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Eriksson, Ulrika
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Fredriksson, F., Eriksson, U., Kärrman, A. & Yeung, L. (2020). A Pilot Study of the Fluorinated Ingredient of Scotchgard Products and Their Levels in WWTP Sludge and Landfill Leachate from Sweden. Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Pilot Study of the Fluorinated Ingredient of Scotchgard Products and Their Levels in WWTP Sludge and Landfill Leachate from Sweden
2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Pilotstudie av Fluorerade Ingredienser i Scotchgardprodukter och Deras Halter i Avloppsslam från Reningsverk och Lakvatten från Deponier i Sverige
Abstract [en]

This study performed by Örebro University on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Agency aims at assessing the occurrence and levels of the newly identified side-chain fluorinated polymers from an environmental perspective. The aims of present study are 1) to develop instrumental and extraction methods to measure the active ingredient of two Scotchgard products (two side-chain fluorinated polymers, hereafter referred to as Pre-2002 and Post-2002) in sludge and leachate samples from Swedish wastewater treatment plants and landfills; 2) to evaluate if Pre-2002 and Post-2002 may be responsible for the unidentified organofluorine in the sludge samples from our previous screening study reporting extractable organofluorine (EOF); and 3) to conduct a mass balance analysis on EOF and sum of 93 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in the sludge and landfill leachate samples to assess the levels of unidentified EOF that potentially are other polymeric or non-polymeric PFAS.

Levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 and EOF are reported for sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants (Bergkvara in Torsås, Gässlösa in Borås, Henriksdal in Stockholm, and Öhn in Umeå) collected in 2015, and leachate samples from three different landfills (Atleverket in Örebro, Hässleholm Kretsloppscenter in Hässleholm, and Flishult in Vetlanda). Sludge samples from Gässlösa wastewater treatment plant collected between 2004 and 2016 (excluding 2005 and 2006) were analyzed to assess any temporal trends of the two side-chain fluorinated polymers (Pre-2002 and Post-2002). The present investigation reported levels of both Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in all sludge samples (158-2618 ng/g d.w.). Levels of Pre-2002 were always higher than those of Post-2002 in the same samples. A declining trend was observed for Pre-2002 in sludge samples from Gässlösa but no clear trend was noted for Post-2002. The concentrations of the Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in sludge were higher than the sum of 83 PFAS analyzed in the previous screening study. No relationship between number of people that the wastewater treatment plants served and the concentrations of EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 could be observed. The concentrations of both EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 seem to be more related to the types of industry located in that area. Only three of the five leachate samples showed detectable levels of Pre-2002. Post-2002 was not detected in any of the landfill leachates. The low levels could be due to that both compounds are strongly sorbed to particles, which indicates the fate and distribution of these compounds. For both the sludge and leachate samples, the quantified levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 only contributed to a minor part of the EOF. A high proportion of unknown EOF still remains and may be related to other polymeric or non-polar PFAS.

Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport innefattar en pilotstudie där två nyligen upptäckta polymerer med fluorerade sidokedjor studeras ur ett miljöperspektiv genom att undersöka deras förekomst och nivåer i svenska slam- och lakvattenprover. Syftet med denna studie var 1) att utveckla extraktions- och instrumentella metoder för analys av den aktiva ingrediensen i två Scotchgardprodukter (vilka benämns i denna rapport som Pre-2002 and Post-2002) i slam- och lakvatten från svenska reningsverk och deponier; 2) att utvärdera om Pre-2002 och Post-2002 kan förklara en del av halten oidentifierat organiskt fluor (OF) i slamprover som visats i vår tidigare screeningstudie; och 3) att genomföra en massbalansanalys av extraherbart OF (EOF) och Σ93PFAS inklusive Pre-2002 och Post-2002 i slam- och lakvattenprover för att bedöma delen av okänt EOF som potentiellt kan vara andra PFAS ämnen.

