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Westberg, Håkan
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Landberg, H. E., Hedmer, M., Westberg, H. & Tinnerberg, H. (2019). Evaluating the Risk Assessment Approach of the REACH Legislation: A Case Study. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 63(1), 68-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the Risk Assessment Approach of the REACH Legislation: A Case Study
2019 (English)In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 68-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Risk assessments based on occupational exposure to chemicals have increased since REACH (European regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and restriction of Chemicals) came into force. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) recommends that chemical exposure could be calculated using exposure models and that parameters used to calculate the exposure scenario (ES) should be communicated in extended safety data sheets (e-SDS) as workplace instructions which downstream users are obligated to follow. We aimed to evaluate REACH's risk assessment approach using the Stoffenmanager((R)) 6.1, the Advanced REACH Tool 1.5 (ART), and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals' targeted risk assessment (ECETOC TRA 3.1) exposure models. We observed 239 scenarios in three companies handling chemicals using 45 e-SDS. Risk characterization ratios (RCRs) were calculated by dividing estimated exposures by derived no-effect levels (DNELs). Observed RCRs were much lower than registered RCRs, indicating lower exposures. However, about 12% of the observed ES still had RCRs > 1, after adjustment for control measures and personal protections described in the ES, when using Stoffenmanager((R)). The ES with observed RCRs > 1 were the same by Stoffenmanager((R)) and ART, but not by ECETOC TRA. Stoffenmanager and ART identified 25 adjusted scenarios with RCR > 1, while ECETOC TRA gave RCR < 1 for the same scenarios. The ES with RCR > 1 were significantly associated to chemicals with higher vapour pressure and lower DNELs than ES with RCR < 1 by Stoffenmanager((R)). The correlations between observed and registered RCRs were lower than those between RCRs calculated from the different models themselves; ECETOC TRA had the lowest correlation with the registered ES. These results put in question the generic ES recommended under the REACH legislation. Downstream users may get better estimates by assessing their own ES, especially for chemicals with low DNELs and high vapour pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
exposure assessment, exposure assessment models, exposure scenarios, occupational hygiene, occupational exposure, REACH, risk assessment, risk characterization ratio
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73616 (URN)10.1093/annweh/wxy090 (DOI)000462549000007 ()30371750 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059503597 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0228_ForteAFA Insurance, 100127
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Westberg, H., Hedbrant, A., Persson, A., Bryngelsson, I.-L., Johansson, A., Ericsson, A., . . . Andersson, L. (2019). Inflammatory and coagulatory markers and exposure to different size fractions of particle mass, number and surface area air concentrations in Swedish iron foundries, in particular respirable quartz. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammatory and coagulatory markers and exposure to different size fractions of particle mass, number and surface area air concentrations in Swedish iron foundries, in particular respirable quartz
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2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and quartz in Swedish iron foundries and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood.

METHODS: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Stationary measurements were used to study the concentrations of respirable dust and quartz, inhalable and total dust, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, namely interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12), C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in plasma or serum, together with markers of coagulation including fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor and D-dimer. Complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work-free weekend, and follow-up samples were collected 2 days later. A mixed model analysis was performed including sex, age, smoking, infections, blood group, sampling day and BMI as covariates.

RESULTS: The average 8-h time-weighted average air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 mg/m3 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. Participants in high-exposure groups with respect to some of the measured particle types exhibited significantly elevated levels of SAA, fibrinogen and FVIII.

