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Kärrman, Anna
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Publications (10 of 73) Show all publications
Dubocq, F., Wang, T., Yeung, L. W. Y., Sjöberg, V. & Kärrman, A. (2020). Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(1), 245-254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis
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2020 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are widely used to extinguish liquid fires due to their film-forming properties. AFFF formulation historically contains per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that can be very persistent and pose a health risk to biota and humans. Detailed analysis of the chemical composition of AFFFs can provide a better understanding on the potential environmental impact of the ingredients. In this study, a novel workflow combining target analysis, nontarget screening analysis (NTA), total fluorine (TF) analysis, and inorganic fluoride (IF) analysis was applied to disclose the chemical composition of 24 foams intended for liquid fires. Foams marketed as containing PFASs as well as fluorine-free foams were included. By comparing the sum of targeted PFASs and total organofluorine concentrations, a mass balance of known and unknown organofluorine could be calculated. Known organofluorine accounted for <1% in most fluorine-containing AFFFs, and it was confirmed that the foams marketed as fluorine-free did not contain measurable amounts of organofluorine substances. Five fluorinated substances were tentatively identified, and non-fluorinated zwitterionic betaine compounds, which are considered to be replacement substances for PFASs, were tentatively identified in the organofluorine-free foams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACS Publications, 2020
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78825 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b05440 (DOI)000506723200027 ()31789512 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies AgencyKnowledge Foundation
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Chemicals Agency

Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, T. M., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A. & Hassellöv, M. (2020). Comparison between manta trawl and in situ pump filtration methods, and guidance for visual identification of microplastics in surface waters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(5), 5559-5571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison between manta trawl and in situ pump filtration methods, and guidance for visual identification of microplastics in surface waters
2020 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 5559-5571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Owing to the development and adoption of a variety of methods for sampling and identifying microplastics, there is now data showing the presence of microplastics in surface waters from all over the world. The difference between the methods, however, hampers comparisons, and to date, most studies are qualitative rather than quantitative. In order to allow for a quantitative comparison of microplastics abundance, it is crucial to understand the differences between sampling methods. Therefore, a manta trawl and an in situ filtering pump were compared during realistic, but controlled, field tests. Identical microplastic analyses of all replicates allowed the differences between the methods with respect to (1) precision, (2) concentrations, and (3) composition to be assessed. The results show that the pump gave higher accuracy with respect to volume than the trawl. The trawl, however, sampled higher concentrations, which appeared to be due to a more efficient sampling of particles on the sea surface microlayer, such as expanded polystyrene and air-filled microspheres. The trawl also sampled a higher volume, which decreased statistical counting uncertainties. A key finding in this study was that, regardless of sampling method, it is critical that a sufficiently high volume is sampled to provide enough particles for statistical evaluation. Due to the patchiness of this type of contaminant, our data indicate that a minimum of 26 particles per sample should be recorded to allow for concentration comparisons and to avoid false null values. The necessary amount of replicates to detect temporal or spatial differences is also discussed. For compositional differences and size distributions, even higher particle counts would be necessary. Quantitative measurements and comparisons would also require an unbiased approach towards both visual and spectroscopic identification. To facilitate the development of such methods, a visual protocol that can be further developed to fit different needs is introduced and discussed. Some of the challenges encountered while using FTIR microspectroscopic particle identification are also critically discussed in relation to specific compositions found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Microplastics, Surface water sampling, Monitoring, Particle quantification, Method development, Plasticpollution, Microlitter
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79287 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-07274-5 (DOI)000514845700080 ()31853844 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077049418 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 308370Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, 2175-17Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-17-015
Note

Funding Agencies:

Nordic council of ministers  HARMIC

Joint Programming Initiative Oceans  BASEMAN

Available from: 2020-01-21 Created: 2020-01-21 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Karlsson, T. M., Rotander, A., Nilsson, H., Engwall, M., van Bavel, B. & Kärrman, A. (2020). Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 153, Article ID 111019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump
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2020 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 153, article id 111019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microplastics were sampled in open surface waters by using a manta trawl and an in-situ filtering pump. A total of 24 trawl samples and 11 pump samples were taken at 12 locations around Sweden. Overall, the concentration of microplastic particles was higher in pump samples compared to trawl samples. The median microplastic particle concentration was 0.04 particles per m−3 for manta trawl samples and 0.10 particles per m−3 in pump samples taken with a mesh size of 0.3 mm. The highest concentrations were recorded on the west coast of Sweden. Fibers were found in all samples and were also more frequent in the pump samples. Even higher concentrations of fibers and particles were found on the 0.05 mm pump filters. Using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging the majority of the particles were identified as polyethylene followed by polypropylene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Baltic Sea, Kattegat, Microplastic sampling methods, Plastic pollution, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Skagerrak
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80631 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080091668 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Larsson, M., Lam, M. M., Engwall, M., Giesy, J. P., Rochman, C. & Kärrman, A. (2019). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(9), 9097-9088
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 9097-9088Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic is able to sorb environmental pollutants from ambient water and might act as a vector for these pollutants to marine organisms. The potential toxicological effects of plastic-sorbed pollutants in marine organisms have not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, organic extracts from four types of plastic deployed for 9 or 12 months in San Diego Bay, California, were examined for their potential to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway by use of the H4IIE-luc assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including the 16 priority PAHs, were quantified. The AhR-mediated potency in the deployed plastic samples, calculated as bio-TEQ values, ranged from 2.7 pg/g in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to 277 pg/g in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Concentrations of the sum of 24 PAHs in the deployed samples ranged from 4.6 to 1068 ng/g. By use of relative potency factors (REP), a potency balance between the biological effect (bio-TEQs) and the targeted PAHs (chem-TEQs) was calculated to 24-170%. The study reports, for the first time, in vitro AhR-mediated potencies for different deployed plastics, of which LDPE elicited the greatest concentration of bio-TEQs followed by polypropylene (PP), PET, and polyvinylchloride (PVC).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Ah receptor, H4IIE-luc, In vitro bioassays, Microplastics, PAH
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72376 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-04281-4 (DOI)000464851100063 ()30715715 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061216163 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S., Stubleski, J., Kärrman, A. & Lind, L. (2019). Association of Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants With Mortality Risk: An Analysis of Data From the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study. JAMA network open, 2(4), Article ID e193070.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants With Mortality Risk: An Analysis of Data From the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study
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2019 (English)In: JAMA network open, ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 2, no 4, article id e193070Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Importance: It has been suggested that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are harmful to human health.

Objective: To investigate if POP levels in plasma are associated with future mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study using data from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, collected between May 2001 and June 2004 when participants reached age 70 years. Participants were followed up for 5 years after the first examination. Mortality was tracked from age 70 to 80 years. Data analysis was conducted in January and February 2018.

Exposures: Eighteen POPs identified by the Stockholm Convention, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and a brominated flame retardant, were measured in plasma levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality.

Results: The study sample initially included 992 individuals (497 [50.1%] men) aged 70 years, who were examined between 2001 and 2004. At the second examination 5 years later, 814 individuals (82.1%; 412 [50.7%] women) completed follow-up. During a follow-up period of 10.0 years, 158 deaths occurred. When updated information on POP levels at ages 70 and 75 years was associated with all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazard analyses, a significant association was found between hexa-chloro- through octa-chloro-substituted (highly chlorinated) PCBs and all-cause mortality (except PCB 194). The most significant association was observed for PCB 206 (hazard ratio [HR] for 1-SD higher natural log-transformed circulating PCB 206 levels, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26-1.91; P < .001). Following adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, and cardiovascular disease at baseline, most associations were no longer statistically significant, but PCBs 206, 189, 170, and 209 were still significantly associated with all-cause mortality (PCB 206: adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.81; PCB 189: adjusted HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.55; PCB 170: adjusted HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52; PCB 209: adjusted HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.60). In a secondary analysis, these associations were mainly because of death from cardiovascular diseases rather than noncardiovascular diseases. Three organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and the brominated flame retardant diphenyl ether 47 were also evaluated but did not show any significant associations with all-cause mortality.