I denna studie rapporteras koncentrationer av Pre-2002 och Post-2002, samt EOF för slamprover från fyra reningsverk (Bergkvara i Torås, Gässlösa i Borås, Henriksdal i Stockholm och Öhn i Umeå) insamlade under 2015, samt lakvattenprover från tre olika avfallsdeponier (Atleverket i Örebro, Hässleholm Kretsloppscenter i Hässleholm och Flishult i Vetlanda). En tidstrend av halterna Pre-2002 and Post-2002 mellan 2004 och 2016 (2005 och 2006 saknades) utfördes i slamprover från Gässlösa reningsverk. Detekterade koncentrationer av både Pre-2002 och Post-2002 hittades i alla slamprover (158-2618 ng/g d.w.). En minskning i koncentration av Pre-2002 kunde ses från 2004 till 2016 i slamprover från Gässlösa reningsverk, medan ingen trend för Post-2002 observerades. Halten av Pre-2002 and Post-2002 var högre än summan av de 83 PFAS-ämnen som analyserats i den tidigare screeningstudien. Inget tydligt samband kunde ses mellan antalet personer anslutna till reningsverket och halterna av oidentifierat EOF samt de detekterade polymererna med fluorerade sidokedjor. Nivåerna av EOF, Pre-2002, och Post-2002 visade sig vara relaterat främst till typ av industriell verksamhet i anslutning till reningsverket. Endast tre av fem lakvattenprover visade detekterbara koncentrationer av Pre-2002. Post-2002 detekterades inte alls i lakvatten. De låga nivåerna i lakvattenproverna kan förklaras av att Pre-2002 och Post-2002 starkt adsorberar till partiklar, vilket visats i andra studier. Detta ger ytterligare en inblick i hur dessa ämnen transporteras i miljön. Andelen av Pre-2002 och Post-2002 i både slam och lakvattenproverna är låg i förhållande till halten EOF, som fortfarande utgörs av en stor andel oidentifierat EOF. Den stora mängden okänt EOF kan därför ha sitt ursprung i andra icke- eller polymeriska PFAS-ämnen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2020. p. 38
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Finance, National; Miljöövervakning, Toxic; Toxic, Screening; Environmental Objectives, A Non-Toxic Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-82098 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2020-05-28
Titaley, I. A., Eriksson, U. & Larsson, M. (2020). Rapid extraction method of polycyclic aromatic compounds in soil using basic silica selective pressurized liquid extraction. Journal of Chromatography A, 1618, Article ID 460896.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid extraction method of polycyclic aromatic compounds in soil using basic silica selective pressurized liquid extraction
2020 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1618, article id 460896Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Complex chemical mixtures found in soils at contaminated sites typically includes polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), thus posing potential environmental and human health risks. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by silica clean-up is one of the most often used extraction methods for PACs in soil. While silica clean-up provide satisfactory recovery of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs), this technique provides limited recovery of azaarenes. In this work, we used PLE and in-cell clean up with basic silica to increase the recovery of OPAHs and azaarenes. The optimized selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method used 4 g basic silica, dichloromethane, 100% flush volume, 100 and 120 °C extraction temperatures, with two static cycles for each temperature, no rinse in between the two extractions, and 20 and 120 s purge for the first and second extraction temperature, respectively. The method was validated for a wide range of PAC groups, including OPAHs, azaarenes, alkylated PAHs, and sulfur heterocycles (SPACs), in total 87 PACs, using certified reference material and in comparison to the results from previous inter-laboratory data. Our SPLE method yielded results that are in agreement with certified values and inter-laboratory data from prior analysis. The SPLE method also yielded lower variation than the results from the inter-laboratory data for analysis of OPAH and azaarenes, suggesting better precision than previous methods. More importantly, the SPLE method increases sample analysis throughput as extra clean-up step is not necessary anymore. The SPLE method was then successfully applied to rapidly screen PACs in three soil samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE), Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), Soil, Oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), Azaarenes
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80713 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2020.460896 (DOI)000528932300041 ()32005529 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078476432 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Kärrman, A., Wang, T., Kallenborn, R., Langseter, A. M., Grønhovd, S. M., Ræder, E. M., . . . Fredriksson, F. (2019). PFASs in the Nordic environment: Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Nordic Environment. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PFASs in the Nordic environment: Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Nordic Environment
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2019 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This report describes a screening study of in all ninety-nine conventional and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Nordic environment. In addition, extractable organic fluorine (EOF) was analysed. The latter can provide the amount, but not identity, of organofluorine in the samples, which in turn can be used to assess the mass balance between known and unknown PFASs. The study was initiated by the Nordic Screening Group and funded by these and the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Chemicals Group. A total of 102 samples were analyzed in this study, including bird eggs, fish, marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, surface water, WWTP effluents and sludge, and air. Samples were collected by institutes from the participating countries and self-governing areas; Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd, 2019. p. 153
Series
TemaNord, ISSN 0908-6692 ; 2019:515
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environment and Climate; Chemicals
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81431 (URN)10.6027/TN2019-515 (DOI)978-92-893-6061-6 (ISBN)978-92-893-6062-3 (ISBN)978-92-893-6063-0 (ISBN)
Funder
Nordic Council of Ministers
Note

