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Karlsson, Christina
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Santti, K., Ihalainen, H., Rönty, M., Karlsson, C., Haglund, C., Sampo, M., . . . Blomqvist, C. (2019). Estrogen receptor beta expression correlates with proliferation in desmoid tumors. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 119(7), 873-879
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estrogen receptor beta expression correlates with proliferation in desmoid tumors
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0022-4790, E-ISSN 1096-9098, Vol. 119, no 7, p. 873-879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estrogen receptor signaling and cyclin D1 have a major role in tumor cell proliferation in breast cancer. Desmoid tumors are rare neoplasms that may respond to endocrine treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels and the clinical relevance of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and cyclin D1 in desmoid tumors.

METHODS: This study consists of 83 patients with a surgically treated desmoid tumor. ERβ and cyclin D1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays. Cyclin A and Ki67 were studied in our previous work.

RESULTS:  = 0.34, P = 0.004). ERβ immunoexpression showed a trend towards predictive impact for recurrence as a continuous variable. Further explorative analysis indicated that very high ERβ expression was related to high risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6; P = 0.02). Median cyclin D1 expression was 15.6%. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with high Ki67 and cyclin A expression. Cyclin D1 was not associated with time to recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS: ERβ and cyclin D1 immunopositivity correlated with high proliferation in desmoid tumors. High ERβ expression might be predictive for postoperative recurrence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Interscience Publishers, 2019
Keywords
Aggressive fibromatosis, biomarkers, cyclins, immunohistochemistry, steroid receptors
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72476 (URN)10.1002/jso.25407 (DOI)000476938900008 ()30742303 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061430442 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Sigrid Juseliuksen Saatio  

Finska Läkaresällskapet  

Medicinska Understödsforeningen Liv och Hälsa  

Helsinki University Hospital Research funds 

Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Hadgu, E., Seifu, D., Tigneh, W., Bokretsion, Y., Bekele, A., Abebe, M., . . . Karlsson, M. (2018). Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa. BMC Women's Health, 18(1), Article ID 40.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa
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2018 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa.

METHODS: In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases.

RESULTS: The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P < 0.05). There was a bimodal distribution of molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

CONCLUSION: The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and results from other East African studies suggest geographic variability in the distribution of the molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Africa and hence have important clinical and policy implications for breast cancer control and treatment in Ethiopia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Breast cancer; Molecular subtypes; Ethiopia; Africa
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65200 (URN)10.1186/s12905-018-0531-2 (DOI)000425159000001 ()29444670 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042084690 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Addis Ababa University, School of Graduate Studies  

Addis Ababa University, thematic research group "clinico-epidemiological characterization of breast cancer in Ethiopia"  

Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI)  

Swedish International Developmental Agency (SIDA) 

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Santti, K., Ihalainen, H., Rönty, M., Böhling, T., Karlsson, C., Haglund, C., . . . Blomqvist, C. (2018). High cyclin A expression, but not Ki67, is associated with early recurrence in desmoid tumors. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 118(1), 192-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High cyclin A expression, but not Ki67, is associated with early recurrence in desmoid tumors
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0022-4790, E-ISSN 1096-9098, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 192-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Desmoid tumors are soft-tissue tumors originating from myofibroblasts with a tendency to recur after surgery. High expression of proliferation markers is associated with shortened progression-free and/or overall survival in many neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas. We investigated the prognostic role of cyclin A and Ki67 in desmoid tumors by immunohistochemistry.

METHODS: The study included 76 patients with desmoid tumor operated at Helsinki University Hospital between 1987 and 2011. A tissue micro array (TMA) was constructed and the TMA sections were immunostained with cyclin A and Ki67 antibodies. A computer-assisted image analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Cyclin A expression was evaluable in 74 and Ki67 in 70 patients. Cyclin A immunopositivity varied from 0% to 9.9%, with a mean of 1.9%. Cyclin A expression correlated significantly with Ki67. Cyclin A expression was associated with recurrence-free survival (HR 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = .02), as were positive margin (HR 6.0, 95% CI = 1.6-22.5, P = .008) and extremity location (HR 5.3, 95% CI = 1.7-16.8, P = 0.005). Ki67 immunopositivity varied from 0.33% to 13.8%, with a mean of 4.6%, but had no significant prognostic impact (HR 1.1, P = .2).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that cyclin A may be a new prognostic biomarker in surgically treated desmoid tumors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Interscience Publishers, 2018
Keywords
Aggressive fibromatosis, biomarkers, cyclins, immunohistochemistry, prognostic factors
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67219 (URN)10.1002/jso.25121 (DOI)000444420200025 ()29878366 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053266145 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Helsinki University Hospital Research funds  

