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Sandgren, A. M. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). ADHD-originating in the gut?: The emergence of a new explanatory model. Medical Hypotheses, 120, 135-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD-originating in the gut?: The emergence of a new explanatory model
2018 (English)In: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777, Vol. 120, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The microbiome-gut-brain axis paradigm explains that alterations in the central nervous system and behavior may be secondary to functional changes in the gut in general and more specifically the enteric nervous system. An unfavorable development of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, leading to e.g. a diminished microbial diversity, may play a central role. This paper outlines, and describes the theoretical basis of, a novel integrative model explaining the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD in a microbiota-gut-brain context, taking into account the complexity of the bi-directional signaling between the gut and the brain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
ADHD, Enteric nervous system, Autonomic nervous system, Microbiome-gut-brain axis, Explanatory model
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69969 (URN)10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.022 (DOI)000447100300024 ()30220333 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Ganda Mall, J.-P., Östlund-Lagerström, L., Lindqvist, C. M., Algilani, S., Rasoal, D., Repsilber, D., . . . Schoultz, I. (2018). Are self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among older adults associated with increased intestinal permeability and psychological distress?. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), Article ID 75.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among older adults associated with increased intestinal permeability and psychological distress?
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2018 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults.

METHODS: Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

RESULTS: Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin.

CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Older adults; Gastrointestinal symptoms; Intestinal barrier function; Psychological distress
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66053 (URN)10.1186/s12877-018-0767-6 (DOI)000428260300001 ()29554871 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044174344 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110225
Note

Funding Agencies:

Bo Rydins stiftelse  F0514 

Faculty of Medicine and Health at Örebro University  

Diarrheal Disease Research Centre, Linköping University  

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Engelheart, S. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). Assessment of nutritional status in the elderly: a proposed function-driven model. Food & Nutrition Research, 62, Article ID 1366.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of nutritional status in the elderly: a proposed function-driven model
2018 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62, article id 1366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: There is no accepted or standardized definition of 'malnutrition'. Hence, there is also no definition of what constitutes an adequate nutritional status. In elderly people, assessment of nutritional status is complex and is complicated by multi-morbidity and disabilities combined with nutrition-related problems, such as dysphagia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and muscle weakness.

Objective: We propose a nutritional status model that presents nutritional status from a comprehensive functional perspective. This model visualizes the complexity of the nutritional status in elderly people.

Design and results: The presented model could be interpreted as the nutritional status is conditional to a person's optimal function or situation. Another way of looking at it might be that a person's nutritional status affects his or her optimal situation. The proposed model includes four domains: (1) physical function and capacity; (2) health and somatic disorders; (3) food and nutrition; and (4) cognitive, affective, and sensory function. Each domain has a major impact on nutritional status, which in turn has a major impact on the outcome of each domain.

Conclusions: Nutritional status is a multifaceted concept and there exist several knowledge gaps in the diagnosis, prevention, and optimization of treatment of inadequate nutritional status in elderly people. The nutritional status model may be useful in nutritional assessment research, as well as in the clinical setting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
nutritional status, nutritional assessment, elderly people, comprehensive geriatric assessment
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67121 (URN)10.29219/fnr.v62.1366 (DOI)000432526000001 ()29720931 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Foundation Olle Engkvist Byggmästare 

Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Gorreja, F., Rush, S., Kasper, D., Brummer, R. J., Meng, D. & Walker, W. A. (2018). Beneficial bacteria that affect Toll-like receptors in the gut immune system: the case of PSA on Bacteroides fragilis and transcription profile of developmentally-regulated genes. In: : . Paper presented at Nobel Day, 10th Conference, School of Medical Sceinces, Örebro University, 10 December, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beneficial bacteria that affect Toll-like receptors in the gut immune system: the case of PSA on Bacteroides fragilis and transcription profile of developmentally-regulated genes
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Immunology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70701 (URN)
Conference
Nobel Day, 10th Conference, School of Medical Sceinces, Örebro University, 10 December, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Edebol-Carlman, H., Schrooten, M. G. S., Ljóttson, B., Boersma, K., Linton, S. J. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). Cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: the effects on state and trait anxiety and the autonomic nervous system during induced rectal distensions - An uncontrolled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 18, 81-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: the effects on state and trait anxiety and the autonomic nervous system during induced rectal distensions - An uncontrolled trial
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 18, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is a common multifactorial gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the microbe gut-brain axis. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in face-to-face format has showed promising results on IBS and its associated psychological symptoms. The present study explored for the first time if CBT for IBS affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress, respectively. The levels of state and trait anxiety, current and perceived stress were also evaluated.

