence and prostate cancer risk. A total of 1,633 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during a median follow-up of 36.7 years. A diagnosis of acne was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for prostate cancer (adjusted HR: 1.43 95%; CI: 1.06-1.92), particularly for advanced stage disease (HR: 2.37 95%; CI 1.19-4.73). A diagnosis of acne classified as severe conferred a 6-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (HR: 5.70 95% CI 1.42-22.85). Data from this large prospective population-based cohort add new evidence supporting a role of P acnes infection in prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Propionibacterium acnes; prostate cancer; acne vulgaris; inflammation; acne vulgaris
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63302 (URN)10.1002/ijc.31192 (DOI)000425184800009 ()29205339 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037982996 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Ugge, H., Udumyan, R., Carlsson, J., Davidsson, S., Andrén, O., Montgomery, S. & Fall, K. (2018). Appendicitis before age 20 years is associated with an increased risk of later prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 27(6), 660-664
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appendicitis before age 20 years is associated with an increased risk of later prostate cancer
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2018 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 660-664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis before age 20 years has been observed to influence the risk of several inflammatory conditions, possibly through underlying immunological mechanisms. Inflammation has further been suggested to be involved in prostate cancer development. We therefore hypothesized that immunological characteristics signaled by appendicitis before late adolescence might influence the risk of later prostate cancer, and aimed to evaluate this association in a population-based study.

METHODS: We identified a large cohort of Swedish men who underwent assessment for military conscription around the age of 18 years (n= 242,573). Medical diagnoses at time of conscription were available through the Swedish Military Conscription Register. The Swedish Cancer Register was used to identify diagnoses of prostate cancer. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between appendicitis and prostate cancer.

RESULTS: During a median of 36.7 years of follow-up, 1,684 diagnoses of prostate cancer occurred. We found a statistically significant association between appendicitis and overall prostate cancer (adjusted HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.08-2.67). The risk was notably increased for advanced (HR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.74-11.22) and lethal (HR: 8.95; 95% CI: 2.98-26.91) prostate cancer.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a diagnosis of appendicitis before adulthood potentially signals underlying immune characteristics and a pattern of inflammatory response relevant to prostate cancer risk.

IMPACT: The study lends support to the proposed role of inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis, and adds another area of investigation potentially relevant to prostate cancer development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66449 (URN)10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-1204 (DOI)000433945800006 ()29588305 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047896683 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)  RES-596-28-0001  ES/JO19119/1

Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
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