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Santoro, A., Guidarelli, G., Ostan, R., Giampieri, E., Fabbri, C., Bertarelli, C., . . . Bazzocchi, A. (2019). Gender-specific association of body composition with inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans from the NU-AGE study. European Radiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender-specific association of body composition with inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans from the NU-AGE study
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2019 (English)In: European Radiology, ISSN 0938-7994, E-ISSN 1432-1084Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between body composition (BC) markers for adipose and lean tissue and bone mass, and a wide range of specific inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans.

METHODS: A whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was made in 1121 healthy (65-79 years) women and men from five European countries of the "New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy aging in Europe" project (NCT01754012) cohort to measure markers of adipose and lean tissue and bone mass. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-6Rα, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, pentraxin 3, CRP, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) molecules as well as adipose-related markers such as leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin were measured by magnetic bead-based multiplex-specific immunoassays and biochemical assays.

RESULTS: BC characteristics were different in elderly women and men, and more favorable BC markers were associated with a better adipose-related inflammatory profile, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, glycoprotein 130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2.

CONCLUSIONS: The association between BC and inflammatory and adipose-related biomarkers is crucial in decoding aging and pathophysiological processes, such as sarcopenia. DXA can help in understanding how the measurement of fat and muscle is important, making the way from research to clinical practice.

