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Björk, Tabita
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Rytterström, P., Lindeborg, M., Korhonen, S. & Björk, T. (2019). Finding the Silent Message: Nurses’ Experiences of Non-Verbal Communication Preceding a Suicide. Psychology, 10(1), 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding the Silent Message: Nurses’ Experiences of Non-Verbal Communication Preceding a Suicide
2019 (English)In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suicidal individuals often communicate their intention to commit suicide, but not necessarily verbally. Psychiatric nurses play a central role in the care of patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour or thoughts. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of the indirect messages about forthcoming suicide from patients’ everyday life before they committed suicide. A qualitative design was used with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Seven nurses working in specialist psychiatric care were interviewed about their experience of the phenomenon communication about suicide. Results show how the nurses noticed changes in patients just before they committed suicide. These changes included rapid improvement, disguise of real feelings, and unreceptiveness to further treatment or encouragements. The nurses also described patients becoming aware of painful life conditions of losing hope and confidence in the future and experiencing feelings of powerlessness or an inability to influence the situation. Their last moments were characterised by a greater preoccupation with thoughts about death and finding ways to express farewells. This manifested itself in practical preparations and expressing gratitude to people, which was understood by the nurses as a way of saying goodbye. This study shows that it is possible for skilled staff to develop an understanding of a suicidal patient’s internal state and to recognise the non-verbal messages of someone who later committed suicide. The knowledge of how patients prepare and act before suicide could be used to complement a structural suicide risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Phenomenological Hermeneutics, Preparations for Suicide, Suicide Communication, Risk Assessment, Psychiatric Nursing
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73683 (URN)10.4236/psych.2019.101001 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Schückher, F., Sellin, T., Fahlke, C. & Engström, I. (2018). The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Age of Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women. European Addiction Research, 24(6), 278-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Age of Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women
2018 (English)In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is unclear whether exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with the age of onset of alcohol use disorder (AUD). A group of socially stable women with AUD seeking treatment (n = 75) were interviewed using the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. They also filled out the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-short form. Emotional abuse, sexual abuse and multiple childhood traumas were found to be associated with earlier onset of AUD. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that independent predictors for an earlier onset of AUD were exposure to emotional abuse (beta = -7.44, SE = 2.83, adjusted p = 0.010) and mother's alcohol/substance problems (beta = -7.87, SE = 3.45, adjusted p = 0.026). These variables explained 18.9% of the variance of age of onset of AUD. These findings highlight a need for increased clinical attention to AUD subgroups who have experienced childhood maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, as well as a need for including support in the patient's own parental role in the treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Age of onset, Alcohol use disorder, Childhood maltreatment, Mother’s alcohol/substance problems
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72004 (URN)10.1159/000494766 (DOI)000456650200002 ()30448841 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057010272 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Sweden

Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Schückher, F., Sellin, T., Fahlke, C. & Engström, I. (2018). The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Onset Age of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women Seeking Treatment. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 Annual Meeting, American Psychiatric Association, New York, NY, USA, 5-9 May, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Onset Age of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women Seeking Treatment
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73847 (URN)
Conference
2018 Annual Meeting, American Psychiatric Association, New York, NY, USA, 5-9 May, 2018
Available from: 2019-04-17 Created: 2019-04-17 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Pettersen, G., Wallin, K. & Björk, T. (2016). How do males recover from eating disorders?: An interview study. BMJ Open, 6(8), Article ID e010760.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do males recover from eating disorders?: An interview study
2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e010760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate what males experience as helpful in their recovery process from eating disorders (ED).

Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews within a phenomenological approach, and using content analysis to excavate overarching text themes.

Setting: Norway and Sweden.

Participants: Included were 15 males with an age range from 19 to 52 years. Duration of illness varied between 3 and 25 years of experience with anorexia nervosa (n=10), bulimia nervosa (n=4) or ED not otherwise specified (n=1).

