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Popiolek, K., Bejerot, S., Brus, O., Hammar, Å., Landén, M., Lundberg, J., . . . Nordenskjöld, A. (2019). Electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression: effectiveness and prognostic factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression: effectiveness and prognostic factors
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2019 (English)In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in patients with severe forms of bipolar depression. ECT is effective but not all patients respond. The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors for response to ECT in patients hospitalized for bipolar depression.

METHODS: Data were obtained from several national Swedish registers. All patients with bipolar depression treated with ECT in any hospital in Sweden between 2011 and 2016 for whom information about ECT response was available were included (n = 1251). Response was defined as a score on the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale of one or two. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to investigate associations between socio-demographic and clinical factors and response.

RESULTS: Response was achieved in 80.2% patients. Older age was associated with higher response rate to ECT. Patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or personality disorder, and patients previously treated with lamotrigine had lower response rate.

CONCLUSION: ECT for bipolar depression was associated with very high response rates. The strongest prognostic factors were higher age, absence of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or personality disorder, and less prior pharmacologic treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019
Keywords
Bipolar disorders, bipolar depression, electroconvulsive therapy, prognosis
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75577 (URN)10.1111/acps.13075 (DOI)31334829 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Philipsson, A., Sandberg, E., Högström, S., Eriksson, M., Särnblad, S., Ekstav, L., . . . Duberg, A. (2019). ”Just in TIME” - Intervention med dans och yoga för flickor med funktionell magsmärta och IBS. In: : . Paper presented at Barnveckan, Örebro, Sweden, April 1-4, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Just in TIME” - Intervention med dans och yoga för flickor med funktionell magsmärta och IBS
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2019 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund och syfte

Funktionell magsmärta drabbar många barn i skolåldern, mestadels flickor. Det kan leda till minskad livskvalitet, skolfrånvaro, sämre sömn, försämrade kamratkontakter och ökad vårdkonsumtion. Det vetenskapliga underlaget för interventioner vid långvarig smärta hos barn är begränsat. Dans kan öka rörelseglädje och förbättra kroppskännedom, vilket i sin tur påverkar självtillit och kan öka psykiskt välbefinnande. Yoga kan ge mental avslappning och reducera stressreaktioner. Syftet med studien är att utvärdera effekten av en intervention med dans och yoga på återkommande magsmärta, stress och depressiva symtom samt på funktion i vardagen hos flickor 9-13 år som har funktionell buksmärta och IBS.

Metod

En randomiserad kontrollerad studie genomförs med forskningspersoner som identifieras via diagnosregister samt barnmottagningarna i Västerås och Örebro, samt från primärvården. Interventionen består av dans och yoga med fokus på rörelseglädje, gemenskap och kravlöshet, och utförs som gruppaktivitet två ggr/veckan under 8 månader. Primärt utfall är förändring av magsmärta efter 8 mån. Flickorna följs upp under fem år avseende magsmärta, självskattad hälsa, stress och psykiskt välmående, fysisk aktivitet och skolfunktioner. Vidare studeras kostnad i relation till nytta.

Resultat/(Planerade studier)

Projektet pågår och de första resultaten beräknas publiceras hösten 2019. Projektet utvärderas både kvalitativt, genom intervjuer med flickor och vårdnadshavare, och kvantitativt, genom bland annat analys av smärtdagböcker, upplevd hälsa, stress samt med en hälsoekonomisk analys. Därutöver utvärderas salivkortisol och faeces som objektiva mått. 

Konklusion

Studien förväntas leda till ökad kunskap om icke-farmakologiska insatser för barn samt hur behandlingsinsatser för målgruppen kan breddas med ett kostnadseffektivt alternativ till ”standard care”.

