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Schölin, L., Hughes, K., Bellis, M. A., Eriksson, C. & Porcellato, L. (2018). Exploring practices and perceptions of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden through a cross-cultural lens. European Journal of Public Health, 28(3), 533-537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring practices and perceptions of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden through a cross-cultural lens
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 533-537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Qualitative studies have aimed to understand why some women continue to drink during pregnancy; however, there is a lack of comparative cross-cultural research. We aimed to explore perceptions and practices of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 parents in Merseyside, England and 22 parents in Örebro County, Sweden. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: The majority of women in both countries abstained from alcohol when they found out they were pregnant, despite alcohol being part of many social contexts before pregnancy. Nine of the seventeen English women drank at some point during pregnancy, typically on special occasions. Most parents felt women should modify their alcohol intake when they become mothers, though several English parents argued that responsible motherhood did not necessarily equate to abstinence. Swedish parents held strong opinions against drinking during pregnancy and argued that any amount of alcohol could harm the foetus. English parents' opinions were divided; some were skeptical of whether low to moderate drinking was associated with risks.

Conclusions: Practices and attitudes towards alcohol use during pregnancy and views on foetal rights and responsibilities of pregnant women differed in England and Sweden. Shared social norms around drinking may be shaped within the policy context of pregnancy drinking guidelines, determining whether women consume alcohol or not.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Substance Abuse Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63035 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckx208 (DOI)000434046900028 ()29206945 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, I., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2018). Leisure-time youth centres as health-promoting settings: Experiences from multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 46(Suppl. 20), 72-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leisure-time youth centres as health-promoting settings: Experiences from multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no Suppl. 20, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim of this paper is to advocate for the importance of meaningful leisure time for young people from a health promotion perspective using experiences from two youth centres in multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden.

Methods: In this practice-based study, data were collected between 2012 and 2014 at two youth centres in multicultural, socially deprived suburbs in Sweden using surveys with 12- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 207), seven individual interviews with staff and three cooperation partners in the neighbourhoods, and six group interviews with adolescents (50% girls). Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods were used for analysis.

Results: As part of the youth centres’ strategies, they are open and inclusive, foster supportive relationships, emphasise youth empowerment, and integrate family, school and community in their work. The youth centres are health-promoting settings with regard to four of the action areas in the Ottawa Charter: build healthy public policy, create supportive environments, strengthen community actions and develop personal skills.

Conclusions: There is a need for a variety and a combination of various structured and unstructured leisure-time activities because young people’s background and life situation plays a role for their participation in leisure time activities. We conclude that youth centres are well placed to be or to become health-promoting settings if the activities takes place in a structured environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Health promotion, leisure-time activities, mixed methods, multicultural, settings based
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65896 (URN)10.1177/1403494817743900 (DOI)000428758300011 ()29552968 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044147260 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Beckman, L., Svensson, M., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2017). Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish school-based prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health, 17, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish school-based prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study
2017 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention.

Methods: Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils) and three control schools (159 pupils) participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13). We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT) Difference-in-Difference (DD) model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9.

Results: The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication.

Conclusions: The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2017
Keywords
Adolescents, Evaluation, Intervention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54277 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-3947-3 (DOI)000392866200002 ()28049504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85007560227 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, C. & Stattin, H. (2017). Förebyggandets konst – utbildning som stöd för kompetent praktik, policy och politik. Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, 94(3), 363-376
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förebyggandets konst – utbildning som stöd för kompetent praktik, policy och politik
2017 (Swedish)In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

En viktig uppgift för vid akademiska lärosäten är att förmedla aktuell kunskap till praktiker och beslutfattare utanför akademin. Vid Örebro universitet görs detta genom bl.a. Förebyggandets konst – psykisk hälsa bland barn och unga och Förebyggandets konst föräldrastöd. Utmaningen var att ge en aktuell utbildning där träffar på campus och IKT (informations- och kommunikationsteknik) möjliggör deltagande av praktiker och beslutsfattare. Förebyggandets konst föräldrastöd (grund/avanceradnivå) har följts upp efter mer än sex månader. Utbildningen har haft betydelse för tänkandet och handling. Utbildningensuppläggning (distanskursmed två träffar på Örebro universitet, inspelade föreläsningar, praktiska inlämningsuppgifter, litteraturstudier och en avslutande praktikanknuten examinationsuppgift) har varit mycket lyckosam. Genom samarbete med myndigheter, forskare och sakkunniga i Sverige har utbildningarna kunnat vara av hög aktualitet och hög kvalitet.

