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La Merrill, M. A., Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B. & Lind, L. (2018). The association between p,p'-DDE levels and left ventricular mass is mainly mediated by obesity. Environmental Research, 160, 541-546
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between p,p'-DDE levels and left ventricular mass is mainly mediated by obesity
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 160, p. 541-546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The pesticide metabolite p,p'-DDE has been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass and known risk factors for LV hypertrophy in humans and in experimental models. We hypothesized that the associations of p,p'-DDE with LV hypertrophy risk factors, namely elevated glucose, adiposity and hypertension, mediate the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

METHODS: p,p'-DDE was measured in plasma from 70-year-old subjects (n = 988) of the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). When these subjects were 70-, 75- and 80- years old, LV characteristics were measured by echocardiography, while fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were assessed with standard clinical techniques.

RESULTS: We found that p,p'-DDE levels were associated with increased fasting glucose, BMI, hypertension and LV mass in separate models adjusted for sex. Structural equation modeling revealed that the association between p,p'-DDE and LV mass was almost entirely mediated by BMI (70%), and also by hypertension (19%).

CONCLUSION: The obesogenic effect of p,p'-DDE is a major determinant responsible for the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2018
Keywords
Glucose, Hypertension, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Obesity, P, p′-DDE
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62384 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.031 (DOI)000417548600058 ()29106953 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032660018 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-2407Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047
Note

Funding agencies:

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture 1002182

National Institutes of Health ES019919 ES023513

Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B. & Lind, L. (2017). Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and carotid artery atherosclerosis. Environmental Research, 152, 157-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and carotid artery atherosclerosis
2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 152, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and objective: During recent years, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to atherosclerosis. One group of POPs, the poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have not been investigated with regard to atherosclerotic plaques.

Methods: Carotid artery atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound in 1016 subjects aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Eight PFASs were detected in >75% of participants' plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

Results: No significant linear associations were observed between the PFASs and intima-media thickness (IMT), or the echogenicity in the intima-media complex (IM-GSM, a marker of lipid infiltration in the artery) when men and women were analyzed together. Neither was occurrence of carotid plaques related to PFASs levels. However, highly significant interactions were observed between some PFASs and sex regarding both IM-GSM and plaque prevalence. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), were all related to IM-GSM in a positive fashion in women (p=0.002-0.003), while these relationships were negative in men. The levels of PFUnDA were significantly related to carotid plaque in women (OR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.43, p=0.03), but not in men (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.62-1.42, p=0.75).

Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, a pronounced gender difference was observed regarding associations between some PFASs, especially the long-chain PFUnDA, and markers of atherosclerosis, with more pronounced relationships found in women. These findings suggest a sex-specific role for PFASs in atherosclerosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, Atherosclerotic plaques, Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54418 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.002 (DOI)000389684600020 ()27771570 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992396745 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Riddell, N., van Bavel, B., Ericson Jogsten, I., McCrindle, R., McAlees, A. & Chittim, B. (2017). Coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of relevant negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mechanisms. Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, 171, 68-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of relevant negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mechanisms
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2017 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 171, p. 68-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During an investigation of the potential associated with coupling packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds, it was found that negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was a promising ionization technique. In the course of maximizing the responses associated with the target analytes, it proved useful to examine some aspects of the complex nature and reactivity of the corona discharge plasma generated to explain the observed ionization products. Various dopants/reagents were screened for both APCI and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in negative ion mode and mechanisms of ionization involving superoxide were elucidated based on the results obtained. Superoxide formation was found to be temperature dependent and directly related to the intensity of the ion cluster [M-Cl+O](-) obtained for the target DP analytes. Furthermore, triethylamine was identified as a reagent capable of suppressing unwanted side reactions during the ionization process and maximizing response associated with the analytes of interest. The applicability of pSFC-APCI/MS for the separation and detection of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds was demonstrated by analyzing Lake Ontario sediment and comparing the results with values reported in the scientific literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Supercritical fluid chromatography, Negative, APCI/MS, Dechlorane Plus, Ionization, Superoxide, Environmental analysis
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58921 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2017.04.066 (DOI)000403511500010 ()28551155 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85018946787 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved
Riddell, N., van Bavel, B., Ericson Jogsten, I., McCrindle, R., McAlees, A. & Chittim, B. (2017). Coupling supercritical fluid chromatography to positive ion atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry: Ionization optimization of halogenated environmental contaminants. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 421, 156-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling supercritical fluid chromatography to positive ion atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry: Ionization optimization of halogenated environmental contaminants
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1387-3806, E-ISSN 1873-2798, Vol. 421, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Currently used analytical techniques for halogenated aromatic environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs), also known as legacy persistent organic pollutants, are based on gas chromatographic separation of target analytes and detection by mass spectrometry. The coupling of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API/MS) could allow for the concurrent analysis of thermally labile and legacy halogenated environmental contaminants if ionization can be sufficiently optimized. The evaluation of positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as well as possible charge transfer dopants for the generation of molecular ion isotopomeric clusters of halogenated environmental contaminants with minimal fragmentation has been completed. Using the investigated parameters, positive ion APPI was found to be the more sensitive technique. Of the aromatic and cycloalkane dopants investigated, only fluorobenzene and trifluorotoluene were found to be effective dopants for the halogenated aromatic target analytes (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs). Experiments involving deuterated dopants confirmed that reactive species generated by cycloalkanes were quenched by the SFC eluent rendering them unusable in conjunction with the investigated separation technique. Alternatively, aromatic dopants were found to be less susceptible to quenching by the SFC eluent and fluorobenzene was determined to be the most effective charge transfer dopant for PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs. To demonstrate the applicability of the optimized ionization conditions, SFC-API/MS has been used for the concurrent analysis of legacy halogenated aromatic environmental contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) and thermally labile analytes (alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of hexabromocyclododecane).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
SFC, Positive APPI-MS, Environmental contaminants, PCDD, PCDF, PCB
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62782 (URN)10.1016/j.ijms.2017.07.005 (DOI)000414114100018 ()2-s2.0-85024100973 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2018-08-11Bibliographically approved
Riddell, N., van Bavel, B., Ericson Jogsten, I., McCrindle, R., McAlees, A. & Chittim, B. (2017). Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques. Chemosphere, 176(June 2017), 333-341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, no June 2017, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of phosphorus based flame retardants as replacements for commonly used halogenated flame retardants has been gaining interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have a less significant impact on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, little is known about the chemical compositions of many of the technical products (which often are mixtures) and a single separation technique for concurrent analysis of these types of compounds has not been identified. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the constituents of three halogen free organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDBPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The major components of commercial samples of RDBPP and BPA-BDPP were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR. A commercial sample of DOPO was found to be essentially pure, but its analysis is complicated by the fact that it can exist in ring-open and ring-closed forms. With the structures of the components confirmed by NMR, multiple analytical separation techniques (gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC)) were investigated for the analysis of these three technical products. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography allows the separation of the components of all three OPFRs, including the two forms of DOPO, in a single run.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs); pSFC/MS method; NMR; RDBPP; BPA-BDPP; DOPO
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57461 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.129 (DOI)000399849300038 ()28282639 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015851681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
Lind, L., Ng, E., Ingelsson, E., Lindgren, C., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B., . . . Lind, P. M. (2017). Genetic and methylation variation in the CYP2B6 gene is related to circulating p,p '-dde levels in a population-based sample. Environment International, 98, 212-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic and methylation variation in the CYP2B6 gene is related to circulating p,p '-dde levels in a population-based sample
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2017 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 212-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Since the metabolism of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is not fully known in humans, we evaluated if circulating levels of a major breakdown product of DDT, p,p'-DDE, were related to genome-wide genetic and methylation variation in a population-based sample.

Methods: In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), circulating levels of p, p'-DDE were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Genetic variants were genotyped and imputed (1000 Genomes reference, March 2012 release). Methylation sites were assayed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in whole blood. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach was applied.