Results: The content analysis revealed four main categories, that is, 'the need for a change', 'a commitment to leave the eating disorder behind', 'interpersonal changes' and 'searching for a life without an eating disorder'. These categories comprise features like motivation to change, gaining structure in eating situations, a re-learning of personal and interpersonal skills as well as accepting losses and starting a reorientation of identity and meaning. We noted a rather goal-oriented approach to help seeking and a variation in how the males engaged their social network in resolving the challenges associated with the recovery process. Still, the overall nature of the recovery process highly accords with what has been reported for women.

Discussion: A clinical implication from our findings is that symptom relief is important to facilitate good circles of improvement, but that the nature of the recovery process would require a wider perspective in treatment. Clinicians may also be informed about challenges related to an instrumental approach to help seeking reported in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2016
National Category
Psychiatry General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51668 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010760 (DOI)000382336700116 ()27515747 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Wallin, K., Pettersen, G., Björk, T. & Råstam, M. (2014). A Qualitative Study of Males' Perceptions about Causes of Eating Disorder. Psychology, 5(15), 1813-1820
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Qualitative Study of Males' Perceptions about Causes of Eating Disorder
2014 (English)In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, Vol. 5, no 15, p. 1813-1820Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our knowledge about males’ perceptions about causes of eating disorder is very limited, but can be useful in the treatment planning for males. The aim of this study was to describe how male former patients perceived causes of onset of their eating disorder. Fifteen males previously treated for eating disorders and now considering themselves as recovered where interviewed at ages 19 - 52. All interviews were recorded and analyzed qualitatively using a phenomenographic approach. Three categories of perceived causes of onset of eating disorders were found. The first category: self-dissatisfaction, was presented with three conceptions: “High achievements and demands”, “Body-dissatisfaction” and “Low self-esteem”. The second category: family environment, comprised the two conceptions: “Difficulty in family interaction and communication” and “Excessive expectations from family members”. The third category was stressful events outside the family, and consisted of the three conceptions: “Bullying, bad situation at school”, “Moving to new places/separation from friends” and “Societal ideals”. Males’ perceptions of causes of onset of their eating disorder were in many aspects similar to those earlier described for women. In treatment, it is important that the clinicians show a sincere interest in perceived causes, since it may facilitate a good working alliance with the patient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2014
Keywords
Eating Disorders, Males, Causes, Qualitative
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44483 (URN)10.4236/psych.2014.515187 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Björk, T., Skårberg, K. & Engström, I. (2013). Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males: similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 8(30), 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males: similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms
2013 (English)In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 8, no 30, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms.

Methods: This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List.

Results: The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image.

Conclusions: The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed.

Keywords
Male eating disorders, Anabolic androgenic steroids, Self-image, Psychiatric symptoms
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30787 (URN)10.1186/1747-597X-8-30 (DOI)000323320200001 ()
Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Schröder, A. & Björk, T. (2013). Patients' judgements of quality of care in psychiatric observation and intensive inpatient care. Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care, 9(2), 91-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients' judgements of quality of care in psychiatric observation and intensive inpatient care
2013 (English)In: Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care, ISSN 1742-6464, E-ISSN 1744-2206, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44484 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Björk, T., de Santi, M. G. & Kjellin, L. (2012). Criminal recidivism and mortality among patients discharged from a forensic medium secure hospital. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 66(4), 283-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criminal recidivism and mortality among patients discharged from a forensic medium secure hospital
2012 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 283-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: One of the goals in forensic psychiatric care is to reduce the risk of recidivism, but current knowledge about the general outcome of forensic psychiatric treatment is limited.

Aims: To analyse the rate of criminal recidivism and mortality after discharge in a sample of patients sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment in a Swedish county.

Methods: All offenders in Örebro County, Sweden, sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment and discharged during 1992-2007 were included: 80 males and eight females. Follow-up data was retrieved from the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, the National Cause-of-Death register and clinical files. Mean follow-up time was 9.4 years.