The study was conducted on behalf of the Nordic Screening group (www.nor-dicscreening.org) which commissioned and funded the work with financial support gra-ciously provided by the Nordic Council of Ministers Chemicals Group, and the partici-pating agencies and institutes.

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-04-30
Eriksson, U., Haglund, P. & Kärrman, A. (2017). Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), 61, 80-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
diPAPs; FTSAs; Waste water; Daily discharge; PFCA precursor
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62948 (URN)10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.004 (DOI)000416721600010 ()29191318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019583169 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, U., Haglund, P. & Kärrman, A. (2017). Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Screening av PFASs i slam och vatten från reningsverk
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution from precursor compounds to the total amount of selected PFASs in water and sludge from Swedish waste water treatment plants, as a supplemental to previous studies of two persistent PFAS-classes; perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Compound classes added in this study were fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs), perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs, PFPiAs), perfluoralkane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs), and also the intermediates fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) and the stable transformation products fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs). Three waste water treatment plants were included; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Umeå. PFAS levels in sludge from 2012. 2014, and 2015, and in filtered effluent and influent water from 2015 are reported. Precursor compounds were detected in sludge and influent water from all three WWTPs. Levels of precursor compounds in sludge samples exceeded those of persistent PFASs. Increasing PFCA levels in the effluent water compared to the influent water was observed, especially for the short-chained PFCAs. Occurrence of precursor compounds in influent water and sludge indicate degradation of precursor compounds to persistent PFASs.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie var att studera bidraget från föregångarämnen till den totala halten av PFAS i slam och vatten från svenska reningsverk, som komplettering till tidigare studier av persistenta PFAS-grupper bestående av perfluorkarboxylsyror (PFCAs) och perfluorsulfonsyror (PFSAs). De föregångarämnen som ingick i denna studie var fluortelomersulfonsyror (FTSAs), polyfluorerade fosfatestrar (PAPs), perfluorfosfonater och perfluorfosfinater (PFPA, PFPiA), sulfonamider (FOSAs), sulfonamidetanoler (FOSEs) samt intermediärer (omättade fluorotelomersyror, FTUCAs) och stabila transformationsämnen (fluorotelomersyror, FTCAs).

De reningsverk som ingått i studien är Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) och Umeå. I denna rapport redovisas PFAS-halterna i slam från 2012, 2014 och 2015, och i filtrerat ingående och utgående vatten från 2015. Samtliga reningsverk påvisade förekomst av föregångarämnen i såväl slam som ingående vatten. I slamproverna var halterna av föregångarämnen och intermediärer högre än halterna av persistenta PFASs. Flera PFCAs, i synnerhet kortkedjade, visade högre halter i utgående vatten i förhållande till ingående vatten.

