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Jiao, E., Larsson, P., Wang, Q., Zhu, Z., Yin, D., Kärrman, A., . . . Yeung, L. W. Y. (2023). Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(38), 14330-14339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 38, p. 14330-14339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ubiquitous occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and the detection of unexplained extractable organofluorine (EOF) in drinking water have raised growing concerns. A recent study reported the detection of inorganic fluorinated anions in German river systems, and therefore, in some samples, EOF may include some inorganic fluorinated anions. Thus, it might be more appropriate to use the term "extractable fluorine (EF) analysis" instead of the term EOF analysis. In this study, tap water samples (n = 39) from Shanghai were collected to assess the levels of EF/EOF, 35 target PFAS, two inorganic fluorinated anions (tetrafluoroborate (BF4-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-)), and novel PFAS through suspect screening and potential oxidizable precursors through oxidative conversion. The results showed that ultra-short PFAS were the largest contributors to target PFAS, accounting for up to 97% of ΣPFAS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2) was reported in drinking water from China, and p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS) was also identified through suspect screening. Small amounts of precursors that can be oxidatively converted to PFCAs were noted after oxidative conversion. EF mass balance analysis revealed that target PFAS could only explain less than 36% of EF. However, the amounts of unexplained extractable fluorine were greatly reduced when BF4- and PF6- were included. These compounds further explained more than 44% of the EF, indicating the role of inorganic fluorinated anions in the mass balance analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
Keywords
bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2), extractable fluorine (EF), hexafluorophosphate (PF6−), suspect screening, tetrafluoroborate (BF4−), ultra-short PFAS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108322 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c02718 (DOI)001068515100001 ()37710968 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85172425821 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02032
Note

The authors from ORU acknowledge the funding from the Knowledge Foundation (KKS) within the Enforce Research Profile (20160019), Sweden, and Swedish Research Council FORMAS (2020-02032) and grant from Eurofins Environment Testing Sweden AB. The study was partly financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China(2021YFC3200801). E.J. also acknowledges the financial support from the China Scholarship Council (grantno. 202206260120).

Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Hartz, W. F., Björnsdotter, M. K., Yeung, L. W. Y., Hodson, A., Thomas, E. R., Humby, J. D., . . . Kallenborn, R. (2023). Levels and distribution profiles of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a high Arctic Svalbard ice core. Science of the Total Environment, 871, Article ID 161830.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels and distribution profiles of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a high Arctic Svalbard ice core
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 871, article id 161830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of persistent organic contaminants of which some are toxic and bioaccumulative. Several PFAS can be formed from the atmospheric degradation of precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HFCs) and other ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds. Svalbard ice cores have been shown to provide a valuable record of long-range atmospheric transport of contaminants to the Arctic. This study uses a 12.3 m ice core from the remote Lomonosovfonna ice cap on Svalbard to understand the atmospheric deposition of PFAS in the Arctic. A total of 45 PFAS were targeted, of which 26 were detected, using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) MS/MS. C2 to C11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected continuously in the ice core and their fluxes ranged from 2.5 to 8200 ng m-2 yr-1 (9.51-16,500 pg L-1). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) represented 71 % of the total mass of C2 - C11 PFCAs in the ice core and had increasing temporal trends in deposition. The distribution profile of PFCAs suggested that FTOHs were likely the atmospheric precursor to C8 - C11 PFCAs, whereas C2 - C6 PFCAs had alternative sources, such as HFCs and other CFC replacement compounds. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was also widely detected in 82 % of ice core subsections, and its isomer profile (81 % linear) indicated an electrochemical fluorination manufacturing source. Comparisons of PFAS concentrations with a marine aerosol proxy showed that marine aerosols were insignificant for the deposition of PFAS on Lomonosovfonna. Comparisons with a melt proxy showed that TFA and PFOS were mobile during meltwater percolation. This indicates that seasonal snowmelt and runoff from post-industrial accumulation on glaciers could be a significant seasonal source of PFAS to ecosystems in Arctic fjords.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Fluorotelomer alcohols, Hydrofluorocarbons, Long-range transport, Snowmelt, Temporal trends, Trifluoroacetic acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-103896 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161830 (DOI)000965591500001 ()36716880 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147542316 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01284Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Note