Abstract [en]

An important task for academic institutions is disseminating knowledge also to practitioners and decision-makers. Örebro University gives the Art of Prevention- Mental Health among Children and Young People and the Art of Prevention – Parental Support. The challenge was to provide an up-to-date training at campus and ICT (Information and Communications Technology) facilitating the participation of practitioners and policy makers. A follow-up more than six months after the Art of Prevention– Parental Support has been done. The training has been important for thinking and action. Program structure (distance learning with two campus meetings, recorded lectures, practical assignments, literature and practice-based assessment tasks) has been very successful. The program has high relevance and quality due to cooperation with authorities, researchers and experts in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 2017
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62187 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Pettersson, C., Skoog, T. & Eriksson, C. (2016). Enabling relationship formation, development, and closure in a one-year female mentoring program at a non-governmental organization: a mixed-method study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), Article ID 179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling relationship formation, development, and closure in a one-year female mentoring program at a non-governmental organization: a mixed-method study
2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Mental health problems among young women aged 16-24 have increased significantly in recent decades, and interventions are called for. Mentoring is a well-established preventative/promotive intervention for developing adolescents, but we have yet to fully understand how the relationship between the mentor and the protégé forms, develops, and closes. In this study, we focused on a female mentoring program implemented by a Swedish non-governmental organization, The Girls Zone. First, we examined the psychological and social characteristics of the young women who chose to take part in the program as protégés. Second, we investigated adolescent female protégés’ own experiences of the relationship process based on a relational-cultural theory perspective.

Methods: The mixed-method study included 52 questionnaires and five semi-structured interviews with young women aged 15–26 who had contacted The Girls Zone between 2010 and 2012 in order to find a mentor. Their experience of the mentoring relationships varied in duration. Data were analysed statistically and with inductive qualitative content analysis.

Results: The group of protégés was heterogeneous in that some had poor mental health and some had good mental health. On the other hand, the group was homogenous in that all its members had shown pro-active self-care by actively seeking out the program due to experiences of loneliness and a need to meet and talk with a person who could listen to them. The relationships were initially characterized by feelings of nervousness and ambivalence. However, after some time, these developed into authentic, undemanding, non-hierarchical relationships on the protégés’ terms. The closure of relationships aroused feelings of both abandonment and developing strength.

Conclusions: Mentorships that are in line with perspectives of the relational-cultural theory meet the relationship needs expressed by the female protégés. Mentor training should focus on promoting skills such as active listening and respect for the protégé based on an engaged, empathic, and authentic approach in a non-hierarchical relationship. These insights have the potential to inform interventions in several arenas where young women create authentic relationships with older persons, such as in school, in traditional health care contexts, and in youth recreation centres. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Mixed methods, Mentoring, Gender, Intervention, Emerging adulthood, Young women, Prevention, NGO, Relationship process, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48134 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-2850-2 (DOI)000370666500001 ()26905222 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84958967859 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Genusinriktad ANDT prevention - Förebyggande och främjande verksamhet för unga tjejer
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Bortes, C., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors. BMC Public Health, 16(1), Article ID 519.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors
2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents.

Methods: Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7th to 9th grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM) repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen’s d.

Results: Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9th grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0–2 years.

Conclusion: Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Program evaluation, prevention, swedish, adolescent substance use
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51047 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-3131-9 (DOI)000378439200001 ()27333865 (PubMedID)
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-27 Last updated: 2018-07-14Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, I., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2016). Fritiden som arena för hälsofrämjande arbete: exempel från två ungdomsverksamheter. Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, 93(2), 138-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fritiden som arena för hälsofrämjande arbete: exempel från två ungdomsverksamheter
2016 (Swedish)In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Fritiden är en betydande del av ungdomars liv och en viktig arena för ungdomars utveckling av en god hälsa. Syftet med studien är att öka medvetenheten om betydelsen av ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter i ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv. Datainsamling har skett genom enkäter (n=207) och intervjuer (n=16) inom två fritidsverksamheter. Studien visar att fritidsverksamheter har goda förutsättningar att vara hälsofrämjande arenor om några viktiga faktorer inkluderas i verksamhetens strategier både i teorin och i det dagliga arbetet: 1) Aktiv och genomtänkt rekrytering, 2) Naturlig övergång från barnaktiviteter till ungdomsaktiviteter, 3) Verksamhet i närområdet, 4) Lokal kännedom om bakgrund, behov, intressen och motiv för deltagande, 5) Öppna och inkluderande mot målgruppen, 6) Främja stödjande relationer, 7) Betona ungdomars empowerment och 8) Integrera familj, skola och samhälle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: Stiftelsen Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, 2016
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51048 (URN)
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-27 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Pettersson, C., Eriksson, C. & Skoog, T. (2016). Initial motives and organizational context enabling female mentors' engagement in formal mentoring: a qualitative study from the mentors' perspective. Children and youth services review, 71, 17-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial motives and organizational context enabling female mentors' engagement in formal mentoring: a qualitative study from the mentors' perspective
2016 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 71, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mentoring aimed at supporting young people and their development shows promising results, but its delivery is threatened by the difficulty of recruiting sufficient numbers of mentors and keeping them engaged over time. The aim of this study was to help overcome this problem by examining female mentors’ motives for engaging in formal voluntary mentoring of young women, and exploring how organizations can facilitate these mentors’ satisfaction in staying engaged over time. Based on qualitative interviews with 12 mentors in a Swedish non-governmental organization, the Girls Zone, we show six categories of mentor motives related to initial motivation for engagement: self-interested reasons, empowering women, being a responsible citizen, sense of compassion, self-awareness, and longing for meaningfulness. In addition, we show five categories related to the organizational work of satisfying mentors: a win-win relationship, a feeling of ambivalence despite clear responsibilities and contributions, customized support and guidance, a caring organizational identity, and a commitment to pursue with feelings of duty and emotional connection. Using Self-Determination Theory as the framework to guide our understanding of the findings, we conclude that mentors’ motivations for engaging as mentors are linked to the fulfillment of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Practical recommendations are offered in light of the findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Motives, organizational context, self-determination theory, female mentors, community-based mentoring
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53053 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.10.026 (DOI)000390642400004 ()2-s2.0-84992409200 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Public Health Agency of Sweden
Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, I., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2016). Leisure-time as a health-promoting setting: experiences from youth-centers in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 8th Nordic Research Conference in Health Promotion (NHPRC), Jyväskylä, Finland, June 20-22, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leisure-time as a health-promoting setting: experiences from youth-centers in Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objectives