Förekomst av föregångarämnen i ingående vatten och slam visar att nedbrytning i reningsverken kan vara en förklaring till de ökade halter av PFCAs som observerats i utgående vatten, i förhållande till ingående vatten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2017. p. 14
Keywords
Screening, slam, vatten, avloppsreningsverk, PFAS, föregångarämnen
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Miljöövervakning, Toxic; Toxic, Screening; Environmental Objectives, A Non-Toxic Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-82101 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2020-05-28
Eriksson, U., Mueller, J. F., Toms, L.-M. L., Hobson, P. & Kärrman, A. (2017). Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013. Environmental Pollution, 220(Pt A), 168-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, no Pt A, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound classes. To date, only a subset of these PFASs have been studied thoroughly in the general population. In this study, pooled serum samples from Australia collected in 2002-2013 were analyzed for PFASs according to gender and age (age categories of 0-4 years, 5-15 years, 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 years, and >60 years), in total 54 pooled samples and 4920 individuals. Compound classes included were perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), and two groups of PFCA precursor compounds; polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs). Several PFASs that were not reported in previous studies of Australian serum samples were found in this sample set including; diPAPs, FTSAs, perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluoroheptane carboxylic acid (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). Various temporal trends were observed with a significant reduction (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2013 for 8:2 FTSA, perflurohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), PFHpS, PFOS, and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of longer-chained PFDA and PFUnDA started to decrease more recently, between 2006 and 2013, while PFDoDA increased during the same time period. Higher levels in younger age groups (0-4 and 5-15 years) compared to adults (>15 years) were found for 8:2 FTSA and PFHpA, while levels of PFHpS, PFOS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA were higher in adult age groups compared to younger age groups. Gender-specific patterns were seen for PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS, where levels were lower in women. Changes in manufacturing processes were reflected in the temporal time trends, and differences in bioaccumulation potential between homologues could be associated with age trends. Our results emphasize the importance of including emerging classes of PFASs in biomonitoring studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
diPaPs, FTSAs, serum, temporal trend, PFAS
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54422 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.036 (DOI)000390736700019 ()27726977 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992359649 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

ARC future fellowship FF120100546

Queensland Health

Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2018-07-30Bibliographically approved
Yeung, L. W. Y. & Eriksson, U. (2017). Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige. Naturvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Time trend of unidentified poly- and perfluoroalky alkyl substances in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Sweden
Abstract [en]

The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

Syftet med denna studie var 1) att studera geografiska variationer i utsläpp av PFASs genom att mäta PFAS i slamprover från fyra olika reningsverk (Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm och Gässlösa - Borås); 2) att utvärdera om slammet innehåller oidientifierade PFASs och i sådana fall kvantifiera mängden av dessa; 3) att studera hur profilen av PFAS-ämnen förändras över tid genom att mäta olika PFAS-ämnen i arkiverade slamprover från två reningsverk (Henriksdal och Gässlösa); och 4) att bestämma andelen oidentifierade PFAS genom att mäta totalhalten organiskt fluor (TOF) i de arkiverade proverna från Henriksdal och Gässlösa.

