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Lombardo, G., Foreman, M. R. S., Ebin, B., Yeung, L. W., Steenari, B. M. & Petranikova, M. (2023). Determination of Hydrofluoric Acid Formation During Fire Accidents of Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Direct Cooling System Based on the Refrigeration Liquids. Fire technology, 59(5), 2375-2388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of Hydrofluoric Acid Formation During Fire Accidents of Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Direct Cooling System Based on the Refrigeration Liquids
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2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 2375-2388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To avoid overheating of the batteries, which could lead to a fire, Lithium-ion batteries are provided with a thermal management system using refrigeration liquids. Since some of the commercial dielectric liquids used as refrigeration liquids contain halogens, their presence will contribute to a formation of hazardous emissions such as hydrofluoric acid during a potential fire. In this study, a simulation of a high temperature accident has been performed for lithium-ion batteries cooled with the direct immersion cooling systems using single-phase dielectric liquids to define their contribution to HF formation. Four commercial refrigeration liquids based on perfluoropolyethers, hydrofluoroether and polyalphaolefin were investigated in this work. By simulation of a fire, it was observed that the refrigeration liquids delayed the smoke formation by a factor of 2 to 2.5 in comparison to the case when the battery was burned without the cooling liquid. By analysis of the fluoride concentration in the washing system, it was determined that without the refrigeration liquid approximately 46.8 mmol/l of [F] was captured after the fire. When refrigeration liquids based on two perfluoropolyethers and hydrofluoroether were applied, the fluoride concentration in the washing system was 259 mmol/l, 173 mmol/l and 145 mmol/l, respectively. This work also proposed the reaction mechanisms of the refrigeration liquid ' s decomposition during a fire. It was concluded that the refrigeration liquid based on polyalphaolefin does not contribute to the additional formation of hydrofluoric acid due to the chemical stability and low content of fluoride and can be considered as a more sustainable alternative for a direct cooling system for Lithium-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Lithium-ion batteries, Thermal accident, Refrigeration liquids, Hydrofluoric acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-106327 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01425-4 (DOI)001002494900001 ()2-s2.0-85160868176 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2018-008060Chalmers University of Technology
Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Jiao, E., Larsson, P., Wang, Q., Zhu, Z., Yin, D., Kärrman, A., . . . Yeung, L. W. Y. (2023). Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(38), 14330-14339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 38, p. 14330-14339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ubiquitous occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and the detection of unexplained extractable organofluorine (EOF) in drinking water have raised growing concerns. A recent study reported the detection of inorganic fluorinated anions in German river systems, and therefore, in some samples, EOF may include some inorganic fluorinated anions. Thus, it might be more appropriate to use the term "extractable fluorine (EF) analysis" instead of the term EOF analysis. In this study, tap water samples (n = 39) from Shanghai were collected to assess the levels of EF/EOF, 35 target PFAS, two inorganic fluorinated anions (tetrafluoroborate (BF4-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-)), and novel PFAS through suspect screening and potential oxidizable precursors through oxidative conversion. The results showed that ultra-short PFAS were the largest contributors to target PFAS, accounting for up to 97% of ΣPFAS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2) was reported in drinking water from China, and p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS) was also identified through suspect screening. Small amounts of precursors that can be oxidatively converted to PFCAs were noted after oxidative conversion. EF mass balance analysis revealed that target PFAS could only explain less than 36% of EF. However, the amounts of unexplained extractable fluorine were greatly reduced when BF4- and PF6- were included. These compounds further explained more than 44% of the EF, indicating the role of inorganic fluorinated anions in the mass balance analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
Keywords
bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2), extractable fluorine (EF), hexafluorophosphate (PF6−), suspect screening, tetrafluoroborate (BF4−), ultra-short PFAS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108322 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c02718 (DOI)001068515100001 ()37710968 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85172425821 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02032
Note

The authors from ORU acknowledge the funding from the Knowledge Foundation (KKS) within the Enforce Research Profile (20160019), Sweden, and Swedish Research Council FORMAS (2020-02032) and grant from Eurofins Environment Testing Sweden AB. The study was partly financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China(2021YFC3200801). E.J. also acknowledges the financial support from the China Scholarship Council (grantno. 202206260120).

Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Ruyle, B. J., Pickard, H. M., Schultes, L., Fredriksson, F., Heffernan, A. L., Knappe, D. R. U., . . . Sunderland, E. M. (2023). Interlaboratory Comparison of Extractable Organofluorine Measurements in Groundwater and Eel (Anguilla rostrata): Recommendations for Methods Standardization. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(48), 20159-20168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interlaboratory Comparison of Extractable Organofluorine Measurements in Groundwater and Eel (Anguilla rostrata): Recommendations for Methods Standardization
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 48, p. 20159-20168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) frequently incorporates organofluorine measurements, particularly because they could support a class-based approach to regulation. However, standardized methods for organofluorine analysis in a broad suite of matrices are currently unavailable, including a method for extractable organofluorine (EOF) measured using combustion ion chromatography (CIC). Here, we report the results of an international interlaboratory comparison. Seven laboratories representing academia, government, and the private sector measured paired EOF and PFAS concentrations in groundwater and eel (Anguilla rostrata) from a site contaminated by aqueous film-forming foam. Among all laboratories, targeted PFAS could not explain all EOF in groundwater but accounted for most EOF in eel. EOF results from all laboratories for at least one replicate extract fell within one standard deviation of the interlaboratory mean for groundwater and five out of seven laboratories for eel. PFAS spike mixture recoveries for EOF measurements in groundwater and eel were close to the criterion (±30%) for standardized targeted PFAS methods. Instrumental operation of the CIC such as replicate sample injections was a major source of measurement uncertainty. Blank contamination and incomplete inorganic fluorine removal may introduce additional uncertainties. To elucidate the presence of unknown organofluorine using paired EOF and PFAS measurements, we recommend that analysts carefully consider confounding methodological uncertainties such as differences in precision between measurements, data processing steps such as blank subtraction and replicate analyses, and the relative recoveries of PFAS and other fluorine compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
Keywords
Extractable organofluorine, analytical methods, aquatic contamination, combustion ion chromatography, interlaboratory comparison, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109627 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c04560 (DOI)001114453100001 ()37934924 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85178353357 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program P42ES027706 P42ES031009

Available from: 2023-11-08 Created: 2023-11-08 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Wang, Q., Ruan, Y., Jin, L., Tao, L. S. R., Lai, H., Li, G., . . . Lam, P. K. S. (2023). Legacy and Emerging Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in a Subtropical Marine Food Web: Suspect Screening, Isomer Profile, and Identification of Analytical Interference. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(22), 8355-8364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Legacy and Emerging Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in a Subtropical Marine Food Web: Suspect Screening, Isomer Profile, and Identification of Analytical Interference
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 22, p. 8355-8364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ban/elimination of legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has led to a dramatic increase in the production and use of various emerging PFASs over the past decade. However, trophodynamics of many emerging PFASs in aquatic food webs remain poorly understood. In this study, samples of seawaters and marine organisms including 15 fish species, 21 crustacean species, and two cetacean species were collected from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the trophic biomagnification potential of legacy and emerging PFASs. Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was found in seawater via suspect screening (concentration up to 1.50 ng/L) but not in the biota, indicating its negligible bioaccumulation potential. A chlorinated perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) analytical interfering compound was identified with a predicted formula of C14H23O5SCl6- (most abundant at m/z = 514.9373). Significant trophic magnification was observed for 22 PFASs, and the trophic magnification factors of cis- and trans-perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate isomers (1.92 and 2.25, respectively) were reported for the first time. Perfluorohexanoic acid was trophic-magnified, possibly attributed to the PFAS precursor degradation. The hazard index of PFOS was close to 1, implying a potential human health risk via dietary exposure to PFASs in seafood on the premise of continuous PFAS discharge to the SCS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
Keywords
Cl-PFESA, Cl-PFOS, H-PFESA, NTf2, PFECHS, relative potency factor, trophic magnification factor
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-106025 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c00374 (DOI)001004734100001 ()37220884 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162237553 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2022YFC3204800

Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation 2021A1515012048

Theme-Based Research Scheme of Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong SAR Government T21-602/16-R

Innovation Group Project of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai) 311020004

Innovation and Technology Commission (ITC) of the Hong Kong SAR Government 9448002