Funding agencies:

United Kingdom Research and Innovation Natural Environment Research Council

Oxford Doctoral Training Partnership in Environmental Research NE/L002612/1

Burdett-Coutts Trust

Svalbard Science Forum Arctic Field Grant 2019 11121

Research Council of Norway 196218/S30

Fram Centre Flagship program 534/75219

Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-05-03Bibliographically approved
Jiao, E., Zhu, Z., Yin, D., Qiu, Y., Kärrman, A. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). A pilot study on extractable organofluorine and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water from drinking water treatment plants around Taihu Lake, China: what is missed by target PFAS analysis?. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 24(7), 1060-1070
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pilot study on extractable organofluorine and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water from drinking water treatment plants around Taihu Lake, China: what is missed by target PFAS analysis?
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1060-1070Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have raised concerns due to their worldwide occurrence and adverse effects on both the environment and humans as well as posing challenges for monitoring. Further collection of information is required for a better understanding of their occurrence and the unknown fractions of the extractable organofluorine (EOF) not explained by commonly monitored target PFAS. In this study, eight pairs of raw and treated water were collected from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) around Taihu Lake in China and analyzed for EOF and 34 target PFAS. Mass balance analysis of organofluorine revealed that at least 68% of EOF could not be explained by target PFAS. Relatively higher total target concentrations were observed in 4 DWTPs (D1 to D4) when compared to other samples with the highest sum concentration up to 189 ng L-1. PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS were the abundant compounds. Suspect screening analysis identified 10 emerging PFAS (e.g., H-PFAAs, H-PFESAs and OBS) in addition to target PFAS in raw or treated water. The ratios PFBA/PFOA and PFBS/PFOS between previous and current studies showed significant replacements of short-chain to long-chain PFAS. The ratios of the measured PFAS concentrations to the guideline values showed that some of the treated drinking water exceeds guideline values, appealing for efforts on drinking water safety guarantee.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-99547 (URN)10.1039/d2em00073c (DOI)000809616200001 ()35687097 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132435863 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02032
Note

Funding agencies:

Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment 2017ZX07201005

National Key Research and Development Project of China 2021YFC3200801 

Available from: 2022-06-15 Created: 2022-06-15 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, F., Kärrman, A., Eriksson, U. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Analysis and characterization of novel fluorinated compounds used in surface treatments products. Chemosphere, 302, Article ID 134720.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and characterization of novel fluorinated compounds used in surface treatments products
2022 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 302, article id 134720Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Side-chain fluorinated polymers are speculated to be potential precursors to other non-polymeric aliphatic per- and polyfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Limited knowledge of environmental occurrence of this compound class is partly due to lack of structural information and authentic standards. In this study, two novel fluorinated compounds, suspected to be side-chain fluorinated copolymers used in two commercial technical mixtures (Scotchgard™ Pre-2002 formulation and Scotchgard™ Post-2002 formulation) were analyzed and characterized in order to provide information to facilitate detection and quantification. The commercial mixtures were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry; besides already reported C4- and C8-fluoroalkylsulfonamido (FASA) side-chains, a proposed structure was determined for the perfluorooctane (C8) sulfonamide-urethane copolymer in the Pre-2002 formulation. Structural isomers were also observed for C4- and C8-FASA-based copolymers. Total fluorine analysis revealed that the Scotchgard™ Pre-2002 Formulation contained a fluorine content of 0.5% and 1.8% for the Scotchgard™ Post-2002 Formulation. The equivalent FASA side-chain content was determined to be 0.8% for Pre-2002 and 3.1% for Post-2002. Both C4- and C8-FASA-based copolymers underwent hydrolysis and oxidation and were transformed to their respective perfluoroalkyl side chain, which suggest that transformation products can be analyzed for example after total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay. Both compounds were shown to strongly sorb to sediment particles, which also gives indications about their environmental fate and transport pathways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2022
Keywords
Characterization, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), Side-chain fluorinated copolymers, TOP-Assay, Total fluorine
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-98790 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134720 (DOI)000802572200005 ()35487349 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129497373 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Dunder, L., Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S., Stubleski, J., Kärrman, A. & Lind, L. (2022). Changes in plasma levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are associated with changes in plasma lipids: A longitudinal study over 10 years. Environmental Research, 211, Article ID 112903.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in plasma levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are associated with changes in plasma lipids: A longitudinal study over 10 years
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 211, article id 112903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Associations between per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), mainly PFOS and PFOA, and increased blood lipids have been reported primarily from cross-sectional studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between multiple PFAS and blood lipids in a longitudinal fashion.