I denna studie rapporteras halterna av TOF och PFAS i slamprover från de fyra ovan nämnda reningsverken insamlade under 2015; vidare rapporteras en tidstrendsstudie utförd för TOF och PFAS i slamprover från Henriksdal mellan 2004 och 2015. Ett flertal PFAS-klasser detekterades i proverna; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. Halterna av oidentifierade PFASs visade sig vara relaterade främst till typ av industriell verksamhet i anslutning till reningsverket, snarare än antalet personer anslutna till och storlek på reningsverken. Identifierade PFAS-halter utgjorde endast 5 - 11% av TOF i proverna insamlade under 2015, vilket indikerade att 89 - 95% av TOF var oidentifierade ämnen. Halten TOF i slamproverna från Gässlösa var uppskattningsvis 1.6 – 17.7 gånger högre än TOF i slamprover från Henriksdal motsvarande år. Andelen identifierade PFAS-halter i förhållande till TOF minskade från 21% under 2004 till 11% under 2015 i slamprover från Henriksdal, ökade halter av oidentiferade PFASs observerades också mellan 2012 och 2015.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Naturvårdsverket, 2017. p. 52
Keywords
Screening, slam, avloppsreningsverk, PFAS, föregångarämnen, TOF
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61515 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-035
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, U., Roos, A., Lind, Y., Hope, K., Ekblad, A. & Kärrman, A. (2016). Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Environmental Research, 149, 40-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 2016
Keywords
diPAPs, PFAS, Bird of prey, Freshwater, Terrestrial
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50315 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.038 (DOI)000378366000006 ()27174782 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84965046283 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)  2220-14-004

Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, U. (2016). Contribution of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and other precursor compounds to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in humans and the environment. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and other precursor compounds to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in humans and the environment
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic compounds that have been spread all over the world. The use of fluorotelomer compounds, short-chained homologues, and other PFASs with perfluorinated moieties has emerged recent years. One of these emerging compound classes is polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), which have the ability to degrade into persistent PFCAs.

The aim of this thesis was to assess the contribution of PAPs and other precursors to the exposure of PFCAs to humans and the environment. The main objective was to analyze a wide range of PFAS in human serum, wild bird eggs, indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. There was a significant contribution from selected precursors to the total amount of PFASs in the abiotic compartments indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. Levels of PAPs found in house dust exceeded those of PFCAs and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), revealing PAPs as a world-wide important exposure source.

A net increase was during waste water treatment was observed for several PFASs in Swedish waste water treatment plants. Together with presence of precursor compounds and intermediates in the influent water and the sludge, this suggest that degradation of PFCA precursors contributed to the increase of PFCAs. Detection of precursors in human serum, together with slow declining trends of PFCAs, revealed an ongoing exposure of PFCAs to the general population of Australia. The diPAPs and the FTSAs were also detected in raptor bird eggs from Sweden from both the terrestrial and the freshwater environment. The precursors concentrations and patterns observed reveal that current regulatory measures are insufficient for the purpose of protecting humans and the environment from PFASs exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2016. p. 100
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 18
Keywords
PAPs, precursors, PFCA, exposure, indoor dust, human serum, WWTP, bird eggs
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52010 (URN)978-91-7529-164-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-04, Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal 3, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Yeung, L. W. Y., Eriksson, U. & Kärrman, A. (2016). Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige. Naturvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
A pilot study on unidentified poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in sewage in Sweden
Abstract [sv]

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie var att studera totalhalten av PFASs samt andelen okända, hittills ännu ej identifierade PFAS-ämnen i vatten och slam från svenska reningsverk genom att analysera totalt organiskt fluor (TOF) och kvantifierbara PFAS-ämnen. Studien syftar till att kartlägga omfattningen av kända och okända PFAS-ämnen, både dem som är i omlopp och används i produkter i samhället, och dem som släpps ut i miljön. Avloppsvatten (ingående och utgående) och slam provtogs under 2015 och 2016 vid tre olika reningsverk; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) och Öhn (Umeå). I denna rapport redovisas halter av TOF och PFAS-ämnen i slam från 2016 och ingående och utgående avloppsvatten från 2015 och 2016. Flera olika PFAS-klasser detekterades i slam och avloppsvatten; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, diPAPs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. De neutrala och/eller katjoniska PFAS-ämnena i ingående och utgående vatten var ej identiferbara, medan 79-95% av de anjoniska PFAS-ämnen var okända, ej identiferbara ämnen. I slamproverna ´var en betydande del (42-82%) okända ämnen.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Naturvårdsverket, 2016. p. 33
Keywords
Screening, slam, vatten, avloppsreningsverk, PFAS, föregångarämnen, TOF
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61516 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-031
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
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