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Nilsson, A., Bergens, O. & Kadi, F. (2018). Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels.
2018 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviours on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk.

METHODS: Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age = 65-70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers CRP, fibrinogen and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was assessed by standardized procedures based on definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Data were analysed by linear regression models based on isotemporal substitution analysis.

RESULTS: Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time with either time in LPA (β = -0.47; p<0.05) or MVPA (β = -0.42; p<0.05) was related to reduced fibrinogen level, whereas no corresponding effect was evident when shifting time in LPA with time in MVPA, while holding sedentary time constant. In contrast, reallocating a 30-minute time period in sedentary (β = -0.70; p<0.01) or LPA (β = -0.71; p<0.01) with MVPA was associated with a significant reduction in CRP level, while no impact on CRP was observed when a time period of sedentary behavior was replaced with LPA. Importantly, all significant influences on fibrinogen and CRP by displacement of different PA behaviours remained after adjustment for metabolic risk status among participants. No significant associations with adiponectin were observed.

CONCLUSION: Altogether, this work supports the existence of different intensity thresholds mediating beneficial effects of PA on important clinical markers of systemic inflammation in older women across different stages of disease prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American College of Sports Medicine, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65195 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000001582 (DOI)29462102 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women. In: : . Paper presented at Nobel Day Festivities, Örebro, Sweden, December 10, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66427 (URN)
Conference
Nobel Day Festivities, Örebro, Sweden, December 10, 2017
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women. In: : . Paper presented at European College of Sport Science Congress, Bochum, Germany, 5-8 July, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Physiology Sport and Fitness Sciences Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66426 (URN)
Conference
European College of Sport Science Congress, Bochum, Germany, 5-8 July, 2017
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
Särnblad, S., Ponsot, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). Acute effects on glycemia of different types of exercise in youths with type 1 diabetes. In: : . Paper presented at ISPAD 2017, Innsbruck, Austria, October 18-21, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects on glycemia of different types of exercise in youths with type 1 diabetes
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61856 (URN)
Conference
ISPAD 2017, Innsbruck, Austria, October 18-21, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2017-11-01Bibliographically approved
Kadi, F., Nilsson, A., Wåhlin-Larsson, B. & Bergens, O. (2017). Chronic Systemic Inflammation, Physical Activity and Skeletal Muscle in Elderly. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM 2017), Denver, CO, USA, May 30 - June 3, 2017. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5), 234-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Systemic Inflammation, Physical Activity and Skeletal Muscle in Elderly
2017 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 234-234Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: It t is hypothesized that chronic systemic inflammation is influenced by physical activity level and is involved in the age-related decline in muscle function. The impact of physical activity behaviours on the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in elderly women is investigated. The impact of chronic systemic inflammation on muscle mass and the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the putative inflammation-mediated action on human muscle cells are explored.

METHODS: Total amount of sedentary time, 30-minute periods of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary behaviour and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry in a cohort of 89 elderly women. Serum HsCRP and TNF-α are were measured. The proliferative and metabolic capacity of human muscle cells obtained from vastus lateralis and exposed to CRP are assessed.

RESULTS: No variables of sedentary behaviour were significantly associated with the level of CRP or TNF-α. In contrast, time spent in MVPA was inversely associated with the level of CRP, independently of sedentary behaviour and waist circumference, but not TNF-α. Serum CRP levels were inversely associated to skeletal muscle mass. Elevated serum CRP levels were associated to reduced proliferative rate of human muscle cells and changes in the regulation of the size muscle cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevation in the inflammatory status in elderly is influenced by the amount of time spent in MVPA and exerts detrimental effects on skeletal muscle mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Geriatrics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62913 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000517490.55576.6c (DOI)000413842900639 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM 2017), Denver, CO, USA, May 30 - June 3, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Tarum, J., Folkesson, M., Atherton, P. J. & Kadi, F. (2017). Electrical pulse stimulation: an in vitro exercise model for the induction of human skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy. A proof-of-concept study. Experimental Physiology, 102(11), 1405-1413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical pulse stimulation: an in vitro exercise model for the induction of human skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy. A proof-of-concept study
2017 (English)In: Experimental Physiology, ISSN 0958-0670, E-ISSN 1469-445X, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 1405-1413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New Findings:

  • What is the central question of this study?