METHODS: A total of 864 men and women aged 70 years and free from lipid medication were included from the PIVUS study, 614 and 404 of those were reinvestigated at age 75 and 80. At all three occasions, eight PFAS were measured in plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also measured in plasma at all three occasions. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in PFAS levels and changes in lipid levels.

RESULTS: Changes in plasma levels of six out of the eight investigated PFAS were positively associated with changes in plasma lipids after adjustment for sex, change in body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, statin use (age was the same in all subjects), and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were positively associated with the changes in total cholesterol (β: 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14 to 0.32), triglycerides (β: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04-0.12) and HDL-cholesterol (β: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04-0.11).

CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal study with three measurements over 10 years of both plasma PFAS and lipids, changes in six out of the eight investigated PFAS were positively associated with changes in plasma lipids, giving further support for a role of PFAS exposure in human lipid metabolism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Dyslipidemia, Epidemiology, Longitudinal study, PFAS, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Plasma lipids
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-97722 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2022.112903 (DOI)000783837400001 ()35231461 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125697128 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-475
Note

Funding agency:

Uppsala University Hospital (ALF)

Available from: 2022-03-02 Created: 2022-03-02 Last updated: 2022-05-03Bibliographically approved
Dubocq, F., Bergdís Björk, B. B., Wang, T. & Kärrman, A. (2022). Comparison of extraction and clean-up methods for comprehensive screening of organic micropollutants in fish using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemosphere, 286(Pt 3), Article ID 131743.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of extraction and clean-up methods for comprehensive screening of organic micropollutants in fish using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry
2022 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 286, no Pt 3, article id 131743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monitoring the vast number of micropollutants in the environment by using comprehensive chemical screening is a major analytical challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive analysis method for screening purposes of fish muscle samples by comparing sample preparation methods for a broad range of mid-to non-polar contaminants. Five extraction and three clean-up methods were evaluated for the analysis of 60 compounds with a log Kow range between 0.8 and 8.3 in fish. Both fresh and freeze-dried muscle tissue and extraction sodium sulphate blanks were included to assess recoveries and matrix effects. The performance of the different methods was evaluated using both comprehensive target and nontarget analysis using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The results showed that open-column and ultrasonication extractions (recoveries mostly between 20 and 160 %) resulted in higher recoveries than accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) (recoveries mostly between 20 and 80 %) and bead mixer homogenization extractions (recoveries between 0 and 50 % for the whole Kow range). Multilayer silica was the clean-up method resulting in the lowest matrix effects and highest recoveries, however some compounds (mostly pesticides) were denatured under the acidic conditions used. The convenient and time efficient ultrasonication extraction followed by deactivated silica clean-up proved to be promising for both target and nontarget approaches. The large difference in recoveries and number of detected peaks using target and nontarget approaches between fresh and freeze-dried fish seen for all methods calls for careful consideration, and further studies are needed to improve performance for screening of mid-to non-polar compounds in freeze-dried fish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2022
Keywords
Extraction method, Gas chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry, Muscle fish, Nontarget analysis, Organic pollutants, Suspect screening analysis
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-93632 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131743 (DOI)000709047000004 ()34388434 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85113254491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-16 Created: 2021-08-16 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
Aro, R., Eriksson, U., Kärrman, A., Jakobsson, K. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Extractable organofluorine analysis: A way to screen for elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance contamination in humans?. Environment International, 159, Article ID 107035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extractable organofluorine analysis: A way to screen for elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance contamination in humans?
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2022 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 159, article id 107035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ubiquitous occurrence of a few per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in humans and the environment has been previously reported. However, the number of PFAS humans and the environment are potentially exposed to is much higher, making it difficult to investigate every sample in detail. More importantly, recent studies have shown an increasing fraction of potentially unknown PFAS in human samples. A screening tool for identifying samples of concern that may contain high PFAS levels, to be studied more thoroughly, is needed. This study presents a simplified workflow to detect elevated PFAS levels using extractable organofluorine (EOF) analysis. A fluorine mass balance analysis on samples with high EOF, targeting 63 PFAS, can then confirm the PFAS contamination. Whole blood samples from a cohort of individuals with historical drinking water contamination from firefighting foams (n = 20) in Ronneby (Sweden) and a control group (n = 9) with background exposure were used as a case study. The average EOF concentration in the Ronneby group was 234 ng/mLF (<107-592 ng/mLF) vs 24.8 ng/mLF (17.6-37.8 ng/mL F) in the control group. The large difference (statistically significant, p < 0.05) in the EOF levels between the exposed and control groups would have made it possible to identify samples with high PFAS exposure only using EOF data. This was confirmed by target analysis, which found an average ∑PFAS concentration of 346 ng/mL in the exposed group and 7.9 ng/mL in the control group. The limit of quantification for EOF analysis (up to 107 ng/mLF using 0.5 mL whole blood) did not allow for the detection of PFAS levels in low or sub parts per billion (ng/mL) concentrations, but the results indicate that EOF analysis is a suitable screening method sensitive enough to detect elevated/significant/exposure above background levels by known or unknown PFAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Combustion ion chromatography (CIC), Extractable organofluorine (EOF), Organofluorine mass balance analysis, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), Whole blood
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-95936 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2021.107035 (DOI)000733713000010 ()34896670 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85120736769 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01158Knowledge FoundationSwedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-01625-19
Note

