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Stylianou, M., Björnsdotter, M., Olsson, P.-E., Ericson Jogsten, I. & Jass, J. (2019). Distinct transcriptional response of Caenorhabditis elegans to different exposure routes of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. Environmental Research, 168, 406-413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distinct transcriptional response of Caenorhabditis elegans to different exposure routes of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 168, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although people are exposed daily to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), the biological consequences are poorly explored. The health risks associated with PFAS exposure are currently based on chemical analysis with a weak correlation to potential harmful effects in man and animals. In this study, we show that perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), often the most enriched PFAS in the environment, can be transferred via bacteria to higher organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans nematodes were exposed to PFOS directly in buffer or by feeding on bacteria pretreated with PFOS, and this led to distinct gene expression profiles. Specifically, heavy metal and heat shock associated genes were significantly, although inversely, expressed following the different PFOS exposures. The innate immunity receptor for microbial pathogens, clec-60, was shown for the first time to be down-regulated by PFOS. This is in line with a previous study indicating that PFOS is associated with children's susceptibility to certain infectious diseases. Furthermore, bar-1, a gene associated with various cancers was highly up-regulated only when C. elegans were exposed to PFOS pretreated live bacteria. Furthermore, dead bacterial biomass had higher binding capacity for linear and isomeric PFOS than live bacteria, which correlated to the higher levels of PFOS detected in C. elegans when fed the treated E. toll, respectively. These results reveal new aspects concerning trophic chain transport of PFOS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
PFOS biosorption, PFOS isomers, Nematode, Escherichia coli, Food chain
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71130 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.019 (DOI)000452938700043 ()30388497 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055720038 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140180
Note

Funding Agency:

Örebro University

Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Rai, N., Sjöberg, V., Forsberg, G., Karlsson, S., Olsson, P.-E. & Jass, J. (2019). Metal contaminated soil leachates from an art glass factory elicit stress response, alter fatty acid metabolism and reduce lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science of the Total Environment, 651, 2218-2227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal contaminated soil leachates from an art glass factory elicit stress response, alter fatty acid metabolism and reduce lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 651, p. 2218-2227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study evaluated the toxicity of metal contamination in soils from an art glass factory in Smaland Sweden using a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. The aim of the study was to chemically analyze the soil samples and study the biological effects of water-soluble leachates on the nematodes using different physiological endpoints. The total metal content showed that As, Cd and Pb were at levels above the guideline values for soils in areas around the factory. Less than 10% of the total metal content in the soil was found in the water-soluble leachates, however, Al, As, Fe and Pb remained higher than the guideline values for safe drinking water. Exposure of C. elegans to the water-soluble leachates, at both post-hatching larvae stage (L1-young adult) for 48 h and at the young adult stage (L4) for 6 h, showed significant gene alteration. Although the nematodes did not exhibit acute lethality, lifespan was significantly reduced upon exposure. C. elegans also showed altered gene expression associated with stress response and fat metabolism, as well as enhanced accumulation of body fat. The study highlighted the significance of assessing environmental samples using a combination of gene expression analysis, fatty acid metabolism and lifespan for providing valuable insight into the negative impact of metals. The altered fat metabolism and reduced lifespan on exposure to soil leachates motivates further studies to explore the mechanism of the toxicity associated with the metals present in the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Contaminated soil, Water-soluble leachates, Ecotoxicology, Lipid metabolism, Heavy metals, Glass manufacturing
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70482 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.067 (DOI)000450551600055 ()30326454 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054622934 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20150084
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Yewale, P. P., Lokhande, K. B., Sridhar, A., Vaishnav, M., Khan, F. A., Mandal, A., . . . Nawani, N. (2019). Molecular profiling of multidrug-resistant river water isolates: insights into resistance mechanism and potential inhibitors. Environmental science and pollution research international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular profiling of multidrug-resistant river water isolates: insights into resistance mechanism and potential inhibitors
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Polluted waters are an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and multidrug-resistant bacteria. This report describes the microbial community, antibiotic resistance genes, and the genetic profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase strains isolated from rivers at, Pune, India. ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from diverse river water catchments running through Pune City were characterized for their antibiotic resistance. The microbial community and types of genes which confer antibiotic resistance were identified followed by the isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on selective media and their genome analysis. Four representative isolates were sequenced using next generation sequencing for genomic analysis. They were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and two isolates were Enterobacter cloacae. The genes associated with the multidrug efflux pumps, such as tolC, macA, macB, adeL, and rosB, were detected in the isolates. As MacAB-TolC is an ABC type efflux pump responsible for conferring resistance in bacteria to several antibiotics, potential efflux pump inhibitors were identified by molecular docking. The homology model of their MacB protein with that from Escherichia coli K12 demonstrated structural changes in different motifs of MacB. Molecular docking of reported efflux pump inhibitors revealed the highest binding affinity of compound MC207-110 against MacB. It also details the potential efflux pump inhibitors that can serve as possible drug targets in drug development and discovery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Antimicrobial resistance, Efflux pump inhibitors, Extended spectrum β-lactamase, MacB, Multidrug efflux pump
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75620 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05738-2 (DOI)31236860 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Khan, F. A., Söderquist, B. & Jass, J. (2019). Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, Article ID 688.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swedish Aquatic Environments Impacted by Household and Hospital Wastewater
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-lactose fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic misuse has fueled the worldwide spread of resistant bacteria and the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (ARGs). There is evidence that ARGs are ubiquitous in non-clinical environments, especially those affected by anthropogenic activity. However, the emergence and primary sources of ARGs in the environment of countries with strict regulations for antibiotics usage are not fully explored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the repertoire of ARGs of culturable Gram-negative bacteria from directionally connected sites from the hospital to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and downstream aquatic environments in central Sweden. The ARGs were detected from genomic DNA isolated from a population of selectively cultured coliform and Gram-negative bacteria using qPCR. The results show that hospital wastewater was a reservoir of several class B beta-lactamase genes such as bla(IMP)(-1), bla(IMP)(-2), and bla(OXA-23), however, most of these genes were not observed in downstream locations. Moreover, beta-lactamase genes such as bla(OXA-48), bla(CDX-M-8), and bla(SFC-1), bla(VIM-1), and bla(VIM-13) were detected in downstream river water but not in the WWTP. The results indicate that the WWTP and hospital wastewaters were reservoirs of most ARGs and contribute to the diversity of ARGs in associated natural environments. However, this study suggests that other factors may also have minor contributions to the prevalence and diversity of ARGs in natural environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
carbapenemase, urban wastewater, surface water, enterobacteriaceae, VIM-1, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance gene co-occurrence
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73758 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2019.00688 (DOI)000463403600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837Knowledge Foundation, 20150084
Note