Results: The mean age at discharge was 40 years. Schizophrenia, other psychoses and personality disorders were the most prevalent diagnoses. Thirty-eight percent of those still alive and still living in the country re-offended and were sentenced to a new period of forensic psychiatric treatment or incarceration during follow-up. Four male re-offenders committed serious violent crimes. Substance-related diagnosis was significantly associated with risk of recidivism and after adjustment for diagnoses, age and history of serious violent crime, the Hazard Ratio was 4.04 (95% CI 1.51-10.86, P = 0.006). Of all included patients, 23% had died at the end of follow-up (standardized mortality rate 10.4).

Conclusions: Since repetition of serious violent crimes was unusual, results indicate a positive development subsequent to treatment for those alive at follow-up.

Clinical implications: The high mortality rate suggests that more attention should be paid in evaluation of the patients' somatic and psychiatric health during and after care in order to prevent premature death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: Informa Healthcare, 2012
Keywords
Forensic psychiatric treatment, Mortality, Recidivism
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44482 (URN)10.3109/08039488.2011.644578 (DOI)000308413100009 ()22212020 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Björk, T., Brus, O., Osika, W. & Montgomery, S. M. (2012). Laterality, hand control and scholastic performance: a British birth cohort study. BMJ Open, 2(2), Article ID e000314.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laterality, hand control and scholastic performance: a British birth cohort study
2012 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 2, article id e000314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To use simple measures of laterality and hand control that can identify a greater risk of poorer scholastic ability, potentially signalling suboptimal hemispheric lateralisation.

Design: Analysis of material from a birth cohort study.

Setting: Members of the National Child Development Study, a British birth cohort study following people born in 1958.

Participants: 10 612 children who undertook tests at age 11 years.

Primary outcome measures: Teacher-administered tests of non-verbal general ability, verbal general ability, reading comprehension and mathematics.

Results: Linear regression produced associations (and 95% CIs) with tests of verbal general ability, non-verbal general ability, reading comprehension and mathematics scores for the lowest third (compared with highest) of a left-hand control test involving picking up matches of -1.21 (-1.73 to -0.68; p<0.001), -0.72 (-1.14 to -0.29; p=0.001), -0.70 (-1.06 to -0.35; p<0.001) and -1.32 (-1.90 to -0.73; p<0.001). Among those in the lowest third of the right-hand control test score, mixed-handedness compared with right-handedness was associated with poorer scholastic performance, with regression coefficients (and 95% CIs; p values) of 1.90 (-3.01 to -0.80; p=0.001), -1.25 (-2.15 to -0.35; p=0.007), -1.28 (2.04 to -0.53; p=0.001) and -1.33 (-2.53 to -0.13; p=0.030). The estimates are for a point change in the scholastic test scores, after adjustment for sex, left-hand motor function and social class. Statistically significant associations with mixed-handedness were only observed for the lowest third of right-hand motor function.

Conclusions: Measures involving poorer left-hand motor function may represent useful markers of reduced cognitive function possibly reflecting suboptimal hemispheric lateralisation. Crude measures of laterality such as reported non-right-handedness may be more useful for research when combined with measures of motor function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Neurology
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25563 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000314 (DOI)000315042100005 ()22446987 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84860455081 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Björk, T., Wallin, K. & Pettersen, G. (2012). Male experiences of life after recovery from an eating disorder. Eating Disorders, 20(5), 460-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Male experiences of life after recovery from an eating disorder
2012 (English)In: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 460-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to describe how former male patients perceive life after recovery from an eating disorder. A qualitative method with a phenomenographic approach was used to identify ways of experiencing recovery. Two descriptive categories were developed: body acceptance and self-worth. Six conceptions describe how recovered patients now relate in a balanced way to exercise and food, using strategies to avoid relapse. With a sense of self-acceptance and autonomy, they now appreciate their social life. Some perceive recovery as coping with remaining impulses to diet or exercise. Others experience themselves as totally free from the eating disorder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44478 (URN)10.1080/10640266.2012.715529 (DOI)000208962800012 ()22985242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84866641747 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
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