Funding agency:

Enforce Research Profile 20160019 

Available from: 2021-12-14 Created: 2021-12-14 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Björnsdotter, M., Yeung, L. W. Y., Kärrman, A. & Ericson Jogsten, I. (2022). Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids, Including Trifluoroacetic Acid, in a Freshwater Lake. Environmental Science and Technology, 56(1), 251-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids, Including Trifluoroacetic Acid, in a Freshwater Lake
2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 251-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent chemicals that are ubiquitously found in the environment. The atmospheric degradation of precursor compounds has been identified as a source of PFAAs and might be an important pathway for contamination. Lake Vättern is one of Sweden's largest lakes and is an important source for drinking water. In addition to contamination via atmospheric deposition, the lake is subject to several potential contamination sources via surface water inflow. The relevance of different sources is not well understood. A mass balance of selected PFAAs was assembled based on measured concentrations in atmospheric deposition, surface water from streams that constitute the main inflow and outflow, and surface water in the lake. The largest input was seen for trifluoroacetic acid (150 kg/year), perfluoropropanoic acid (1.6 kg/year), perfluorobutanoic acid (4.0 kg/year), and perfluoro-octanoic acid (1.5 kg/year). Both atmospheric deposition and surface water inflow was found to be important input pathways. There was a positive correlation between the input of most perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids via atmospheric deposition and global radiation and between the input via surface water inflow and catchment area. These findings highlight the importance of atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds for contamination in surface waters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
Keywords
Atmospheric deposition, atmospheric oxidation, flux, global radiation, precursors, ultrashort-chain perfluoroalkyl acids
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-96088 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.1c04472 (DOI)000763499800025 ()34927432 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121909600 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01284Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-030 2219-17-012Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2021-12-21 Created: 2021-12-21 Last updated: 2022-04-07Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, F., Eriksson, U., Kärrman, A. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Sweden: First findings of novel fluorinated copolymers in Europe including temporal analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 846, Article ID 157406.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Sweden: First findings of novel fluorinated copolymers in Europe including temporal analysis
2022 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 846, article id 157406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thousands of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are on the global market, while only a minor proportion is monitored regularly in the environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been suggested to be a point source for PFAS to the environment due to emission of effluent and sludge. In this study, 81 PFAS including two rarely studied perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide-based (FASA) copolymers were analyzed in sludge samples to understand the usage of PFAS in the society. Sludge samples (n = 28) were collected at four WWTPs in Sweden between 2004 and 2017. The total levels of 79 measured PFAS were between 50 and 1124 ng/g d.w. All sludge samples showed detectable levels of both C8- and C4-FASA-based copolymers. The concentrations of the FASA-based copolymers were proposed to be reported in fluorinated side-chain equivalents (FSC eq.), in order to compare the levels of the copolymers with the other neutral and anionic PFAS, as no authentic standards were available. The concentrations of the