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Ångström, A.-K., Andersson, A., Garcia-Argibay, M., Chang, Z., Lichtenstein, P., D’Onofrio, B. M., . . . Larsson, H. (2024). Criminal convictions in males and females diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A Swedish national registry study. Paper presented at 2024/01/26. JCPP Advances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criminal convictions in males and females diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A Swedish national registry study
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2024 (English)In: JCPP Advances, E-ISSN 2692-9384Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) face an elevated risk of criminal convictions compared to those without ADHD. However, understanding this link involves considering sex differences, coexisting psychiatric conditions, and unmeasured familial factors. This study aimed to explore the connection between ADHD and criminal convictions (both violent and non-violent) in males and females, while also assessing the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders and familial factors.

Methods: Using Swedish national registers, we identified individuals born between 1986 and 1997 (635,391 males and 600,548 females). ADHD was defined through clinical diagnosis and prescribed medications, while criminal convictions were determined based on Swedish lower court records. Unmeasured familial factors were accounted for using a sibling design approach.

Results: Findings revealed that individuals with ADHD had a notably higher absolute and relative risk of both violent and non-violent criminal convictions compared to those without ADHD. While criminal convictions were more frequent among males with ADHD, females with ADHD exhibited higher relative risks (HR violent 10.50, non-violent 4.04) than their male counterparts (HR violent 6.03, non-violent 3.57). Additionally, lower socioeconomic status (SES) in individuals with ADHD was associated with increased relative risks for criminal convictions compared to individuals with ADHD who had higher SES. Adjusting for childhood and internalizing psychiatric disorders partially attenuated these associations, while substance use disorders (SUD) substantially attenuated them. SUD also contributed to an elevated absolute risk of criminal convictions in both male and female individuals with ADHD. Accounting for unmeasured shared familial factors slightly reduced the estimates, but the association between ADHD and criminal convictions persisted.

Conclusion: In conclusion, ADHD remains a potent independent risk factor for criminal convictions, with varying effects based on gender. This underscores the importance of tailored crime prevention strategies and early interventions for individuals with ADHD, especially when comorbid SUD is present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
ADHD, non-violent crime, violent crime
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-111054 (URN)10.1002/jcv2.12217 (DOI)
Conference
2024/01/26
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-02599
Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-02-12Bibliographically approved
Oskarsson, S., Bertoldi, B., Andersson, A., Siponen, R., Ling, S., Raine, A., . . . Tuvblad, C. (2024). Interaction of resting heart rate with empathy in predicting externalizing behavior. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction of resting heart rate with empathy in predicting externalizing behavior
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Biopsychosocial criminological theories suggest that it is important to consider interactions between risk factors from different domains in the prediction of externalizing behavior. Lower resting heart rate is considered the best replicated biological risk factor for externalizing behavior. The psychological construct of empathy has also shown to be predictive of such behavior, but little is known about the potential interaction between these two different risk factors in predicting externalizing behavior. We examined the moderating role of empathy on the association between resting heart rate in childhood and adolescence with externalizing behavior by young adulthood using two subsets of participants from the Longitudinal Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior project: Subsample 1 (n = 697) at ages 9–10 and 19–20 years and Subsample 2 (n = 394) at ages 14–15 and 19–20 years. Linear and logistic regressions showed that empathy moderated the association between resting heart rate in adolescence and externalizing behavior by young adulthood. Among individuals with low but not high levels of empathy, increased resting heart rate predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior. Interventions enhancing empathic skills in individuals with psychophysiological risk profiles could be beneficial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Externalizing behavior, Resting heart rate, Interaction, Biopsychosocial criminology
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-111612 (URN)10.1007/s10862-024-10123-6 (DOI)001162098400001 ()
Funder
Örebro UniversityEU, Horizon 2020, 101,030,22Swedish Research Council, 2018−01041
Available from: 2024-02-15 Created: 2024-02-15 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
Chan, E. S. M., Perkins, E. R., Bertoldi, B. M., Lowman, K. L., Soto, E. F., Tuvblad, C., . . . Patrick, C. J. (2024). Triarchic traits as risk versus protective factors for ADHD symptomatology: A prospective longitudinal investigation. Development and psychopathology (Print), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Triarchic traits as risk versus protective factors for ADHD symptomatology: A prospective longitudinal investigation
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2024 (English)In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with myriad adverse outcomes, including interpersonal difficulties, but factors that moderate the developmental course and functional impact of ADHD over time are not well understood. The present study evaluated developmental contributions of the triarchic neurobehavioral traits (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) to ADHD symptomatology and its subdimensions from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were twins and triplets assessed at ages 14, 17, and 19 (initial N = 1,185, 51.2% female). Path analyses using negative binomial regression revealed that boldness at age 14 was associated with more ADHD symptoms cross-sectionally (especially hyperactivity/impulsivity), but fewer symptoms (especially inattention) at age 19 in the prospective analysis. Notably, inclusion of interpersonal problems at ages 14 and 17 as covariates reduced the latter effect to nonsignificant. Disinhibition concurrently and prospectively predicted higher levels of ADHD symptoms, including both subdimensions, and the prospective effects were partially mediated by greater social impairment at age 17. Meanness prospectively (but not concurrently) predicted higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Sex moderated certain associations of meanness and disinhibition with ADHD symptoms. These findings highlight how fundamental neurobehavioral traits shape both psychopathology and adaptive outcomes in the developmental course of ADHD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2024
Keywords
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental psychopathology, positive youth development, protective factor, triarchic model
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-111041 (URN)10.1017/S0954579423001608 (DOI)001147012400001 ()38247365 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-01041
Note