KEY POINTS: • Body composition markers concordantly associated positively or negatively with adipose-related and inflammatory markers, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. • No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, gp130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2. • Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) shows a good correlation with inflammatory profile in age-related sarcopenia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Aging, Body composition, DXA, Inflammation, Sarcopenia
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72377 (URN)10.1007/s00330-018-5973-2 (DOI)30715588 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Nilsson, A. & Kadi, F. (2019). Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29(3), 415-421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, E., Ponsot, E., Piehl-Aulin, K., Falk, G. & Kadi, F. (2019). Resistance Training Alone or Combined With N-3 PUFA-Rich Diet in Older Women: Effects on Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 74(4), 489-494
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resistance Training Alone or Combined With N-3 PUFA-Rich Diet in Older Women: Effects on Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy
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2019 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 489-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We aimed to examine cellular and molecular changes in skeletal muscle of recreationally active older women in response to 24 weeks of combined resistance training and N-3 PUFA-rich healthy diet. Sixty-three women (65-70 years) were randomized into resistance training and healthy diet rich in N-3PUFAs (RT-HD), resistance training only (RT) and controls (CON). Fiber type-specific morphological characteristics and gene expression of inflammatory biomarkers and regulators of muscle mass were analyzed in m. vastus lateralis biopsies obtained before the intervention and 4 days after the last training session. Gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was downregulated (p < .05) and that of the regulator of cellular growth mTOR (p < 0.05) was upregulated in skeletal muscle of RT-HD only. There was also a significant hypertrophy of fast type IIA muscle fibers in RT-HD only (+23%, p < .05). In conclusion, resistance training combined to an N-3 PUFA-rich healthy diet but not alone triggers local anti-inflammatory and growth responses, favoring skeletal muscle hypertrophy in already recreationally active older women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
Exercise, Inflammation, Muscles, Sarcopenia, mTOR
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73206 (URN)10.1093/gerona/gly130 (DOI)30052800 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Konz, T., Santoro, A., Goulet, L., Bazzocchi, A., Battista, G., Nicoletti, C., . . . Rezzi, S. (2019). Sex-Specific Associations of Blood-Based Nutrient Profiling With Body Composition in the Elderly. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 1935.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex-Specific Associations of Blood-Based Nutrient Profiling With Body Composition in the Elderly
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The intake of adequate amounts and types of nutrients is key for sustaining health and a good quality of life, particularly in the elderly population. There is considerable evidence suggesting that physiological changes related to age and sex modify nutritional needs, and this may be related to age-associated changes in body composition (BC), specifically in lean and fat body mass. However, there is a clear lack of understanding about the association of nutrients in blood and BC parameters in the elderly. This study investigated the relationships among blood nutrients (amino acids, fatty acids, major elements, trace-elements, and vitamins), BC and nutrient intake in a population of 176 healthy male and female Italian adults between the ages of 65 and 79 years. 89 blood markers, 77 BC parameters and dietary intake were evaluated. Multivariate data analysis was applied to infer relationships between datasets. As expected, the major variability between BC and the blood nutrient profile (BNP) observed was related to sex. Aside from clear sex-specific differences in BC, female subjects had higher BNP levels of copper, copper-to-zinc ratio, phosphorous and holotranscobalamin II and lower concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and proline. Fat mass, percentage of fat mass, percentage of lean mass and the skeletal muscle index (SMI) correlated the most with BNP in both sexes. Our data showed positive correlations in male subjects among ethanolamine, glycine, albumin, and sulfur with SMI, while palmitoleic acid and oleic acid exhibited negative correlations. This differed in female subjects, where SMI was positively associated with albumin, folic acid and sulfur, while CRP, proline and cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid were negatively correlated. We investigated the influence of diet on the observed BNP and BC correlations. Intriguingly, most of the components of the BNP, except for folate, did not exhibit a correlation with nutrient intake data. An understanding of the physiological and biochemical processes underpinning the observed sex-specific correlations between BNP and BC could help in identifying nutritional strategies to manage BC-changes in aging. This would contribute to a deeper understanding of aging-associated nutritional needs with the aim of helping the elderly population to maintain metabolic health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
nutrient profiling, nutritional status, body composition, elderly, minerals, trace elements, fatty acids, vitamins
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72186 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.01935 (DOI)000456746500001 ()
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Santoro, A., Bazzocchi, A., Guidarelli, G., Ostan, R., Giampieri, E., Mercatelli, D., . . . Franceschi, C. (2018). A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 1693.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1693Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body composition (BC) is an emerging important factor for the characterization of metabolic status. The assessment of BC has been studied in various populations and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, endocrine diseases as well as physiological and paraphysiological conditions such as growth and aging processes, and physical training. A gold standard technique for the assessment of human BC at molecular level is represented by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is able to precisely assess the body mass (and areal bone mineral density-aBMD) on a regional and whole-body basis. For the first time, within the framework of the NU-AGE project, BC has been assessed by means of a whole-body DXA scan in 1121 sex-balanced free-living, apparently healthy older adults aged 65-79 years enrolled in 5 European countries (Italy, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Poland). The aim of this analysis is to provide a complete profile of BC in healthy elderly participants from five European countries and to investigate country- and sex-related differences by state-of-the-art DXA technology. To compare BC data collected in different centers, specific indexes and ratios have been used. Non-parametric statistical tests showed sex-specific significant differences in certain BC parameters. In particular, women have higher fat mass (FM) (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 67%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Lean Mass index: by -18%, p < 2.2e-16) than men. On the other hand, men have higher android FM than women (Android/gynoid FM ratio: by 56%, p < 2.2e-16). Interesting differences also emerged among countries. Polish elderly have higher FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 52%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by -23%, p < 2.2e-16) than elderly from the other four countries. At variance, French elderly show lower FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by -34%, p < 2.2e-16) and higher lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by 18%, p < 2.2e-16). Moreover, five BC profiles in women and six in men have been identified by a cluster analysis based on BC parameters. Finally, these data can serve as reference for normative average and variability of BC in the elderly populations across Europe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
body composition, DXA, elderly, sex, Europe, fat, lean and bone mass
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70775 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.01693 (DOI)000451924100001 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 266486
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A. & Kadi, F. (2018). Fysisk aktivitet gav positiva effekter på graden av åldersinflammation [Letter to the editor]. Läkartidningen, 115(16), 720-720, Article ID E43F.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysisk aktivitet gav positiva effekter på graden av åldersinflammation
2018 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, no 16, p. 720-720, article id E43FArticle in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Läkartidningen Förlag AB, 2018
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Research subject
Sports Physiology/Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68435 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-10 Created: 2018-08-10 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A., Montiel Rojas, D. & Kadi, F. (2018). Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women. Nutrients, 10(9), Article ID 1156.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women
2018 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of dietary protein intake on muscle mass and physical function in older adults is important for the prevention of age-related physical limitations. The aim of the present study was to elucidate links between dietary protein intake and muscle mass and physical function in older women meeting current guidelines of objectively assessed physical activity. In 106 women (65 to 70 years old), protein intake was assessed using a 6-day food record and participants were classified into high and low protein intake groups using two Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) thresholds (0.8 gkg(-1) bodyweight (BW) and 1.1 gkg(-1) BW). Body composition, aerobic fitness, and quadriceps strength were determined using standardized procedures, and self-reported physical function was assessed using the SF-12 Health Survey. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Women below the 0.8 gkg(-1) BW threshold had a lower muscle mass (p < 0.05) with no differences in physical function variables. When based on the higher RDA threshold (1.1 gkg(-1) BW), in addition to significant differences in muscle mass, women below the higher threshold had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher likelihood of having physical limitations. In conclusion, the present study supports the RDA threshold of 0.8 gkg(-1) BW of proteins to prevent the loss of muscle mass and emphasizes the importance of the higher RDA threshold of at least 1.1 gkg(-1) BW to infer additional benefits on constructs of physical function. Our study also supports the role of protein intake for healthy ageing, even in older adults meeting guidelines for physical activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
elderly, muscle strength, nutrition, physical activity, physical functioning, Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), sarcopenia
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70225 (URN)10.3390/nu10091156 (DOI)000448659900029 ()30149519 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052592694 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Rantala, R., Kadi, F. & Chaillou, T. (2018). Low temperature affects the morphology and impairs glutamine-induced hypertrophic response in human primary myotubes. In: : . Paper presented at Europhysiology, London, UK, September 14-16, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low temperature affects the morphology and impairs glutamine-induced hypertrophic response in human primary myotubes
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cold water immersion and other strategies are extensively used by athletes to reduce muscle temperature (TEMP) and are believed to limit muscle soreness and improve recovery after strenuous exercise. However, it remains unclear whether low TEMP affects skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis in response to anabolic stimuli. In this study, we used an in vitro model to investigate whether a reduced TEMP (32°C, TEMP in skeletal muscle during cold water immersion vs. 37°C, core TEMP) affects the growth and impairs glutamine (GLUT)-induced hypertrophic response in human myotubes. Myoblasts from human muscle biopsies (n=8) were first differentiated into myotubes during 48h at 37°C. Then, myotubes were treated with GLUT to induce hypertrophy and were incubated at either 37 or 32°C during 1h (T1), 8h (T8) or 48h (T48). Myotube area (a marker of myotube size) was assessed at T48 by using immunocytology. Protein synthesis (puromycin incorporation) and phosphorylation levels of two components of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway [P70 S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (4E-BP1] were assessed at T1 and T8 from western blot analysis. Ribosome biogenesis was evaluated at T8 by determining total RNA concentration, and by assessing the levels of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), precursor 45S rRNA (pre-45S rRNA) and MYC mRNA from quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data were analysed by a two-way ANOVA for repeated measures. A first major observation was that low TEMP induced morphological alterations (short myotube segments and larger myotube area). Importantly, GLUT-induced myotube hypertrophy was only observed at 37°C (+40%, P<0,01 at 37°C; +4%, NS at 32°C). Similarly, GLUT stimulated protein synthesis at T1 (main effect, P<0,01), with a 53% increase at 37°C (P<0,05) and a 23% increase at 32°C (NS). Protein synthesis was reduced at 32°C at T8 (main effect, P<0,01), while GLUT increased protein synthesis at 37°C (+17%, P<0,01) but not at 32°C (-7%, NS). GLUT-induced 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at T1 was found at 37°C (+16%, P<0,01) but not at 32°C (-1%, NS). Moreover, GLUT increased the phosphorylation of P70S6K at T8 by 50% at 37°C (P<0,01) and by 26% at 32°C (P<0,05). Overall, total RNA concentration, levels of MYC mRNA, 18S rRNA and pre-45S rRNA were reduced at 32°C. In conclusion, this study indicates that low TEMP affects myotube morphology. In addition, we demonstrate that low TEMP impairs GLUT-induced myotube hypertrophy and protein synthesis, a result accompanied by a minored activation of the mTOR pathway. The impaired ribosome biogenesis observed at 32°C at T8 may also contribute to the reduced protein synthesis at this time point. These findings suggest that reducing muscle TEMP after resistance exercise may be detrimental for muscle hypertrophy and training adaptations.