Methods: In this uncontrolled trial, individual CBT was performed in face-to-face format for 12 weeks in 18 subjects with IBS. Heart rate variability and skin conductance were measured during experimentally induced visceral pain and during a cognitive task (Stroop color-word test), before and after intervention. The levels of state and trait anxiety as well as self-rated current and perceived stress were also measured before and after the intervention.

Results: CBT did not affect ANS activity during experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress. The sympathetic activity was high, typical for IBS and triggered during both visceral pain and cognitive stress. The levels of state and trait anxiety significantly decreased after the intervention. No significant changes in self-rated current or perceived stress were found.

Conclusions: Results suggest that face-to-face CBT for IBS improved anxiety- a key psychological mechanism for the IBS pathophysiology, rather than the autonomic stress response to experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2018
Keywords
irritable bowel syndrome; cognitive behavioral therapy; state anxiety; trait anxiety; stress; autonomic nervous system; visceral hypersensitivity
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64294 (URN)10.1515/sjpain-2017-0153 (DOI)000426817200009 ()2-s2.0-85043578532 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Ganda Mall, J. P., Löfvendahl, L., Lindqvist, C. M., Brummer, R. J., Keita, Å. V. & Schoultz, I. (2018). Differential effects of dietary fibres on colonic barrier function in elderly individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 13404.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential effects of dietary fibres on colonic barrier function in elderly individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 13404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gastrointestinal problems are common in elderly and often associated with psychological distress and increased levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, a hormone known to cause mast cell (MC) degranulation and perturbed intestinal barrier function. We investigated if dietary fibres (non-digestible polysaccharides [NPS]) could attenuate MC-induced colonic hyperpermeability in elderly with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Colonic biopsies from elderly with diarrhoea and/or constipation (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 19) were mounted in Ussing chambers and pre-stimulated with a yeast-derived beta (β)-glucan (0.5 mg/ml) or wheat-derived arabinoxylan (0.1 mg/ml) before the addition of the MC-degranulator Compound (C) 48/80 (10 ng/ml). Permeability markers were compared pre and post exposure to C48/80 in both groups and revealed higher baseline permeability in elderly with GI symptoms. β-glucan significantly attenuated C48/80-induced hyperpermeability in elderly with GI symptoms but not in healthy controls. Arabinoxylan reduced MC-induced paracellular and transcellular hyperpermeability across the colonic mucosa of healthy controls, but did only attenuate transcellular permeability in elderly with GI symptoms. Our novel findings indicate that NPS affect the intestinal barrier differently depending on the presence of GI symptoms and could be important in the treatment of moderate constipation and/or diarrhoea in elderly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68799 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-31492-5 (DOI)000444022800008 ()30194322 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053008629 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Gorreja, F., Rangel, I., Rush, S., Wall, R., De Vos, W. M. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). Double-blind cross-over trial reveals human mucosal transcriptome responses to variants of LGG administration in vivo. In: Peter Konturek (Ed.), Targeting microbiota: 6th World congress on targeting microbiota towards clinical revolution. Paper presented at 6th World Congress on Targeting Microbiota, Porto, Portugal, October 28-30, 2018. Porto, Portugal: ISM, 5, Article ID 978-2-35609-010-2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double-blind cross-over trial reveals human mucosal transcriptome responses to variants of LGG administration in vivo
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2018 (English)In: Targeting microbiota: 6th World congress on targeting microbiota towards clinical revolution / [ed] Peter Konturek, Porto, Portugal: ISM , 2018, Vol. 5, article id 978-2-35609-010-2Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Porto, Portugal: ISM, 2018
Series
Archives of international society of microbiota, ISSN 978-2-35609-010-2
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69884 (URN)
Conference
6th World Congress on Targeting Microbiota, Porto, Portugal, October 28-30, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-28 Created: 2018-10-28 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
König, J. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). Is an enzyme supplement for celiac disease finally on the cards?. Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 12(6), 531-533
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is an enzyme supplement for celiac disease finally on the cards?
2018 (English)In: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, ISSN 1747-4124, E-ISSN 1747-4132, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 531-533Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Celiac disease, gluten, gluten-degrading enzymes, non-celiac gluten sensitivity
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66913 (URN)10.1080/17474124.2018.1473762 (DOI)000435679100001 ()29730969 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046827101 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Zeilstra, D., Younes, J. A., Brummer, R. J. & Kleerebezem, M. (2018). Perspective: Fundamental Limitations of the Randomized Controlled Trial Method in Nutritional Research: The Example of Probiotics. Advances in Nutrition, 9(5), 561-571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspective: Fundamental Limitations of the Randomized Controlled Trial Method in Nutritional Research: The Example of Probiotics
2018 (English)In: Advances in Nutrition, ISSN 2161-8313, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 561-571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on the relation between health and nutrition are often inconclusive. There are concerns about the validity of many research findings, and methods that can deliver high-quality evidence-such as the randomized controlled trial (RCT) method-have been embraced by nutritional researchers. Unfortunately, many nutritional RCTs also yield ambiguous results. It has been argued that RCTs are ill-suited for certain settings, including nutritional research. In this perspective, we investigate whether there are fundamental limitations of the RCT method in nutritional research. To this end, and to limit the scope, we use probiotic studies as an example. We use an epistemological approach and evaluate the presuppositions that underlie the RCT method. Three general presuppositions are identified and discussed. We evaluate whether these presuppositions can be considered true in probiotic RCTs, which appears not always to be the case. This perspective concludes by exploring several alternative study methods that may be considered for future probiotic or nutritional intervention trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
RCT limitations, probiotics, nutrition, study design
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69092 (URN)10.1093/advances/nmy046 (DOI)000444726300003 ()30124741 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Gut Flora Foundation 

Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Montiel Rojas, D., Nilsson, A., Ponsot, E., Brummer, R. J., Fairweather-Tait, S., Jennings, A., . . . Kadi, F. (2018). Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 1110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study aims to explore the potential influence of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) on both a single indicator and a composite construct of physical functioning in a large European population of elderly men and women across diverse geographical locations. A total of 1,221 adults (65-79 years) were recruited from five European countries within the framework of NU-AGE study. The physical functioning construct was based on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Handgrip strength was used as a single indicator of muscle function and LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Women had significantly longer (p < 0.05) LTL than men. Participants in Poland had significantly shorter LTL than in the other study centers, whereas participants in the Netherlands had significantly longer LTL than most of the other centers (p < 0.01). An analysis of LTL as a continuous outcome against physical functioning by using linear models revealed inconsistent findings. In contrast, based on an analysis of contrasting telomere lengths (first vs. fifth quintile of LTL), a significant odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1 -2.6; p < 0.05) of having functional limitation was observed in those belonging to the first LTL quintile compared to the fifth. Interestingly, having the shortest LTL was still related to a higher likelihood of having physical limitation when compared to all remaining quintiles (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.1; p < 0.05), even after adjustment by study center, age, sex, and overweight status. Collectively, our findings suggest that short LTL is an independent risk factor that accounts for functional decline in elderly European populations. The influence of LTL on functional limitation seems driven by the detrimental effect of having short telomeres rather than reflecting a linear dose-response relationship.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
aging, ethnicity, handgrip strength, SF-36, physical function
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68587 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.01110 (DOI)000441323300001 ()2-s2.0-85051645979 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 266486
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0362-0008

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