FASA-based copolymers in sludge were between 1.4 and 22 ng FSC eq./g d.w. A general predomination of precursor and intermediate compounds was observed. A lower contribution of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids was noted for the WWTPs more influenced by domestic emission when compared with more influenced by industrial emission. An overall declining trend in the total PFAS concentration was seen between the years 2004 and 2017. The present study observed a shift from the C8-based chemistry toward shorter chain lengths, included a declining trend for C8-FASA-based copolymer over the entire study period. These findings further demonstrate the occurrence of side-chain fluorinated copolymers in Sweden and that sludge is a useful matrix to reflect the usage of PFAS in society and the potential for environmental exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), Side-chain fluorinated copolymers, Wastewater treatment plants
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-100606 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157406 (DOI)000852634700010 ()35850346 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85134598595 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-03051-18 NV-07893-16 NV-04689-16
Available from: 2022-08-15 Created: 2022-08-15 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Roos, A. M., Gamberg, M., Muir, D., Kärrman, A., Carlsson, P., Cuyler, C., . . . Rigét, F. (2022). Perfluoroalkyl substances in circum-ArcticRangifer: caribou and reindeer. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(16), 23721-23735
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl substances in circum-ArcticRangifer: caribou and reindeer
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 23721-23735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Livers of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) from Canada (n = 146), Greenland (n = 30), Svalbard (n = 7), and Sweden (n = 60) were analyzed for concentrations of eight perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and four perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids. In Canadian caribou, PFNA (range < 0.01-7.4 ng/g wet weight, ww) and PFUnDA (<0.01-5.6 ng/g ww) dominated, whereas PFOS predominated in samples from South Greenland, Svalbard, and Sweden, although the highest concentrations were found in caribou from Southwest Greenland (up to 28 ng/g ww). We found the highest median concentrations of all PFAS except PFHxS in Akia-Maniitsoq caribou (Southwest Greenland, PFOS 7.2-19 ng/g ww, median 15 ng/g ww). The highest concentrations of ΣPFAS were also found in Akia-Maniitoq caribou (101 ng/g ww) followed by the nearby Kangerlussuaq caribou (45 ng/g ww), where the largest airport in Greenland is situated, along with a former military base. Decreasing trends in concentrations were seen for PFOS in the one Canadian and three Swedish populations. Furthermore, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA showed decreasing trends in Canada's Porcupine caribou between 2005 and 2016. In Sweden, PFHxS increased in the reindeer from Norrbotten between 2003 and 2011. The reindeer from Västerbotten had higher concentrations of PFNA and lower concentrations of PFHxS in 2010 compared to 2002. Finally, we observed higher concentrations in 2010 compared to 2002 (albeit statistically insignificant) for PFHxS in Jämtland, while PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA showed no difference at all.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Arctic terrestrial environment, Canada, Greenland, Long-range transport, PFAS, PFOS, Svalbard, Sweden
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-95567 (URN)10.1007/s11356-021-16729-7 (DOI)000721662400011 ()34813015 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119851222 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Note

Funding agencies:

Swedish Museum of Natural History

CARMA (CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network)

Svalbard Environmental Fund 10/48

Available from: 2021-11-24 Created: 2021-11-24 Last updated: 2022-09-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7555-142x

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