The work reported in this article was supported by the Swedish Research Council (CT, 2018-01041), National Institute of Mental Health grant (ERP, F31MH122096), U.S. Army grant (CJP, W911NF-14-1-0018), and a MindCORE postdoctoral fellowship from the University of Pennsylvania (ERP).

Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
Siponen, R., Andersson, A., Oskarsson, S., Garcia-Argibay, M., Beckley, A. L., Långström, N., . . . Tuvblad, C. (2023). A population-based study of unintentional injury and premature death among non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders. Journal of criminal justice, 84, Article ID 102009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A population-based study of unintentional injury and premature death among non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders
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2023 (English)In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 84, article id 102009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Youth offenders have a high risk of being injured or dying prematurely. However, few studies have considered the role of imprisonment and potential childhood risk factors for these high rates.

Aim: To examine the risk of unintentional injury and premature death in non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders, and to examine the role of parental criminal convictions and psychiatric disorders and own childhood psychiatric disorders.

Methods: All individuals (N = 1,839,711) born in Sweden between 1978 and 1996 were identified using Swedish population-based registers. The exposure was criminal conviction between ages 15-20 years of age.

Results: Imprisoned youth offenders had the highest risk for unintentional injury (HR = 2.29 [2.19-2.40]) and premature death (HR = 10.76 [9.52-12.16]), followed by nonimprisoned youth offenders, compared to non -convicted youth. All childhood risk factors increased the risk for these outcomes among non-imprisoned youth offenders. Among imprisoned youth offenders, parental criminal convictions and parental psychiatric disorders increased the risk for unintentional injury, and parental psychiatric disorders and own childhood psychiatric disorders increased the risk for premature death.

Conclusions: Our study shows there are robust modifiable childhood risk factors for injury and mortality among youth offenders. However, the importance of them to assess risk may differ between non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Youth offenders, Imprisonment, Unintentional injuries, Premature death, Psychiatric disorders, Family history, Risk factors
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-102913 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2022.102009 (DOI)000893157900001 ()2-s2.0-85143781463 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-01041Swedish Research Council, 2021–02105
Available from: 2023-01-05 Created: 2023-01-05 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Oskarsson, S., Garcia-Argibay, M., Andersson, A., Kuja-Halkola, R., Latvala, A., D'Onofrio, B. M., . . . Tuvblad, C. (2023). Adverse perinatal events and offspring criminal convictions in men and women: A population-based study. In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts. Paper presented at Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, June 12-14, 2023 (pp. 33-33).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse perinatal events and offspring criminal convictions in men and women: A population-based study
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2023 (English)In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts, 2023, p. 33-33Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: We examined associations of adverse perinatal events with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions in men and women.

Methods: All singleton births between 1973 and 1995 (n = 1,146,570 men, n = 1,085,217 women) were identified through Swedish population-based registers. Information about adverse perinatal events was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Outcomes were criminal convictions collected from the National Crime Register. We estimated absolute and relative risks of being convicted of criminal convictions using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival analyses for men and women separately. We also tested for differences in magnitudes of associations for men versus women.

Results: Several adverse perinatal events were associated with an increased risk of violent and non–violent criminal convictions in both men and women. Associations between low birth weight, small nessrelative to gestational age and preterm birth with non–violent criminal convictions were statistically significantly higher for men than for women. There was a dose–dependent association between adverse perinatal events with violent and non–violent criminal convictions for both men and women, indicated by the strengthened magnitude of HR estimates with exposure to an increasing number of adverse perinatal events.