Is electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) an in vitro exercise model able to elicit the hypertrophy of human muscle cells?

  • What is the main finding and its importance?

The addition of a restitution period of 8h after EPS induces the enlargement of human muscle cells, a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise. This is supported by downregulationof myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass, and increased phosphorylated mTOR and 4E-BP1, key factors in the growth cascade. This proof-of-concept study provides a model of physiologically mediated muscle growth, which will be the basis for future studies aiming to depict molecular events governing the hypertrophy of human muscle cells.

Electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells has previouslybeenused as an in vitro exercise model. The present study aimedto establish an EPS protocol promoting the hypertrophy ofhuman muscle cells, which represents a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise in humans. We hypothesized that adding a resting period after EPS would be crucial for the occurrence of the morphological change. Myoblasts obtained from human muscle biopsies (n=5) were differentiated into multinucleated myotubes and exposed to 8h of EPS consisting of 2ms pulses at 12V, with a frequency of 1Hz. Myotube size was assessed using immunohistochemistry immediately, 4 and 8h after completed EPS. Gene expression and phosphorylation status of selected markers of hypertrophy were assessed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Release of the myokine interleukin-6 in culture medium was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We demonstrated a significant increase (31 +/- 14%; P=0.03) in the size of myotubes when EPS was followed by an 8h resting period, but not immediately or 4h after completion of EPS. The response was supported by downregulation (P=0.04) of the gene expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass, and an increase in phosphorylated mTOR (P=0.03) and 4E-BP1 (P=0.01), which are important factors in the cellular growth signalling cascade. The present work demonstrates that EPS is an in vitro exercise model promoting the hypertrophy of human muscle cells, recapitulating a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keyword
Cell growth, muscle contraction, myotube morphology
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61685 (URN)10.1113/EP086581 (DOI)000414175100010 ()28861930 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032974682 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Sillanpää, E., Niskala, P., Laakkonen, E. K., Ponsot, E., Alén, M., Kaprio, J., . . . Sipilä, S. (2017). Leukocyte and Skeletal Muscle Telomere Length and Body Composition in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 20(2), 119-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leukocyte and Skeletal Muscle Telomere Length and Body Composition in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy
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2017 (English)In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be associated with deceleration of cellular aging. We investigated whether long-term HRT has effects on leukocyte (LTL) or mean and minimum skeletal muscle telomere length (SMTL) in a design that controls for genotype and childhood environment. Associations between telomeres, body composition, and physical performance were also examined. Eleven monozygotic twin pairs (age 57.6 ± 1.8 years) discordant for HRT were studied. Mean duration of HRT use was 7.3 ± 3.7 years in the user sister, while their co-twins had never used HRT. LTL was measured by qPCR and SMTLs by southern blot. Body and muscle composition were estimated by bioimpedance and computed tomography, respectively. Physical performance was measured by jumping height and grip strength. HRT users and non-users did not differ in LTL or mean or minimum SMTL. Within-pair correlations were high in LTL (r = 0.69, p = .020) and in mean (r = 0.74, p = .014) and minimum SMTL (r = 0.88, p = .001). Body composition and performance were better in users than non-users. In analyses of individuals, LTL was associated with BMI (r 2 = 0.30, p = .030), percentage total body (r 2 = 0.43, p = .014), and thigh (r 2 = 0.55, p = .004) fat, while minimum SMTL was associated with fat-free mass (r 2 = 0.27, p = .020) and thigh muscle area (r 2 = 0.42, p = .016). We found no associations between HRT use and telomere length. Longer LTLs were associated with lower total and regional fat, while longer minimum SMTLs were associated with higher fat-free mass and greater thigh muscle area. This suggests that telomeres measured from different tissues may have different associations with measures of body composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2017
Keyword
Estrogen, telomeres, percentage of fat, fat-free mass, computed tomography, bioimpedance, twin design, post-menopausal
National Category
Medical Genetics Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-55958 (URN)10.1017/thg.2017.1 (DOI)000398563000003 ()28193312 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85012257856 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