Funding Agencies:

Nyckelfonden at Örebro University Hospital  

Örebro University 

Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Ozoline, O. N. & Jass, J. (2019). Secretion and signalling of bacterial RNAs. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 366(1), Article ID fny281.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secretion and signalling of bacterial RNAs
2019 (English)In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 366, no 1, article id fny281Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Immunology Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70619 (URN)10.1093/femsle/fny281 (DOI)000469761500006 ()30517616 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058908270 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

RSF  18-14-00348

Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Goswami, M., Khan, F. A., Ibrisevic, A., Olsson, P.-E. & Jass, J. (2018). Development of Escherichia coli-based gene expression profiling of sewage sludge leachates. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 125(5), 1502-1517
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Escherichia coli-based gene expression profiling of sewage sludge leachates
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 1502-1517Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR. The E. coli gene expression was validated using sub-inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. E. coli exposed to sewage sludge or sewage sludge-fly ash leachates altered the expression of 5 antibiotic and metal resistance, 3 stress response and 2 virulence associated genes. When antibiotics were combined with sludge or sludge-fly ash the antibiotic-associated gene expression was altered.

CONCLUSIONS: E. coli treated with two sludge leachates had distinct gene expression patterns that were altered when the sludge leachates were combined with tetracycline, although to a lesser extent with ciprofloxacin.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The E. coli multigene expression analysis is a potential new tool for assessing the effects of pollutants on pathogenic microbes in environmental waters for improved risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Ecotoxicity, Gene expression, Resistance, Sludge, Stress response, Virulence
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67511 (URN)10.1111/jam.14028 (DOI)000447408400024 ()29928772 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050482911 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, Dnr 20110177
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Pradhan, A., Olsson, P.-E. & Jass, J. (2018). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Chemosphere, 190, 375-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans
2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while cd-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were down regulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 mu M exposure, however, DEP required 10 mu M exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 mu M concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Plasticizer, Metabolism, Reproduction, Toxicity, Longevity
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62890 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.09.123 (DOI)000414881600041 ()29020644 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030660035 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 201504600Knowledge Foundation, 20140180 20150084
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Junnarkar, M. V., Thakare, P. M., Yewale, P. P., Rahman, A., Jass, J., Mandal, A. & Nawani, N. N. (2018). Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Sources in Western India. Food biotechnology, 32(2), 112-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Sources in Western India
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2018 (English)In: Food biotechnology, ISSN 0890-5436, E-ISSN 1532-4249, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 112-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from unconventional sources are often attractive targets in the quest for obtaining better probiotics. In the present study, 16 members of the genus Lactobacillus, isolated from 3 different sources in western India, viz., plants, fermented foods and beverages, and human feces, were evaluated for their probiotic and bioactive properties. The isolates were closely related to Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and mainly Lactobacillus plantarum. The isolates were tolerant to bile salt, acidic pH and pancreatin, although pancreatin tolerance was generally low. Cellular extracts of several isolates displayed antioxidant activity, while cell-free supernatants displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Antioxidant activity of Lactobacilli of human origin was higher than those from vegetables or fermented foods and beverages. L. plantarum AG40V prevented spoilage of fresh-cut fruits, vegetables and sprouted mung-beans. Lactobacilli from all sources displayed equal probiotic potential and those of human origin displayed superior antioxidant activity over others.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, comet assay
National Category
Food Science Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68096 (URN)10.1080/08905436.2018.1443825 (DOI)000436080100003 ()2-s2.0-85048930142 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Lopes, J. P., Stylianou, M., Backman, E., Holmberg, S., Jass, J., Claesson, R. & Urban, C. F. (2018). Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence. mBio, 9(6), Article ID e02120-18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence
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2018 (English)In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02120-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microbial colonizers of humans have evolved to adapt to environmental cues and to sense nutrient availability. Oxygen is a constantly changing environmental parameter in different host tissues and in different types of infection. We describe how Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can modulate the host response under hypoxia and anoxia. We found that high infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection contributes to a low oxygen milieu in a murine subdermal abscess. A persistent hypoxic environment did not affect viability or metabolism of PMNs. Under oxygen deprivation, however, infection with C. albicans disturbed specific PMN responses. PMNs were not able to efficiently phagocytose, produce ROS, or release extracellular DNA traps. Failure to launch an adequate response was caused by C. albicans cell wall masking of β-glucan upon exposure to low oxygen levels which hindered PAMP sensing by Dectin-1 on the surfaces of PMNs. This in turn contributed to immune evasion and enhanced fungal survival. The cell wall masking effect is prolonged by the accumulation of lactate produced by PMNs under low oxygen conditions. Finally, adaptation to oxygen deprivation increased virulence of C. albicans which we demonstrated using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