Keywords
Buksmärta, dans, yoga
National Category
Health Sciences Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73177 (URN)
Conference
Barnveckan, Örebro, Sweden, April 1-4, 2019
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Bejerot, S., Hesselmark, E., Mobarrez, F., Wallén, H., Hietala, M. A., Nybom, R. & Wetterberg, L. (2019). Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with increased aquaporin-4 microparticles prior to autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 13(1), Article ID 27.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with increased aquaporin-4 microparticles prior to autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid: a case report
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Medical Case Reports, ISSN 1752-1947, E-ISSN 1752-1947, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are severe autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the water channel protein aquaporin-4. During exacerbation, specific aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G may be produced intrathecally. We measured extracellular aquaporin-4 microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who later developed the typical symptoms and signs of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old South American girl developed acute severe motor and vocal tics and difficulties in walking, peripheral numbness, muscle pain, and bilateral headache. At age 22, she had a multitude of motor and psychiatric symptoms. Over the years, she fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, depression, sleep disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, development coordination disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, hypomania, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections, conversion disorder, psychosis, and schizotypal personality syndrome. At age 24, she was found to have elevated titers of aquaporin-4 antibodies in serum, suggestive of probable neuromyelitis optica. She subsequently developed visual impairment, and swollen optic nerves were verified by magnetic resonance imaging. She was thus treated with a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against the pan-B-cell marker CD20 (rituximab), and almost all symptoms, including the psychiatric symptoms, rapidly decreased. We found a significant increase of extracellular microparticles of aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid sampled from our patient when she was 22 years old, 2 years before the full clinical development of neuromyelitis optica.

CONCLUSIONS: Microparticles of aquaporin-4 represent subcellular arrangements that may influence the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and may serve as biomarkers for the underlying cellular disturbances. The increase of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid may be used for early diagnostic purposes; for prevention; and for evaluation of effective treatment, long-term follow-up studies, and elucidating the pathophysiology in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Further studies of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuromyelitis optica and similar neuropsychiatric disorders are thus called for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Antibodies, Aquaporin-4, Case report, Conversion disorder, La belle indifférence, Microparticles, Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72040 (URN)10.1186/s13256-018-1929-z (DOI)30696485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060700660 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Hesselmark, E. & Bejerot, S. (2019). Patient Satisfaction and Treatments Offered to Swedish Patients with Suspected Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient Satisfaction and Treatments Offered to Swedish Patients with Suspected Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections
2019 (English)In: Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, ISSN 1044-5463, E-ISSN 1557-8992Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are subtypes of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with suggested autoimmune etiology. Immunomodulatory treatments have been introduced as treatment options. A recent systematic review concluded that the evidence for all treatment options for PANS and PANDAS is inconclusive. However, case reports and clinical experience suggest that antibiotics and immunomodulatory treatment may be helpful. Treatment may also affect the patients' satisfaction with health care services offered. This study aims to describe the treatments given to a cohort of Swedish patients with suspected PANS and PANDAS, the patient rated treatment effects, and to establish if any specific treatment predicts higher patient satisfaction.

Methods: Fifty-three patients (m = 33, f = 20, median age = 14, age range = 4-36) with suspected PANS or PANDAS were enrolled and assessed for PANS and PANDAS caseness, treatments given, treatment effects, global improvement, and patient satisfaction. Cases with confirmed and suspected PANS or PANDAS were compared regarding the frequency of treatments given and treatment effect. A linear regression model was used to see if treatments given or global improvement predicted patient satisfaction.

Results: Twenty-four participants fulfilled criteria for PANS or PANDAS and 29 did not. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (88%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (67%), cognitive behavioral therapy (53%), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (42%). There were no major differences between confirmed and suspected cases regarding what treatments they had received or their effect. Patient satisfaction was predicted by overall clinical improvement at the time of assessment. Antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were rated as the most successful treatments by participants and were associated with higher patient satisfaction.