Results: Evidence for genome-wide significant association with p,p'-DDE levels was observed only for a locus at chromosome 19 corresponding to the CYP2B6 gene (lead SNP rs7260538). Subjects being homozygote for the G allele showed a median level of 472 ng/g lipid, while the corresponding level for those being homozygote for the T allelewas 192 ng/g lipid (p= 1.5x10(-31)). An analysis conditioned on the lead SNP disclosed a distinct signal in the same gene (rs7255374, position chr19: 41520351; p= 2.2 x 10(-8)). A whole-genome methylation analysis showed one significant relationship vs. p,p'-DDE levels (p= 6.2 x 10(-9)) located 7 kb downstreamthe CYP2B6 gene (cg27089200, position chr19: 41531976). This CpG-sitewas also related to the lead SNP (p = 3.8 x 10(-35)), but mediated only 4% of the effect of the lead SNP on p, p'-DDE levels.

Conclusion: Circulating levels of p, p'-DDE were related to genetic variation in the CYP2B6 gene in the general elderly population. DNA methylation in this gene is not closely linked to the p, p'-DDE levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
GWAS, CYP2B6, DDE, Metabolism, Methylation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54308 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.010 (DOI)000389913500025 ()2-s2.0-84997637282 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-475
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Park, W. H., Kang, S., Lee, H. K., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B., Lind, P. M., . . . Lind, L. (2017). Relationships between serum-induced AhR bioactivity or mitochondrial inhibition and circulating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 9383.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between serum-induced AhR bioactivity or mitochondrial inhibition and circulating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to elevated serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, it is not clear which specific POPs contribute to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent bioactivity or inhibit mitochondrial function in human subjects. Here, we measured the cumulative bioactivity of AhR ligand mixture (AhR bioactivity) and the effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentration) in recombinant Hepa1c1c7 cells incubated with raw serum samples obtained from 911 elderly subjects in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Plasma concentrations of 30 POPs and plastic chemicals have previously been determined in the same PIVUS subjects. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that total toxic equivalence (TEQ) values and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly correlated with AhR bioactivity (positively) and ATP concentration (negatively). Serum AhR bioactivities were positively associated with some PCBs, regardless of their dioxin-like properties, but only dioxin-like PCBs stimulated AhR bioactivity. By contrast, PCBs mediated a reduction in ATP content independently of their dioxin-like properties. This study suggests that AhR bioactivity and ATP concentrations in serum-treated cells may be valuable surrogate biomarkers of POP exposure and could be useful for the estimation of the effects of POPs on human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60719 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-09774-1 (DOI)000408441600107 ()28839207 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028042887 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding Agency:

Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health Welfare  HI14C2700

Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lind, M., Salihovic, S., Stubleski, J., Kärrman, A., van Bavel, B. & Lind, L. (2017). The changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to the increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years. Paper presented at 85th Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS), Prague, Czech Republic, April 23-26, 2017. Atherosclerosis, 263, E18-E18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to the increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years
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2017 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 263, p. E18-E18Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, we here analyzed if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10 years follow-up were related to the change in intima-media thickness (IMT) during the same period.

Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study,1,016 individuals were investigated at age 70. 826 of those were reinvestigated at age 75 and 606 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) were measured at the three time-points.

Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p<0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period (p<0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional CV risk factors (HDL and LDL-cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) did only affect these relationships marginally.

Conclusions: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was related the increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving further evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60725 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.06.083 (DOI)000407634000051 ()
Conference
85th Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS), Prague, Czech Republic, April 23-26, 2017
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
Stubleski, J., Salihovic, S., Lind, P. M., Lind, L., Dunder, L., McCleaf, P., . . . Kärrman, A. (2017). The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort. Environmental Research, 159, 95-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2017
Keywords
Perfluoroalkyl substances, Drinking water, Longitudinal trend, PIVUS cohort, Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61461 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.050 (DOI)000413280500011 ()28780137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026781229 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR; K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; 216-2007-2047
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Fiedler, H., de Boer, J. & van Bavel, B. (2016). Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories. Paper presented at 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dioxin 2016, Florence, Italy, August 28 - September 2, 2016. Organohalogen Compounds, 78, 777-780
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories
2016 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 777-780Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eco-Informa Press, 2016
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66223 (URN)
Conference
36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dioxin 2016, Florence, Italy, August 28 - September 2, 2016
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6217-8857

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