State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution

Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-07-26Bibliographically approved
Hartz, W. F., Björnsdotter, M. K., Yeung, L. W. Y., Hodson, A., Thomas, E. R., Humby, J. D., . . . Kallenborn, R. (2023). Levels and distribution profiles of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a high Arctic Svalbard ice core. Science of the Total Environment, 871, Article ID 161830.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels and distribution profiles of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a high Arctic Svalbard ice core
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 871, article id 161830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of persistent organic contaminants of which some are toxic and bioaccumulative. Several PFAS can be formed from the atmospheric degradation of precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HFCs) and other ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds. Svalbard ice cores have been shown to provide a valuable record of long-range atmospheric transport of contaminants to the Arctic. This study uses a 12.3 m ice core from the remote Lomonosovfonna ice cap on Svalbard to understand the atmospheric deposition of PFAS in the Arctic. A total of 45 PFAS were targeted, of which 26 were detected, using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) MS/MS. C2 to C11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected continuously in the ice core and their fluxes ranged from 2.5 to 8200 ng m-2 yr-1 (9.51-16,500 pg L-1). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) represented 71 % of the total mass of C2 - C11 PFCAs in the ice core and had increasing temporal trends in deposition. The distribution profile of PFCAs suggested that FTOHs were likely the atmospheric precursor to C8 - C11 PFCAs, whereas C2 - C6 PFCAs had alternative sources, such as HFCs and other CFC replacement compounds. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was also widely detected in 82 % of ice core subsections, and its isomer profile (81 % linear) indicated an electrochemical fluorination manufacturing source. Comparisons of PFAS concentrations with a marine aerosol proxy showed that marine aerosols were insignificant for the deposition of PFAS on Lomonosovfonna. Comparisons with a melt proxy showed that TFA and PFOS were mobile during meltwater percolation. This indicates that seasonal snowmelt and runoff from post-industrial accumulation on glaciers could be a significant seasonal source of PFAS to ecosystems in Arctic fjords.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Fluorotelomer alcohols, Hydrofluorocarbons, Long-range transport, Snowmelt, Temporal trends, Trifluoroacetic acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-103896 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161830 (DOI)000965591500001 ()36716880 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147542316 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01284Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Note

Funding agencies:

United Kingdom Research and Innovation Natural Environment Research Council

Oxford Doctoral Training Partnership in Environmental Research NE/L002612/1

Burdett-Coutts Trust

Svalbard Science Forum Arctic Field Grant 2019 11121

Research Council of Norway 196218/S30

Fram Centre Flagship program 534/75219

Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-05-03Bibliographically approved
Wang, Q., Ruan, Y., Yuen, C. N. T., Lin, H., Yeung, L. W. Y., Leung, K. M. Y. & Lam, P. K. S. (2023). Tracing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the aquatic environment: Target analysis and beyond. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 169, Article ID 117351.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the aquatic environment: Target analysis and beyond
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2023 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 169, article id 117351Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been manufactured and used for decades. The aquatic envi-ronment is a critical transportation and transformation compartment for PFASs. Target analysis is the most used method of tracing PFASs in the aquatic environment but is powerless for the large amounts of unknown PFASs. This review summarizes the advantages of three target analysis supplementary approaches, including extractable organofluorine (EOF) analysis, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening, and PFAS precursor oxidative conversion. For known PFASs, more targets, including emerging PFASs, PFAS isomers, ultrashort-chain PFASs, and cationic/zwitterionic PFASs, should be considered. For unknown PFASs and organofluorines, developing comprehensive and low-contaminated sample treatment strategies is essential yet challenging. We propose including PFASs screened via HRMS at confidence level (CL) 3 and above in EOF mass balance analysis and CL 4 for samples collected from a "known source". Appropriate approaches should be applied to investigate unknown PFASs beyond target analysis comprehensively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Nontarget and suspect screening, Oxidative conversion, Extractable organofluorine, Mass balance, High -resolution mass spectrometry, Aqueous film forming foam
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109934 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2023.117351 (DOI)001098622500001 ()2-s2.0-85173827412 (Scopus ID)
Note

The present work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2022YFC3204800) , Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2021A1515012048) , Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Environment and Conservation Fund (ECF 2021-45) , Science, Technology, and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality (JCYJ20190812155805559) , and Innovation Group Project of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai) (311020004) . This work was also supported by the Innovation and Technology Commission (ITC) of the Hong Kong SAR Government (9448002) which provides regular research funding to the State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not reflect the views of the Hong Kong SAR Government or the ITC.

Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Pennoyer, E. H., Heiger-Bernays, W., Aro, R., Yeung, L. W. Y., Schlezinger, J. J. & Webster, T. F. (2023). Unknown Organofluorine Mixtures in U.S. Adult Serum: Contribution from Pharmaceuticals?. Toxics, 11(5), Article ID 416.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unknown Organofluorine Mixtures in U.S. Adult Serum: Contribution from Pharmaceuticals?
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2023 (English)In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 416Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organofluorines occur in human serum as complex mixtures of known and unidentified compounds. Human biomonitoring traditionally uses targeted analysis to measure the presence of known and quantifiable per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in serum, yet characterization of exposure to and quantification of PFAS are limited by the availability of methods and analytical standards. Studies comparing extractable organofluorine (EOF) in serum to measured PFAS using organofluorine mass balance show that measurable PFAS only explain a fraction of EOF in human serum and that other sources of organofluorine may exist. The gap in fluorine mass balance has important implications for human biomonitoring because the total body burden of PFAS cannot be characterized and the chemical species that make up unidentified EOF are unknown. Many highly prescribed pharmaceuticals contain organofluorine (e.g., Lipitor, Prozac) and are prescribed with dosing regimens designed to maintain a therapeutic range of concentrations in serum. Therefore, we hypothesize organofluorine pharmaceuticals contribute to EOF in serum. We use combustion ion chromatography to measure EOF in commercial serum from U.S. blood donors. Using fluorine mass balance, we assess differences in unexplained organofluorine (UOF) associated with pharmaceutical use and compare them with concentrations of organofluorine predicted based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Pharmacokinetic estimates of organofluorine attributable to pharmaceuticals ranged from 0.1 to 55.6 ng F/mL. Analysis of 44 target PFAS and EOF in samples of commercial serum (n = 20) shows the fraction of EOF not explained by Σ44 PFAS ranged from 15% to 86%. Self-reported use of organofluorine pharmaceuticals is associated with a 0.36 ng F/mL (95% CL: -1.26 to 1.97) increase in UOF, on average, compared to those who report not taking organofluorine pharmaceuticals. Our study is the first to assess sources of UOF in U.S. serum and examine whether organofluorine pharmaceuticals contribute to EOF. Discrepancies between pharmacokinetic estimates and EOF may be partly explained by differences in analytical measurements. Future analyses using EOF should consider multiple extraction methods to include cations and zwitterions. Whether organofluorine pharmaceuticals are classified as PFAS depends on the definition of PFAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
extractable organofluorine, human biomonitoring, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, pharmaceuticals, targeted analysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-106092 (URN)10.3390/toxics11050416 (DOI)000996902000001 ()37235230 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160223825 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:

United States Department of Health & Human Services

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA

NIH National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) R01 ES027813 T32 ES014562

 

Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
Jiao, E., Zhu, Z., Yin, D., Qiu, Y., Kärrman, A. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). A pilot study on extractable organofluorine and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water from drinking water treatment plants around Taihu Lake, China: what is missed by target PFAS analysis?. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 24(7), 1060-1070
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pilot study on extractable organofluorine and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water from drinking water treatment plants around Taihu Lake, China: what is missed by target PFAS analysis?
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1060-1070Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have raised concerns due to their worldwide occurrence and adverse effects on both the environment and humans as well as posing challenges for monitoring. Further collection of information is required for a better understanding of their occurrence and the unknown fractions of the extractable organofluorine (EOF) not explained by commonly monitored target PFAS. In this study, eight pairs of raw and treated water were collected from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) around Taihu Lake in China and analyzed for EOF and 34 target PFAS. Mass balance analysis of organofluorine revealed that at least 68% of EOF could not be explained by target PFAS. Relatively higher total target concentrations were observed in 4 DWTPs (D1 to D4) when compared to other samples with the highest sum concentration up to 189 ng L-1. PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS were the abundant compounds. Suspect screening analysis identified 10 emerging PFAS (e.g., H-PFAAs, H-PFESAs and OBS) in addition to target PFAS in raw or treated water. The ratios PFBA/PFOA and PFBS/PFOS between previous and current studies showed significant replacements of short-chain to long-chain PFAS. The ratios of the measured PFAS concentrations to the guideline values showed that some of the treated drinking water exceeds guideline values, appealing for efforts on drinking water safety guarantee.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-99547 (URN)10.1039/d2em00073c (DOI)000809616200001 ()35687097 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132435863 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-02032
Note