Conclusions: It was more common that patients had received antibiotics than common psychiatric treatments for their psychiatric symptoms. Antibiotics and IVIG were experienced as effective treatments by the patients. Patient satisfaction was on average moderately low, and higher patient satisfaction was associated with global clinical improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mary Ann Liebert, 2019
Keywords
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, patient satisfaction, pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections, treatment outcome
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Pediatrics Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73898 (URN)10.1089/cap.2018.0141 (DOI)000465469300001 ()31009235 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2011-3646The Swedish Brain Foundation, FO2015-0191
Note

Funding Agencies:

Bror Gadelius Minnesfond  

Psykiatrifonden  

Stockholm County Council (PPG projects)  20130671  20150150 

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Bejerot, S., Lindgren, A., Rosén, J., Bejerot, E. & Elwin, M. (2019). Teaching psychiatry to large groups in society. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), Article ID 148.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching psychiatry to large groups in society
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2019 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is a need to educate a range of professionals in caring for individuals with long-term mental disability who reside within our communities. Empathy alone is insufficient. The Kognus 4-Step Education Program was developed to achieve this goal.

METHOD: The program consisted of independent courses, including an 18-session basic course on psychiatric disability (on-site or online), advanced courses, and highly specialized training programs (Nidotherapy/Peer Consultation). Experts lectured together with clients with psychiatric disabilities. We first report Swedish reforms in which institutionalized patients were relocated to semi-independent individual households. We then describe the design and implementation of the education program. Approximately 50% of participants who were younger than 36 years old lacked any healthcare education. The participants' backgrounds, perceptions, participation in the education program, and costs are presented.

RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, 8959 participants attended the Kognus psychiatry courses online or on-site in Stockholm (basic on-site course, n = 2111; online course, n = 4480; advanced courses, n = 2322; highly specialized programs, n = 46). A total of 73% of the participants satisfactorily attended the basic sessions on-site compared with 11% of the online participants. The developers conducted the education program for the first 3 years. Thereafter, another course provider continued the program with other types of participants. The program was perceived to be equally interesting and meaningful to participants with low and high levels of education, demonstrating the generalizability of the program. The quality of the basic and advanced courses was rated as 4.4 and 4.3, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale.

CONCLUSIONS: Personnel without appropriate education who work with people with psychiatric/intellectual disabilities can be educated in large numbers. The Kognus program represents a novel and successful way of training people who have no formal education about some essentials of good mental healthcare. Moreover, the model can be easily implemented elsewhere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Health education, Intellectual disability, Mental disorder, Mental health services, Nidotherapy, Patient-centered care, Social support, Staff development
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74315 (URN)10.1186/s12909-019-1596-9 (DOI)000468411700002 ()31096962 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065869602 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and WelfareSwedish Research Council, 523-2011-3646
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Bejerot, S. & Hesselmark, E. (2019). The Cunningham Panel is an unreliable biological measure [Letter to the editor]. Translational Psychiatry, 9(1), Article ID 49.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cunningham Panel is an unreliable biological measure
2019 (English)In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 49Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Pediatrics Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72037 (URN)10.1038/s41398-019-0413-x (DOI)000459833200003 ()30705260 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060934571 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Kooij, J. J., Bejerot, S. & Asherson, P. (2019). Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. European psychiatry, 56, 14-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD
2019 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 14-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.

Methods: The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.

Results: Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?

Conclusions: ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Adult ADHD, Updated European Consensus Statement, Diagnosis, Treatment, European Network Adult ADHD, EPA
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72763 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.11.001 (DOI)000458502900003 ()30453134 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056845323 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
Bilevicute-Ljunger, I., Maroti, D. & Bejerot, S. (2018). Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome do not score higher on the autism-spectrum quotient than healthy controls: comparison with autism spectrum disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(4), 428-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome do not score higher on the autism-spectrum quotient than healthy controls: comparison with autism spectrum disorder
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 428-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Clinically, there is an overlap of several symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including fatigue; brain “fog”; cognitive impairments; increased sensitivity to sound, light, and odour; increased pain and tenderness; and impaired emotional contact.