 

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70158 (URN)
Conference
Europhysiology, London, UK, September 14-16, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Kadi, F. & Nilsson, A. (2018). Motion mot inflammation: fysisk aktivitet viktigt för äldres hälsa. Idrottsforskning, Article ID 9 jan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motion mot inflammation: fysisk aktivitet viktigt för äldres hälsa
2018 (Swedish)In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 9 janArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 2018
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Physiotherapy Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Research subject
Sports Physiology/Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68436 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-10 Created: 2018-08-10 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A., Bergens, O. & Kadi, F. (2018). Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(7), 1502-1507
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels
2018 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1502-1507Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviours on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk.

METHODS: Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age = 65-70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers CRP, fibrinogen and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was assessed by standardized procedures based on definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Data were analysed by linear regression models based on isotemporal substitution analysis.

RESULTS: Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time with either time in LPA (β = -0.47; p<0.05) or MVPA (β = -0.42; p<0.05) was related to reduced fibrinogen level, whereas no corresponding effect was evident when shifting time in LPA with time in MVPA, while holding sedentary time constant. In contrast, reallocating a 30-minute time period in sedentary (β = -0.70; p<0.01) or LPA (β = -0.71; p<0.01) with MVPA was associated with a significant reduction in CRP level, while no impact on CRP was observed when a time period of sedentary behavior was replaced with LPA. Importantly, all significant influences on fibrinogen and CRP by displacement of different PA behaviours remained after adjustment for metabolic risk status among participants. No significant associations with adiponectin were observed.

CONCLUSION: Altogether, this work supports the existence of different intensity thresholds mediating beneficial effects of PA on important clinical markers of systemic inflammation in older women across different stages of disease prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
EXERCISE TRAINING, ELDERLY, ISOTEMPORAL, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, METABOLIC RISK, ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65195 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000001582 (DOI)000435348900020 ()29462102 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045633896 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish National Centre for Research  P2012/102  P2014-117  P2015-120

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9831-0896

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