Conclusions: Adverse perinatal events are associated with violent and non-violent criminal convictions in men and women, with some differences in risk estimates between sexes. Findings are compatible with theoretical accounts implicating disruption of the neurodevelopment during the perinatal period.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-106274 (URN)
Conference
Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, June 12-14, 2023
Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Garcia-Argibay, M., Viktorin, A., Ghirardi, L., Butwicka, A., Skoglund, C., . . . Larsson, H. (2023). Depression and anxiety disorders during the postpartum period in women diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 325, 817-823
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depression and anxiety disorders during the postpartum period in women diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 325, p. 817-823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk of poor mental health. However, the understanding of ADHD-related burden and impairments in women during the postpartum period is limited. The aim with the present study was to examine the risk of depression and anxiety disorders during the postpartum period among women with and without an ADHD diagnosis.

METHODS: We used register-based data to identify women who gave birth to their first and/or second child between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden (n = 773,047), of which 0.5 % (n = 3515) had a diagnosis of ADHD prior to pregnancy. Diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders up to one year after delivery were collected from the national patient register.

RESULTS: A total of 16.76 % of the women with an ADHD diagnosis were also diagnosed with depression disorders in the postpartum period, prevalence ratio (PR) 5.09 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 4.68-5.54). A total of 24.92 % of the women with an ADHD diagnosis were also diagnosed with anxiety disorders in the postpartum period, PR 5.41 (5.06-5.78). Stratified results revealed that having a diagnosis of ADHD increased the risk for both depression and anxiety disorders postpartum, beyond other well-known risk factors.

LIMITATIONS: There is a potential risk of surveillance bias as women diagnosed with ADHD are more likely to have repeated visits to psychiatric care and might have an enhanced likelihood of also being diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders postpartum, compared to women without ADHD.

CONCLUSIONS: ADHD is an important risk factor for both depression and anxiety disorders postpartum. Therefore, ADHD needs to be considered in the maternal care, regardless of sociodemographic factors and the presence of other psychiatric disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Postpartum
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-103313 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.069 (DOI)000994361000001 ()36681302 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147274147 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-02679 2018-02599 2018-01041The Swedish Brain Foundation, FO2021-0115Region Stockholm, 2018-0718
Available from: 2023-01-25 Created: 2023-01-25 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Isakovic, B., Bertoldi, B., Tuvblad, C., Cucurachi, S., Raine, A., Baker, L., . . . Evans, B. (2023). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during adolescence in relation to psychopathic personality traits later in life. Acta Psychologica, 241, Article ID 104055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during adolescence in relation to psychopathic personality traits later in life
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2023 (English)In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 241, article id 104055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psychopathic personality traits have been linked to low physiological arousal, particularly among high risk and forensic samples. A core indicator of physiological arousal is the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, findings of a link between HPA axis functioning and psychopathic personality traits have been inconsistent. Furthermore, given sex differences in both HPA axis responsivity and psychopathic personality traits, the association may be expected to differ between men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence and psychopathic personality traits in early adulthood and determine whether the association was moderated by sex. We examined this link in a general population sample of twins (N = 556). Adolescents participated in a psychosocial stress task during which samples of salivary cortisol were collected (11-15 years) and reported psychopathic personality traits using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (19-20 years). Multilevel linear regression models were estimated in which psychopathic personality traits (boldness, meanness and disinhibition), and their interactions with sex, were regressed on HPA axis responsivity. The study was pre-registered on the Open Science Framework (osf.io/gs2a8). Preliminary analyses showed that cortisol levels did not increase significantly during the stressor task but decreased during recovery. Results showed that there was no association between HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence and psychopathic personality traits in early adulthood. The associations were not moderated by sex. Findings suggest that HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence did not serve as a biological marker for psychopathic personality traits among young adults from the general population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adolescence, HPA axis, Psychopathic personality traits, Reactivity, Recovery, Salivary cortisol
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109362 (URN)10.1016/j.actpsy.2023.104055 (DOI)001108157200001 ()37866039 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174456506 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2021-02105 2018-01041EU, Horizon 2020, 101030220
Available from: 2023-10-23 Created: 2023-10-23 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Siponen, R., Andersson, A., Oskarsson, S., Ångström, A.-K., Beckley, A. L., Fazel, S., . . . Tuvblad, C. (2023). Psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in youth: A population-based study of comorbidities of diagnoses. Journal of criminal justice, 88, Article ID 102114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in youth: A population-based study of comorbidities of diagnoses
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2023 (English)In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 88, article id 102114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Psychiatric diagnoses are important risk factors for criminal convictions, but few longitudinal studies have examined comorbidity patterns in relation to youth criminal convictions.