EC FP7 Collaborative Project MYOAGE  GA-223576

Academy of Finland  265240  263278

Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education  251316  89/672/2008

Post doc research grant from the Academy of Finland  260001

Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet. Journal of applied physiology, 123(1), 190-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2017
Keyword
aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)28473614 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved
Wåhlin-Larsson, B., Wilkinson, D. J., Strandberg, E., Hosford-Donovan, A., Atherton, P. J. & Kadi, F. (2017). Mechanistic Links Underlying the Impact of C-Reactive Protein on Muscle Mass in Elderly. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 44(1), 267-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic Links Underlying the Impact of C-Reactive Protein on Muscle Mass in Elderly
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2017 (English)In: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, ISSN 1015-8987, E-ISSN 1421-9778, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 267-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mechanisms underlying the relationship between systemic inflammation and age-related decline in muscle mass are poorly defined. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the systemic inflammatory marker CRP and muscle mass in elderly and to identify mechanisms by which CRP mediates its effects on skeletal muscle, in-vitro.

METHODS: Muscle mass and serum CRP level were determined in a cohort of 118 older women (67±1.7 years). Human muscle cells were differentiated into myotubes and were exposed to CRP. The size of myotubes was determined after immunofluorescent staining using troponin. Muscle protein synthesis was assessed using stable isotope tracers and key signalling pathways controlling protein synthesis were determined using western-blotting.

RESULTS: We observed an inverse relationship between circulating CRP level and muscle mass (β= -0.646 (95% CI: -0.888, -0.405) p<0.05) and demonstrated a reduction (p < 0.05) in the size of human myotubes exposed to CRP for 72 h. We next showed that this morphological change was accompanied by a CRP-mediated reduction (p < 0.05) in muscle protein fractional synthetic rate of human myotubes exposed to CRP for 24 h. We also identified a CRP-mediated increased phosphorylation (p<0.05) of regulators of cellular energy stress including AMPK and downstream targets, raptor and ACC-β, together with decreased phosphorylation of Akt and rpS6, which are important factors controlling protein synthesis.

CONCLUSION: This work established for the first time mechanistic links by which chronic elevation of CRP can contribute to age-related decline in muscle function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karger, 2017
Keyword
Ageing; AMPK; Akt/mTOR; Chronic Inflammation; CRP; Myoblast; Protein Synthesis; Skeletal Muscle Cell; Old women
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62772 (URN)10.1159/000484679 (DOI)000423087200020 ()29130969 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85033489852 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish National Center for Research in Sports  P2012/0102  P2014-0117

Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A., Wåhlin-Larsson, B. & Kadi, F. (2017). Physical Activity and not Sedentary Time Influence on Metabolic Risk in Older Community-dwelling Women. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM 2017), Denver, CO, USA, May 30 - June 3, 2017. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5), 789-789
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity and not Sedentary Time Influence on Metabolic Risk in Older Community-dwelling Women
2017 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 789-789Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The risk of developing the metabolic syndrome increases by older age, where older women typically engage in less health-enhancing physical activity (PA) than men. Whether sedentary behaviors influence on metabolic risk and related components in older adults, and if so to what extent such relationships are independent of PA behavior, remain unclear.

PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviors on metabolic syndrome components and clustered metabolic risk in a sample of older community-dwelling women.

METHODS: Components of the metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs). Total amount of PA (total counts per day), accumulated time spent in different intensities (sedentary, light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)), continuous bouts of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Isotemporal substitution models were used to examine influence of PA and sedentary behavior on each componentof the metabolic syndrome and on a clustered metabolic risk score.

RESULTS: All associations between variables of sedentary behavior and metabolic risk were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts per day was adjusted for. Replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with either LPA or time in sedentary behaviors was related to an increase in WC and clustered metabolic risk score (zMS) (WC: β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01; zMS: β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of PA rather than sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of PA with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62914 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000519106.47592.75 (DOI)000415215700692 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM 2017), Denver, CO, USA, May 30 - June 3, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
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