Leisure-time is an important part of young people’s lives. Despite this, leisure-time settings have hitherto had a minor role in setting-based health-promotion initiatives. Improving adolescents’ quality of leisure-time activities can reduce social differences in health. Youth-centers can therefore be appropriate settings for promoting health. However, young people with immigrant backgrounds participate less in organized leisure-time activities.

The aim of the study is to increase awareness of the importance of young people's leisure-time activities in a health-promotion perspective. Further questions like who participate and why, what they gain, and what particular strategies the different youth-centers use in their everyday work will be presented.

Methods

In this practice-based longitudinal study data were collected 2012-2014 at two youth-centers in multicultural, socially deprived suburbs using surveys with 12-16 year old adolescents (n=207). Individual interviews with staff (n=7) and group-interviews with adolescents (6 groups, 50 % girls). Moreover individual interviews (n=3) were made with cooperation partners in the neighborhoods. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods were used for analysis.

Results

Most of the participants are second generation immigrants. They feel healthy, enjoy school, and feel quite safe in their neighborhoods. They participate in youth-centers to do fun and interesting activities, to see friends as well as to have leaders that care about them. The youth-centers’ proximity is also of importance for participation, in these types of neighborhoods. Strategies for recruiting youth to youth-centers are central to succeeding. Who the participants are and in what neighborhood the leisure-time activity is placed in are closely connected to the motives.

To be a health-promoting setting, a youth-center needs to be open and inclusive, foster supportive relationships, emphasize youth empowerment, and integrate family, school and community in their strategies.

Conclusions

Youth-centers can be health-promoting settings when their strategies include some important factors, both in theory and in daily practice.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69573 (URN)
Conference
8th Nordic Research Conference in Health Promotion (NHPRC), Jyväskylä, Finland, June 20-22, 2016
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Biswas, A., Rahman, F., Eriksson, C., Halim, A. & Dalal, K. (2016). Social Autopsy of maternal, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh: qualitative exploration of its effect and community acceptance. BMJ Open, 6(8), Article ID e010490.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Autopsy of maternal, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh: qualitative exploration of its effect and community acceptance
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2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e010490Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Social Autopsy (SA) is an innovative strategy where a trained facilitator leads community groups through a structured, standardised analysis of the physical, environmental, cultural and social factors contributing to a serious, non-fatal health event or death. The discussion stimulated by the formal process of SA determines the causes and suggests preventative measures that are appropriate and achievable in the community. Here we explored individual experiences of SA, including acceptance and participant learning, and its effect on rural communities in Bangladesh. The present study had explored the experiences gained while undertaking SA of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh.

Design: Qualitative assessment of documents, observations, focus group discussions, group discussions and in-depth interviews by content and thematic analyses.

Results: Each community's maternal and neonatal death was a unique, sad story. SA undertaken by government field-level health workers were well accepted by rural communities. SA had the capability to explore the social reasons behind the medical cause of the death without apportioning blame to any individual or group. SA was a useful instrument to raise awareness and encourage community responses to errors within the society that contributed to the death. People participating in SA showed commitment to future preventative measures and devised their own solutions for the future prevention of maternal and neonatal deaths.

Conclusions: SA highlights societal errors and promotes discussion around maternal or newborn death. SA is an effective means to deliver important preventative messages and to sensitise the community to death issues. Importantly, the community itself is enabled to devise future strategies to avert future maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2016
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51903 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010490 (DOI)000382336700018 ()27554100 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84984700599 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

UNICEF, Bangladesh via Canadian CIDA (DFATD)

Department for International Development (DFID)

European Commission (EC)

Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2018-07-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0185-0851

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