Aim: To explore associations between specific psychiatric diagnoses (substance use disorder (SUD), ADHD, depression, PTSD, intellectual disabilities (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)) and comorbidities of internalizing, externalizing, or neurodevelopmental diagnoses (NDD) in relation to risk of non-violent or violent criminal convictions in youth, including potential sex differences.

Methods: Data on 1,411,538 individuals born in Sweden (1985–1998) were obtained from national population-based registers. Exposure was psychiatric diagnoses and outcome was criminal convictions between ages 15 and 20.

Results: 17% of individuals had a psychiatric diagnosis, of whom 20% were convicted of a crime. All diagnoses, except ID and ASD, increased the risk of non-violent and violent crimes. Comorbidities of externalizing and internalizing diagnoses heightened the risk compared to single diagnoses. NDD increased the risk among SUD, depression, and PTSD, while NDD comorbid with another NDD decreased the risk for criminal convictions.

Conclusion: Of the three comorbidity categories, externalizing disorders heightened risk the most, followed by internalizing disorders. This study highlights specific risk patterns for criminal convictions related to comorbidities, and to crime type and sex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Psychiatric diagnoses, Comorbidities of diagnoses, Criminal convictions in youth, Substance use disorders, Sex differences, Youth offenders
National Category
Law and Society Psychiatry
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108354 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2023.102114 (DOI)001081514900001 ()2-s2.0-85171774297 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2021–02105 2018–01041
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Oskarsson, S., Bertoldi, B., Andersson, A., Siponen, R., Ling, S., Evans, B., . . . Tuvblad, C. (2023). Resting Heart Rate and Empathy Interacts in Predicting Law Enforcement Involvement. In: : . Paper presented at 78th Annual Meeting American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, November 15-18, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resting Heart Rate and Empathy Interacts in Predicting Law Enforcement Involvement
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lower resting heart rate and lower levels of empathy have independently been associated with an increased risk of antisocial behavior. However, little is known about the potential interaction between resting heart rate and empathy in predicting antisocial behavior. The aim of the current project was to examine the moderating role of empathy in young adulthood on the association between resting heart rate in childhood and antisocial behavior in young adulthood. We utilized two subsamples from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Project (n=707, n=616), a longitudinal project with data from five waves. Resting heart rate was measured using disposable electrodes attached to the torso. Empathy was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index with four subscales. Antisocial behavior was defined as law enforcement involvement. After adjusting for potential confounds, results suggest that lower resting heart rate in childhood and lower empathy in young adulthood predict antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Most importantly, empathy in young adulthood moderated the association between resting heart rate in childhood and antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Results indicate that at lower levels of empathy, a lower resting heart rate was associated with increased probability of being in trouble with the police.

National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109897 (URN)
Conference
78th Annual Meeting American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, November 15-18, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Bertoldi, B. M., Tuvblad, C., Joyner, K. J., Ganley, C., Raine, A., Baker, L., . . . Patrick, C. J. (2023). Role of Triarchic Traits in Relations of Early Resting Heart Rate With Antisocial Behavior and Broad Psychopathology Dimensions in Later Life. Clinical Psychological Science, 11(1), 90-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of Triarchic Traits in Relations of Early Resting Heart Rate With Antisocial Behavior and Broad Psychopathology Dimensions in Later Life
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2023 (English)In: Clinical Psychological Science, ISSN 2167-7026, E-ISSN 2167-7034, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 90-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low resting heart rate (HR) is a known risk indicator for the development of antisocial behavior (ASB) and other clinical problems. Stimulation seeking and fearlessness have been explored as factors underlying the HR/ASB relationship, but these have often been conflated, which has complicated interpretation. We examined HR's associations with ASB and other outcomes in terms of biobehavioral traits described by the triarchic model of psychopathy using data (N = 710) from a longitudinal study of ASB risk. Low resting HR in childhood was related to adult ASB, and covariance between ASB and traits of disinhibition and boldness largely accounted for this association. In addition, low childhood HR was related to greater externalizing problems and fewer internalizing problems in adulthood; disinhibition accounted for the former association, and boldness accounted for the latter. Findings indicate a role for both disinhibition and boldness in associations between early HR and later clinical outcomes and have implications for theory and practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
heart rate, antisocial behavior, externalizing, internalizing, triarchic model
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-100823 (URN)10.1177/21677026221081880 (DOI)000837804200001 ()2-s2.0-85135775542 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-24 Created: 2022-08-24 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8768-6954

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