Medicinska Understödsforeningen Liv och Hälsa  

Finnish Society for Oncology  

Finska Läkaresallskapet  

Sigrid Juseliuksen Saatio 

Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, J. S. M., Brunnström, H., Jabs, V., Edlund, K., Jirström, K., Mindus, S., . . . Svensson, M. A. (2016). Inconsistent results in the analysis of ALK rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer, 16(1), Article ID 603.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inconsistent results in the analysis of ALK rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer
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2016 (English)In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 603Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Identification of targetable EML4-ALK fusion proteins has revolutionized the treatment of a minor subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is regarded as the gold standard for detection of ALK rearrangements, ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often used as screening tool in clinical practice. In order to unbiasedly analyze the diagnostic impact of such a screening strategy, we compared ALK IHC with ALK FISH in three large representative Swedish NSCLC cohorts incorporating clinical parameters and gene expression data.

Methods: ALK rearrangements were detected using FISH on tissue microarrays (TMAs), including tissue from 851 NSCLC patients. In parallel, ALK protein expression was detected using IHC, applying the antibody clone D5F3 with two different protocols (the FDA approved Ventana CDx assay and our in house Dako IHC protocol). Gene expression microarray data (Affymetrix) was available for 194 patients.

Results: ALK rearrangements were detected in 1.7 % in the complete cohort and 2.0 % in the non-squamous cell carcinoma subgroup. ALK protein expression was observed in 1.8 and 1.4 % when applying the Ventana assay or the in house Dako protocol, respectively. The specificity and accuracy of IHC was high (> 98 %), while the sensitivity was between 69 % (Ventana) and 62 % (in house Dako protocol). Furthermore, only 67 % of the ALK IHC positive cases were positive with both IHC assays. Gene expression analysis revealed that 6/194 (3 %) tumors showed high ALK gene expression (≥ 6 AU) and of them only three were positive by either FISH or IHC.

Conclusion: The overall frequency of ALK rearrangements based on FISH was lower than previously reported. The sensitivity of both IHC assays was low, and the concordance between the FISH and the IHC assays poor, questioning current strategies to screen with IHC prior to FISH or completely replace FISH by IHC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2016
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51613 (URN)10.1186/s12885-016-2646-x (DOI)000381219600002 ()27495736 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society
Note

Funding Agency:

Lions Cancer Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden

Regional Research Foundation of the Uppsala Örebro region RFR 556381

Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, J. S. M., Svensson, M. A., Hallström, B., Koyi, H., Branden, E., Brunnström, H., . . . Micke, P. (2015). ALK Rearrangements in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comprehensive Integration of Genomic, Gene Expression and Protein Analysis. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 10(9), S298-S298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ALK Rearrangements in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comprehensive Integration of Genomic, Gene Expression and Protein Analysis
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ISSN 1556-0864, E-ISSN 1556-1380, Vol. 10, no 9, p. S298-S298Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
NSCLC, ALK, IHC, Gene Expression
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49719 (URN)000370365101103 ()
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, J. S. M., Bergman, B., Grinberg, M., Edlund, K., Marincevic, M., Jirström, K., . . . Gulyas, M. (2015). Prognostic impact of COX-2 in non-small cell lung cancer: a comprehensive compartment-specific evaluation of tumor and stromal cell expression. Cancer Letters, 356(2), 837-845
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prognostic impact of COX-2 in non-small cell lung cancer: a comprehensive compartment-specific evaluation of tumor and stromal cell expression
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2015 (English)In: Cancer Letters, ISSN 0304-3835, E-ISSN 1872-7980, Vol. 356, no 2, p. 837-845Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that has been extensively investigated as a prognostic marker in cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previous results regarding the prognostic impact of COX-2 expression are inconsistent. Therefore we evaluated the association between transcript levels and overall survival in nine publicly available gene expression data sets (total n = 1337) and determined in situ compartment-specific tumor and stromal cell protein expression in two independent cohorts (n = 616). Gene expression did not show any correlation with clinical parameters or with overall survival. Protein expression in tumor and stromal cells did not correlate with any clinical parameter or with overall survival in one of the analyzed cohorts, while a significant association of high stromal expression with longer survival was observed in both univariate and multivariate analysis in the other cohort. Stromal expression of COX-2 has not been separately evaluated in NSCLC previously and may be a subject of further investigation, whereas the presented findings from this comprehensive compartment specific evaluation clearly reject the hypothesis of COX-2 tumor cell expression having a prognostic value in NSCLC. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Cyclooxygenase 2, Lung cancer, PTGS2, Microarray, Prognosis, Immunohistochemistry
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42800 (URN)10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.032 (DOI)000348005500057 ()25449785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84919444431 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society
Note