Methods: Adults with CFS (n = 59) or ASD (n = 50) and healthy controls (HC; n = 53) were assessed with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a cross-sectional study. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare AQ scores among the groups. Univariate analysis of variance (ANCOVA) was used to identify if age, sex, or diagnostic group influenced the differences in scores.

Results: Patients with ASD scored significantly higher on the AQ than the CFS group and the HC group. No differences in AQ scores were found between the CFS and HC groups. AQ results were influenced by the diagnostic group but not by age or sex, according to ANCOVA.    

Conclusions: Despite clinical observations of symptom overlap between ASD and CFS, adult patients with CFS report few autistic traits in the self-report instrument, the AQ. The choice of instrument to assess autistic traits may influence the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
autism spectrum disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, Autism-Spectrum Quotient
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65829 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12451 (DOI)000437295200009 ()29738079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049527625 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Sigra, S., Hesselmark, E. & Bejerot, S. (2018). Treatment of PANDAS and PANS: a systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 86, 51-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of PANDAS and PANS: a systematic review
2018 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 86, p. 51-56Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are a subtype of acute-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) thought to be caused by an autoimmune response to group A streptococcal infection. Based on this proposed pathophysiology, alternative treatments for acute-onset OCD have been introduced, including antibiotics and immunomodulatory interventions. However, the literature on treatment of PANDAS is diverse, and clinical consensus regarding optimal treatment strategy is lacking. We conducted a systematic review of articles in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus that addressed treatment for PANDAS and related disorders. Twelve research studies involving the following treatments met inclusion criteria: penicillin, azithromycin, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, tonsillectomy, cognitive behavior therapy, NSAID and corticosteroids. In addition, 65 case reports in which patients received immunomodulatory treatments, antibiotics, and/or psychotropics were identified. We determined that rigorously conducted research regarding treatments for PANDAS is scarce, and published studies have a high risk of bias. Further research is needed in which promising treatment strategies for PANDAS and other variants of OCD with proposed autoimmune etiology are rigorously investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections; PANDAS; Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome; PANS; PITAND; Childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptoms; CANS; Obsessive-compulsive disorder; OCD; Obsessive-compulsive symptoms; Treatment; Therapy; Systematic review
National Category
Psychiatry Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64031 (URN)10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.01.001 (DOI)000426224600005 ()29309797 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040358056 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2011-3646
Note

Funding Agency:

Stockholm County Council (PPG)  20130671  20150150

Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hesselmark, E. & Bejerot, S. (2017). Biomarkers for diagnosis of Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Sensitivity and specificity of the Cunningham Panel. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 312, 31-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers for diagnosis of Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Sensitivity and specificity of the Cunningham Panel
2017 (English)In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, ISSN 0165-5728, E-ISSN 1872-8421, Vol. 312, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear. This study was done to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Cunningham Panel in patients with suspected PANS or PANDAS.

METHOD: All Swedish patients who had taken the Cunningham Panel prior to June 2014 (n=154) were invited and 53 patients participated in the study. Based on comprehensive psychiatric assessment (the reference standard of diagnosis), subjects were classified as PANS, PANDAS, or neither. Prior Cunningham Panel test results were collected from patient records, and new blood samples were similarly analyzed within the scope of this study. In addition, results were compared to healthy controls (n=21) and a test-retest reliability analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Sensitivities of individual biomarkers in the Cunningham Panel ranged from 15 to 60%, and specificities from 28 to 92%. Positive predictive values ranged from 17 to 40%, and negative predictive values from 44 to 74%. A majority of the healthy controls had pathological Cunningham Panel results and test-retest reliability proved insufficient.

CONCLUSION: Clinical use of the Cunningham Panel in diagnosing PANS or PANDAS is not supported by this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
PANDAS; PANS; Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Sensitivity and specificity; Biomarkers; Antibodies; Calcium/calmodulin kinase II
National Category
Neurology Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61456 (URN)10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.09.002 (DOI)000413390500007 ()28919236 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029516525 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2011-3646
Note

Funding Agency:

Stockholm County Council  20130671  20150150

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3587-6075

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