IMPORTANCE

Successful human colonizers have evolved mechanisms to bypass immune surveillance. Infiltration of PMNs to the site of infection led to the generation of a low oxygen niche. Exposure to low oxygen levels induced fungal cell wall masking, which in turn hindered pathogen sensing and antifungal responses by PMNs. The cell wall masking effect was prolonged by increasing lactate amounts produced by neutrophil metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In an invertebrate infection model, C. albicans was able to kill infected C. elegans nematodes within 2 days under low oxygen conditions, whereas the majority of uninfected controls and infected worms under normoxic conditions survived. These results suggest that C. albicans benefited from low oxygen niches to increase virulence. The interplay of C. albicans with innate immune cells under these conditions contributed to the overall outcome of infection. Adaption to low oxygen levels was in addition beneficial for C. albicans by reducing susceptibility to selected antifungal drugs. Hence, immunomodulation of host cells under low oxygen conditions could provide a valuable approach to improve current antifungal therapies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Microbiology, 2018
Keywords
Candida albicans, PMN, abscesses, anoxia, beta-glucan, fungal cell wall, fungal masking, hypoxia, immune evasion, mycology, neutrophil
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70122 (URN)10.1128/mBio.02120-18 (DOI)000454730100052 ()30401781 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056284180 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-M 2014-02281 2017-01681The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1453Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse Knowledge Foundation, 20140180
Note

Funding Agencies:

J. C. Kempes Minnes Stipendiefond

Arneska Stiftelse

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Khan, F. A., Hellmark, B., Ehricht, R., Söderquist, B. & Jass, J. (2018). Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 37(12), 2241-2251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Related carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella isolates detected in both a hospital and associated aquatic environment in Sweden
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2241-2251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbapenem antibiotics are one of the last-resort agents against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in wastewater and aquatic environments is an indication of MDR bacteria in the community. This study evaluated CPE in aquatic environments and compared them to the local hospital isolates in Sweden. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of antibiotic resistance of environmental and clinical CPE were performed. The relatedness of the isolates and possible clonal dissemination was evaluated using phylogenetic and phyloproteomic analysis. Klebsiella oxytoca carrying carbapenemase genes (blaVIM-1, blaIMP-29) were isolated from wastewater and the recipient river, while K. oxytoca (blaVIM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaVIM-1, blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-3) were isolated from patients at the local clinics or hospital. The K. oxytoca classified as sequence type 172 (ST172) isolated from the river was genotypically related to two clinical isolates recovered from patients. The similarity between environmental and clinical isolates suggests the dispersion of blaVIM-1 producing K. oxytoca ST172 from hospital to aquatic environment and the likelihood of its presence in the community. This is the first report of CPE in aquatic environments in Sweden; therefore, surveillance of aquatic and hospital environments for CPE in other urban areas is important to determine the major transfer routes in order to formulate strategies to prevent the spread of MDR bacteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Antimicrobial resistance, Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Extended spectrum beta-lactamase, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Multidrug resistance
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68676 (URN)10.1007/s10096-018-3365-9 (DOI)000449921100003 ()30171482 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053311566 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-837
Note

Funding Agency:

Nyckelfonden at Orebro University Hospital 

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7957-0310

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