Funding Agencies:

Lions Cancer Foundation Uppsala

German Research Foundation (DFG) RA 870/4-1  RA 870/5-1

Available from: 2015-02-19 Created: 2015-02-19 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Stjernström, A., Karlsson, C., Fernandez, O. J., Söderkvist, P., Karlsson, M. G. & Thunell, L. K. (2014). Alterations of INPP4B, PIK3CA and pAkt of the PI3K pathway are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Medicine, 3(2), 337-348
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alterations of INPP4B, PIK3CA and pAkt of the PI3K pathway are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
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2014 (English)In: Cancer Medicine, ISSN 2045-7634, E-ISSN 2045-7634, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to investigate how alterations in the PI3K pathway correlate with non-small cell lung cancer subtypes squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) and adenocarcinoma (ADCA). We analyzed copy number variation and protein expression of INPP4B, protein expression of pAkt, PDPK1, and PTEN and mutational status of PIK3CA and PTEN in 180 cases. Nineteen% displayed loss of INPP4B copy, whereas 47% lacked expression, both showing correlation with SCC. Elevated pAkt expression was seen in 63% of all cases, also correlating to SCC. PDPK1 was expressed in 70%, more in male than female patients. Regarding PTEN, 50% displayed loss of expression, of which seven were identified with mutations in the phosphatase domain. We detected nine cases (5%) of PIK3CA mutations, all identified as the E545K hot spot mutation in the helical domain, all except one in SCC. When analyzing all PI3K pathway components together, we show that patients with at least one alteration in the PI3K pathway are twice as likely to have SCC, than ADCA. Interestingly, we also found a strong correlation between high pAkt expression and PTEN expression. As comparison, we also analyzed mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes, where we identified fifteen KRAS mutations (8%) and one BRAF mutation (1%), significantly associated to ADCA. No association was found to the Gly972Arg polymorphism of IRS-1, involved in activation of both PI3K and MAPK pathways. In conclusion, we show here that several components of the PI3K pathway, alone and in combination, are correlated to development of SCC of the lung.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
INPP4B, MAPK pathway, non-small cell lung cancer, PI3K, squamous cell carcinoma
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42804 (URN)10.1002/cam4.191 (DOI)000348220600013 ()24500884 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-19 Created: 2015-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Botling, J., Edlund, K., Lohr, M., Hellwig, B., Holmberg, L., Lambe, M. G., . . . Micke, P. (2013). Biomarker Discovery in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Integrating Gene Expression Profiling, Meta-analysis, and Tissue Microarray Validation. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(1), 194-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarker Discovery in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Integrating Gene Expression Profiling, Meta-analysis, and Tissue Microarray Validation
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2013 (English)In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Global gene expression profiling has been widely used in lung cancer research to identify clinically relevant molecular subtypes as well as to predict prognosis and therapy response. So far, the value of these multigene signatures in clinical practice is unclear, and the biologic importance of individual genes is difficult to assess, as the published signatures virtually do not overlap.

Experimental Design: Here, we describe a novel single institute cohort, including 196 non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) with clinical information and long-term follow-up. Gene expression array data were used as a training set to screen for single genes with prognostic impact. The top 450 probe sets identified using a univariate Cox regression model (significance level P < 0.01) were tested in a meta-analysis including five publicly available independent lung cancer cohorts (n = 860).

Results: The meta-analysis revealed 14 genes that were significantly associated with survival (P < 0.001) with a false discovery rate < 1%. The prognostic impact of one of these genes, the cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), was confirmed by use of immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 2 independent NSCLC cohorts, altogether including 617 NSCLC samples. Low CADM1 protein expression was significantly associated with shorter survival, with particular influence in the adenocarcinoma patient subgroup.