CONCLUSIONS: These observed relationships between particle exposure and inflammatory markers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among foundry workers with high particulate exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Inflammatory markers, Iron foundries, Particle mass, Particle number, Particle surface area, Respirable quartz
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Biomedicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76003 (URN)10.1007/s00420-019-01446-z (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-0802Knowledge Foundation, 20150036
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Westerlund, J., Bryngelsson, I.-L., Löfstedt, H., Eriksson, K., Westberg, H. & Graff, P. (2019). Occupational exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes: adverse health effects among personnel in habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pools. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 16(1), 78-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes: adverse health effects among personnel in habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pools
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Personnel in swimming pool facilities typically experience ocular, nasal, and respiratory symptoms due to water chlorination and consequent exposure to disinfection by-products in the air. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) from the perspective of adverse health effects on the personnel at Swedish habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pools. The study included ten habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pool facilities in nine Swedish cities. The study population comprised 24 exposed swimming pool workers and 50 unexposed office workers. Personal and stationary measurements of trichloramine and trihalomethanes in air were performed at all the facilities. Questionnaires were distributed to exposed workers and referents. Spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Personal and stationary measurements yielded trichloramine levels of 1-76 µg/m3 (average: 19 µg/m3) and 1-140 µg/m3 (average: 23 µg/m3), respectively. A slightly higher, but not significant, prevalence of reported eye- and throat-related symptoms occurred among the exposed workers than among the referents. A significantly increased risk of at least one ocular symptom was attributed to trichloramine exposure above the median (20 µg/m3). Lung function (FVC and FEV1) was in the normal range according to the Swedish reference materials, and no significant change in lung function before and after shift could be established between the groups. Average FENO values were in the normal range in both groups, but the difference in the values between the exposed workers and referents showed a significant increase after shift. Hourly registered PEF values during the day of the investigation did not show any unusual individual variability. In conclusion, the increased risk of developing at least one ocular symptom at personal trichloramine concentrations over 20 µg/m3 combined with an increase in the difference in FENO during the work shift of the exposed workers should not be neglected as an increased risk of respiratory inflammation in the habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pool environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Occupational exposure, respiratory symptoms, swimming pool, trichloramine, trihalomethanes
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69906 (URN)10.1080/15459624.2018.1536825 (DOI)000471113200011 ()30335595 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060177023 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-07-22Bibliographically approved
Alhamdow, A., Lindh, C., Hagberg, J., Graff, P., Westberg, H., Krais, A. M., . . . Broberg, K. (2018). DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Carcinogenesis, 39(7), 869-878
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
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2018 (English)In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 869-878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers (73.3%), but not chimney sweeps (76.6%) had lower methylation of F2RL3 cg03636183 than controls (76.7%). Linear regression analyses showed that chimney sweeps had lower AHRR cg05575921 methylation (B=-2.04; P<0.057, adjusted for smoking and age) and lower average AHRR methylation (B=-2.05; P<0.035), and non-smoking chimney sweeps had lower average F2RL3 methylation (B=-0.81; P<0.042, adjusted for age) compared with controls. These cancer-related markers were not associated with urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites. In conclusion, although we found no associations with PAH metabolites in urine (short-term exposure), our results suggest dose-response relationship between PAH exposure and DNA hypomethylation of lung cancer-related loci. These findings indicate that further protective measures should be taken to reduce PAH exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67021 (URN)10.1093/carcin/bgy059 (DOI)000438289600003 ()29722794 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-00402AFA Insurance, 120115The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Note

Funding Agency:

Medical Training and Research Agreement (ALF grants; Region Örebro län)  OLL-550721

Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Landberg, H. E., Westberg, H. & Tinnerberg, H. (2018). Evaluation of risk assessment approaches of occupational chemical exposures based on models in comparison with measurements. Safety Science, 109, 412-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of risk assessment approaches of occupational chemical exposures based on models in comparison with measurements
2018 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 109, p. 412-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Risk assessments of chemicals in work places are needed to protect workers' health and safety. Several different strategies can be used for conducting risk assessments. The aim of this study was to investigate approaches to risk assessment of chemicals based on exposure assessment models relative to occupational exposure limits values (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) and in comparison with measurements relative to OELs. A second aim was to evaluate the modelled recommended outcome and compare it with measurements of exposure. In this study, 29 situations were assessed with ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager (R) 5.1 and ART. Personal exposure measurements were also performed. The percentage of measured exposure exceeding the recommended output was calculated to investigate the level of conservatism. All the modelled exposures were compared with OELs and DNELs where possible, and the GM of the measured exposure was compared with OELs (risk quotas). For ECETOC TRA, 31% of measured exposure exceeded modelled exposure. For Stoffenmanager (R) it was 17% and for ART and ART B it was 3% and 0% respectively. Hence, according to our data, ECETOC TRA is the least conservative. An investigation of the risk quotas showed that ECETOC TRA had 4 false safe situations, meaning the risk was low when the model was used but was high when measurements were used. This may lead to underestimating risks. All models had an elevated proportion, ECETOC TRA and ART the highest, of false unsafe situations meaning the risk was low when measurements were used but high when models were used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68750 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2018.06.006 (DOI)000441491700040 ()2-s2.0-85049483563 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0228_ForteAFA Insurance, 100127
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Landberg, H. E., Axmon, A., Westberg, H. & Tinnerberg, H. (2017). A Study of the Validity of Two Exposure Assessment Tools: Stoffenmanager and the Advanced REACH Tool. Annals of work exposures and health, 61(5), 575-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study of the Validity of Two Exposure Assessment Tools: Stoffenmanager and the Advanced REACH Tool
2017 (English)In: Annals of work exposures and health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of exposure modelling tools for estimating chemical airborne exposure has increased since the European Union's REACH legislation for safe use of industrial chemicals came into force. Two tools that European Chemicals Agency recommends are Stoffenmanager® and the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of these two exposure modelling tools by comparing the lack of agreement between estimated and measured exposure. We examined the airborne chemical exposure at companies in seven different types of industries: wood, printing, foundry, spray painting, flour milling, chemical industry, and plastic moulding industry. The inhalable exposure of liquids or powders at two to three situations at each company was modelled with both tools and measured. To study the validity of the tools, the mean differences and precisions (lack of agreement) of exposures from both situations handling liquids and powders were calculated by using the 50th percentile outcome of the tools and the geometric mean of the measured exposure (all data were ln transformed). For Stoffenmanager, the mean difference and precision of the situations concerning liquids were 0.22 ± 1.0 and for powders -0.024 ± 0.66. It was also shown that Stoffenmanager overestimated low exposures and underestimated high exposures. Stoffenmanager showed higher agreement with the measured exposure in the wood and flour mill industries than in foundry and the plastic moulding industry. For ART, the mean difference and precision of liquids were -0.55 ± 0.88 and for powders -1.4 ± 1.6. ART showed lower agreement with the measured exposure in the wood industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
exposure modelling, occupational exposure, occupational hygiene, risk assessment
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57353 (URN)10.1093/annweh/wxx008 (DOI)000410534200008 ()28355454 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0228_ForteAFA Insurance, 100127
Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-07-31Bibliographically approved
Klasson, M., Lindberg, M., Bryngelsson, I.-L., Arvidsson, H., Pettersson, C., Husby, B. & Westberg, H. (2017). Biological monitoring of dermal and air exposure to cobalt at a Swedish hard metal production plant: does dermal exposure contribute to uptake?. Contact Dermatitis, 77(4), 201-207
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological monitoring of dermal and air exposure to cobalt at a Swedish hard metal production plant: does dermal exposure contribute to uptake?
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2017 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Occupational exposure to cobalt is well established in hard metal manufacture. Cobalt is known to cause contact allergy, asthma, hard metal lung disease, and lung cancer. The relationship between skin exposure and uptake determined in blood has not been extensively investigated.

Objective: To examine whether skin and inhalable air exposure to cobalt contributes to uptake, determined as cobalt in blood, in a hard metal manufacturing factory.

Methods: The amount of cobalt on the skin found with an acid wash technique, the air concentrations of inhalable cobalt and cobalt blood concentrations were determined and correlated in exposed workers.