Funding agencies:

Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment 2017ZX07201005

National Key Research and Development Project of China 2021YFC3200801 

Available from: 2022-06-15 Created: 2022-06-15 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, F., Kärrman, A., Eriksson, U. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Analysis and characterization of novel fluorinated compounds used in surface treatments products. Chemosphere, 302, Article ID 134720.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and characterization of novel fluorinated compounds used in surface treatments products
2022 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 302, article id 134720Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Side-chain fluorinated polymers are speculated to be potential precursors to other non-polymeric aliphatic per- and polyfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Limited knowledge of environmental occurrence of this compound class is partly due to lack of structural information and authentic standards. In this study, two novel fluorinated compounds, suspected to be side-chain fluorinated copolymers used in two commercial technical mixtures (Scotchgard™ Pre-2002 formulation and Scotchgard™ Post-2002 formulation) were analyzed and characterized in order to provide information to facilitate detection and quantification. The commercial mixtures were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry; besides already reported C4- and C8-fluoroalkylsulfonamido (FASA) side-chains, a proposed structure was determined for the perfluorooctane (C8) sulfonamide-urethane copolymer in the Pre-2002 formulation. Structural isomers were also observed for C4- and C8-FASA-based copolymers. Total fluorine analysis revealed that the Scotchgard™ Pre-2002 Formulation contained a fluorine content of 0.5% and 1.8% for the Scotchgard™ Post-2002 Formulation. The equivalent FASA side-chain content was determined to be 0.8% for Pre-2002 and 3.1% for Post-2002. Both C4- and C8-FASA-based copolymers underwent hydrolysis and oxidation and were transformed to their respective perfluoroalkyl side chain, which suggest that transformation products can be analyzed for example after total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay. Both compounds were shown to strongly sorb to sediment particles, which also gives indications about their environmental fate and transport pathways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2022
Keywords
Characterization, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), Side-chain fluorinated copolymers, TOP-Assay, Total fluorine
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-98790 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134720 (DOI)000802572200005 ()35487349 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129497373 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, Å., Wang, B., Gerde, P., Bergman, Å. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(52), 78698-78710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 52, p. 78698-78710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indoor environments may impact human health due to chemical pollutants in the indoor air and house dust. This study aimed at comparing the bioavailability and distribution of PFOA following both an inhalation and an oral exposure to PFOA coated house dust in rats. In addition, extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in different tissue samples to assess any potential influence of other organofluorine compounds in the experimental house dust. Blood samples were collected at sequential time points after exposure and at the time of termination; the lungs, liver, and kidney were collected for quantification of PFOA and EOF. The concentration of PFOA in plasma increased rapidly in both exposure groups attaining a Cmax at 3 h post exposure. The Cmax following inhalation was four times higher compared to oral exposures. At 48 h post exposure, the levels of PFOA in the plasma, liver, and kidney were twice as high from inhalation exposures. This shows that PFOA is readily bioavailable and has a rapid systemic distribution following an inhalation or oral exposure to house dust coated with PFOA. The proportion of PFOA to EOF corresponded to 65-71% and 74-87% in plasma and tissues, respectively. The mass balance between EOF and target PFOA indicates that there might be other unknown PFAS precursor and/or fluorinated compounds that co-existed in the house dust sample that can have accumulated in rats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Adsorption, Airways, Gastro intestinal (GI), Household dust, Ingestion, PFAS, Perfluorooctanoic acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-99613 (URN)10.1007/s11356-022-20829-3 (DOI)000810862400002 ()35699877 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131782439 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Örebro UniversitySwedish Research Council Formas, 216-2013-1966Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2022-06-16 Created: 2022-06-16 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6800-5658

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