Conclusions: Using a novel NSCLC cohort together with a meta-analysis validation approach, we have identified a set of single genes with independent prognostic impact. One of these genes, CADM1, was further established as an immunohistochemical marker with a potential application in clinical diagnostics. Clin Cancer Res; 19(1); 194-204. (c) 2012 AACR.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38714 (URN)10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1139 (DOI)000313051100021 ()23032747 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84871959921 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies are:

Swedish Cancer Society  

Lions Cancer Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden  

German Research Foundation (DFG) RA 870/4-1, RA 870/5-1 

Astra Zeneca  

Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation 

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-11-18 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, C., Helenius, G., Fernandes, O. & Karlsson, M. G. (2012). Oestrogen receptor ss in NSCLC: prevalence, proliferative influence, prognostic impact and smoking. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), 120(6), 451-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oestrogen receptor ss in NSCLC: prevalence, proliferative influence, prognostic impact and smoking
2012 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 451-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) there are gender differences. The female gender is associated with more adenocarcinomas (ADCA), among both smokers and non-smokers compared to men. Women with NSCLC have a better prognosis compared to men, regardless of other factors. A possible role for oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling has been proposed. The role for ER beta in NSCLC is still not clear, especially concerning the impact of smoking. In a material of NSCLC (n = 262), ER beta and cyclins A1 and A2 were studied by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue. In 137 of those cases, frozen material was available, on which expression analysis of ESR2 (ER beta) and cyclin A1 were performed. Data were correlated to histology, gender, smoking habits, stage and clinical outcome. ER beta was expressed in 86% of the cases. ER beta was most frequently expressed in Stage I ADCAs, especially in male subjects. A correlation between ER beta expression and cyclins was observed in ADCA, also with a male predominance. ER beta transcripts had a positive prognostic impact in ADCA. ER beta transcripts were increased in NSCLC among smokers compared to non-smokers. In conclusion, our data support a role for ER beta in lung ADCAs, proposing a role for ER beta in lungcarcinogenesis, especially among smokers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Keywords
NSCLC, ER ss, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, gender, prognosis, smoking habits
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Immunology
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23051 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0463.2011.02850.x (DOI)000303978500003 ()22583357 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84861012859 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-05-31 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, C. (2011). Biomarkers in non-small cell lung carcinoma: methodological aspects and influence of gender, histology and smoking habits on estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor family receptor signalling. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers in non-small cell lung carcinoma: methodological aspects and influence of gender, histology and smoking habits on estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor family receptor signalling
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Non-small cell lung carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. There are gender and smoking associated differences both in tumour types and clinical outcome. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are more frequent among smoking men while females develop adenocarcinomas (ADCA). NSCLC among never smokers are mainly ADCA, and occurs mostly in females. The present thesis elucidates the role of estrogen receptor (ER) and epidermal growth factor receptor family (EGFR/HER2-4) in NSCLC in the perspective of gender and histology as well as the influence of smoking on those biomarkers.

A recently developed technique, tissue micro array (TMA), was employed.The question of how much of a tumour tissue that needed to be included in a TMA for biomarker analysis was analyzed by a statistical approach. Data indicates a sample size of three cylinders of tumour tissue with a diameter of 0.6 mm each as being appropriate and cost-effective. In order to optimally use the up to thousands of different tumour samples within a TMA, it would be optimal to serially cut and store slides before performing in situ detection of proteins and nucleic acids. Applying up to date methodology, and by evaluation with image analysis, data are presented that shows that such handling of TMA slides would be possible without any loss of biomarker information.

ERα is more frequently observed in ADCA and in females and a local estradiol synthesis is supported by the presence of aromatase. ERβ is identified as a positive prognostic marker in ADCA. Smoking is associated to increased levels of ERβ mRNA. EGFR over expression is associated with a ligand. Independent phosporylation of ERα. HER-4 intracellular domain may also act as a co-activator to ERα in ADCA, especially among neversmokers. The question of ER and EGFR family signalling crosstalk as a potential target for combined targeted therapy is raised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 86
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 61
Keywords
Non-small cell lung carcinoma, estrogen receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, HER-4, tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry, smoking habits, in situ hybridisation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-19725 (URN)978-91-7668-827-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-25, Hörsal P1, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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