Results: We found a significant rank correlation for cobalt concentrations on the skin, in inhalable air, and in blood (0.376-0.498). Multiple linear regression showed significant regression coefficients for cobalt skin exposure and blood (B = 0.01, p < 0.05) and for inhalable cobalt in air and blood (B = 49.1, p < 0.001). According to our model based on data from the regression analyses, a twofold increase in skin exposure levels at different air concentrations caused a 3 - 14% increase in blood levels.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that skin exposure to cobalt in the hard metal industry could affect the total uptake at the same order of magnitude as air exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Acid wash technique, blood concentration, cobalt, hard metal, skin absorption, skin exposure
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61031 (URN)10.1111/cod.12790 (DOI)000409110100002 ()28675438 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021784690 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish hard metal company

Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Svartengren, M., Bryngelsson, I.-L., Marsh, G., Buchanich, J., Zimmerman, S., Kennedy, K., . . . Westberg, H. (2017). Cancer Incidence Among Hardmetal Production Workers: The Swedish Cohort. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(12), e365-e373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer Incidence Among Hardmetal Production Workers: The Swedish Cohort
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 12, p. e365-e373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cancer incidence was determined for 3713 workers from three plants from 1958 to 2011. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations.The incidence of all malignant neoplasms was increased at one plant, but standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.96 for all workers. Lung cancer incidence was increased for all workers, SIR 1.38 (1.01 to 1.85). The lung cancer incidence was associated with shorter employment time and showed no exposure-response. There was decreased incidence for skin cancer. Increased lip cancer incidence found at one of the production plants might be related to diagnostic intensity.Lung cancer incidence showed no correlation to cobalt exposure based on internal comparison. The increased SIR for all workers might be associated with other factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64313 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001185 (DOI)29215488 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85033603456 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Marsh, G. M., Buchanich, J. M., Zimmerman, S., Liu, Y., Balmert, L. C., Graves, J., . . . Cherrie, J. W. (2017). Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: Pooled Analysis of Cohort Data From an International Investigation. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(12), e342-e364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: Pooled Analysis of Cohort Data From an International Investigation
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 12, p. e342-e364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Based on a pooled analysis of data from an international study, evaluate total and cause-specific mortality among hardmetal production workers with emphasis on lung cancer.

METHODS: Study members were 32,354 workers from three companies and 17 manufacturing sites in five countries. We computed standardized mortality ratios and evaluated exposure-response via relative risk regression analysis.

RESULTS: Among long-term workers, we observed overall deficits or slight excesses in deaths for total mortality, all cancers, and lung cancer and found no evidence of any exposure-response relationships for lung cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that duration, average intensity, or cumulative exposure to tungsten, cobalt, or nickel, at levels experienced by the workers examined, increases lung cancer mortality risks. We also found no evidence that work in these facilities increased mortality risks from any other causes of death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64314 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001151 (DOI)29215487 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85036657309 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Westberg, H., Bryngelsson, I.-L., Marsh, G., Kennedy, K., Buchanich, J., Zimmerman, S., . . . Svartengren, M. (2017). Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: Swedish Measurement Data and Exposure Assessment. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(12), e327-e341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: Swedish Measurement Data and Exposure Assessment
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 12, p. e327-e341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry. Exposure assessment for cobalt is presented.

METHODS: A historical database (1970 to 2012) of personal and area measurements of cobalt, tungsten, and nickel in the Swedish hardmetal industry was created. Log linear and exponential modeling of cobalt concentrations based on time period, job, and site was performed, and cumulative and mean exposures were calculated.

RESULTS: Some 37% of the personal cobalt measurements exceeded 0.02 mg/m, mostly for powder production, pressing, and shaping. The log linear regression showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) between sites, time periods, and jobs. Some 1.6% of the cobalt cumulative exposures for blue-collar workers exceeded 0.4 mg/m years.

CONCLUSION: Low levels of cumulative and mean exposures were determined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64315 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001147 (DOI)29215486 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85036663922 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
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