Conclusions and Relevance: Higher levels of highly chlorinated PCBs were associated with an increased mortality risk, especially from cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that public health actions should be undertaken to minimize exposure to highly chlorinated PCBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Medical Association, 2019
National Category
General Practice
Research subject
Family Medicine; Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74365 (URN)10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3070 (DOI)000476798700069 ()31026035 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065390489 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2004-2007
Note

Funding agency:

Uppsala University Hospital (ALF)

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, A., Sjöberg, S., Kärrman, A. & Brunström, B. (2019). Developmental exposure to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) affects the thyroid hormone system and the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken. Scientific Reports, 9(1), Article ID 19808.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental exposure to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) affects the thyroid hormone system and the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken
2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 19808Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and eggs and nestlings of raptors and fish-eating birds often contain high levels of PFAAs. We studied developmental effects of a mixture of ten PFAAs by exposing chicken embryos to 0.5 or 3 μg/g egg of each compound in the mixture. Histological changes of the thyroid gland were noted at both doses and increased expression of mRNA coding for type III deiodinase was found at 0.5 μg/g egg. Serum concentrations of the free fraction of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were reduced by the PFAA mixture at 3 µg/g egg, which is in line with a decreased synthesis and increased turnover of thyroid hormones as indicated by our histological findings and the decreased mRNA expression of type III deiodinase. The relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius increased at a dose of 3 μg/g egg in females. The bursa is the site of B-cell development in birds and is crucial for the avian adaptive immune system. Analysis of plasma and liver concentrations of the mixture components showed differences depending on chain length and functional group. Our results highlight the vulnerability of the thyroid hormone and immune systems to PFAAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78896 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-56200-9 (DOI)000508918000006 ()31874986 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077165746 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-899
Note

Funding Agency:

Uppsala University

Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-02-14Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Larsson, M., Dubocq, F., Rotander, A., Van der Zande, R., Engwall, M. & Kärrman, A. (2019). Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To facilitate the study of potential harmful compounds sorbed to microplastics, an effect-directed analysis using the DR CALUX® assay as screening tool for Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds in extracts of marine deployed microplastics and chemical analysis of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) was conducted. Pellets of three plastic polymers [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)] were deployed at Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for up to 8 months. Detected AhR-mediated potencies (bio-TEQs) of extracted plastic pellets ranged from 15 to 100 pg/g. Contributions of target HOCs to the overall bioactivities were negligible. To identify the major contributors, remaining plastic pellets were used for fractionation with a gas chromatography (GC) fractionation platform featuring parallel mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The bioassay analysis showed two bioactive fractions of each polymer with bio-TEQs ranging from 5.7 to 14 pg/g. High resolution MS was used in order to identify bioactive compounds in the fractions. No AhR agonists could be identified in fractions of HDPE or LDPE. Via a multivariate statistical approach the polystyrene (PS) trimer 1e- Phenyl-4e-(1- phenylethyl)-tetralin was identified in fractions of HIPS and in fractions of the blank polymer of HIPS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
polyethylene, polystyrene, PCBs, reporter gene assay, fractionation
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75769 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00120 (DOI)000478726600002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Fall, T., Ganna, A., Broeckling, C. D., Prenni, J. E., Hyötyläinen, T., . . . Lind, L. (2019). Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 29(2), 196-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Non-target metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma using UPLC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) operated in positive electrospray mode. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between circulating levels of PFASs and metabolites. In total, 15 metabolites, predominantly from lipid pathways, were associated with levels of PFASs following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, education, energy, and alcohol intake, after correction for multiple testing. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were strongly associated with multiple glycerophosphocholines and fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We also found that the different PFASs evaluated were associated with distinctive metabolic profiles, suggesting potentially different biochemical pathways in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
Keywords
Epidemiology, Metabolomics, PFOA, PFOS, Perfluoroalkyl substances, XCMS
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68801 (URN)10.1038/s41370-018-0060-y (DOI)000459048700007 ()30185940 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053396898 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-756 2013-478Göran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and MedicineSwedish Research Council, 2015-03477
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Koch, A., Kärrman, A., Yeung, L. W. Y., Jonsson, M., Ahrens, L. & Wang, T. (2019). Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 21(11), 1887-1898
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1887-1898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76827 (URN)10.1039/c9em00281b (DOI)000498711800007 ()31552402 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074962116 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00320Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01158Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-12-13Bibliographically approved
Björnsdotter, M., Yeung, L. W. Y., Kärrman, A. & Ericson Jogsten, I. (2019). Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(19), 11093-11101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 19, p. 11093-11101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76642 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b02211 (DOI)000488993500006 ()31496234 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072791157 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01284Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-030 2219-17-012Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-11-15Bibliographically approved
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