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Uwayezu, J.-N., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Bäckström, M. (2019). Sorption of PFOS isomers on goethite as a function of pH, dissolved organic matter (humic and fulvic acid) and sulfate. Chemosphere, 233, 896-904
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sorption of PFOS isomers on goethite as a function of pH, dissolved organic matter (humic and fulvic acid) and sulfate
2019 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 233, p. 896-904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the distribution of PFOS isomers between the aqueous phase and goethite is crucial, since it is an abundant sorbent and thus may have a large influence on the mobility of PFOS. This study was conducted to understand the effects of pH, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and sulfate on sorption of PFOS isomers. The results will increase the understanding about what parameters may control the fate and transport of PFOS in surface and ground water.

The study was conducted by adding PFOS spiked water to a goethite slurry with different aqueous chemistry. Levels of total PFOS and PFOS isomers were quantified using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatograph coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results showed that sorption of PFOS was mainly dependent on pH; sorption decreased as pH increased. Presence of HA increased log K-d from 1.29 to 2.03, 1.76 to 1.92 and 1.51 to 1.96 at pH 5.50-7.50 for 3-/4-/4-PFOS, 6-/2-PFOS and L-PFOS, respectively. Changes in the aqueous chemistry also affected the behaviour of PFOS as the addition of Na2SO4 enhanced the sorption of PFOS. Results showed that L-PFOS was more readily sorbed to goethite at pH < 4.35 both in the presence and in the absence of humic or fulvic acids. At pH > 4.5 the 3-/4-/5-PFOS isomer group was more associated to goethite. Besides electrostatic interactions, which controlled the sorption of PFOS, this study indicate that the presence of dissolved humic substances in the aqueous phase enhances the sorption via hydrophobic mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Goethite, Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Sorption, Humic substances, Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75699 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.252 (DOI)000477691500099 ()31340417 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067315052 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Hu, X. C., Tokranov, A. K., Liddie, J., Zhang, X., Grandjean, P., Hart, J. E., . . . Sunderland, E. M. (2019). Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 127(6), Article ID 67006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, no 6, article id 67006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.

POPULATION:

METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.

RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Institute of Environmental Health Science, 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74653 (URN)10.1289/EHP4093 (DOI)000474528700004 ()31170009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067472608 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Harvard National Institute of Environmental Health and Sciences (NIEHS) Center Grant  P30 ES000002 

NIH  CA186107  CA49449  ES021372 

NIH Superfund Research Program  P42ES027706 

Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
Parajulee, A., Lei, Y. D., Cao, X., McLagan, D. S., Yeung, L. W. Y., Mitchell, C. P. J. & Wania, F. (2018). Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 20(5), 767-779
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 767-779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of pesticides in streams in winter, five to six years following bans on their municipal use suggests that complicated transport behaviour, such as subsurface retention and/or accumulation of pesticides and its release during storms, could be important for understanding recovery time frames following bans or legislation that aim to reduce chemical inputs. We investigated late fall and winter dynamics of four herbicides in paired urban and rural watersheds in Toronto, Canada during rainfall and snowmelt. The range of average concentrations and loads of the sum of atrazine, metolachlor, 2,4-D and mecoprop overlapped in the two types of watersheds, with slightly higher average concentrations in the rural watershed. Relatively consistent herbicide concentration-discharge patterns (i. e. dilution) were observed in the urban sub-watersheds during rainfall, while concentration-discharge patterns were much more variable in the rural watershed. This suggests relatively uniform transport pathways across the urban sub-watersheds, compared to the rural watershed. Concentration-discharge patterns of the neutral herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were similar in both watersheds during snowmelt, though varying discharge patterns resulted in divergent timings of peak concentrations. In contrast, the acidic pesticides 2,4-D and mecoprop, which are primarily associated with urban uses, showed much more variable behavior across both watersheds and merit further investigation. Overall, this work highlights the need to consider pesticide dynamics throughout the year in order to more thoroughly assess the longterm efficacy of legislation governing their use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67271 (URN)10.1039/c7em00596b (DOI)000433191900005 ()29578561 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047605361 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada  

FedDev Ontario  

Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation via the Southern Ontario Water Consortium  

Ontario Graduate Scholarship  

TD Canada Trust 

Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Pan, Y., Zhang, H., Cui, Q., Sheng, N., Yeung, L. W. Y., Sun, Y., . . . Dai, J. (2018). Worldwide Distribution of Novel Perfluoroether Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids in Surface Water. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(14), 7621-7629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Worldwide Distribution of Novel Perfluoroether Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids in Surface Water
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7621-7629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6). Results showed that HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median = 0.95, 0.21, and 0.31 ng/L, respectively) were frequently detected in all countries, indicating ubiquitous dispersal and distribution in global surface waters. The presence of 6:2 H-PFESA was widely detected in China (detection rate > 95%) but not in any other country. Only trace levels of ADONA (0.013-1.5 ng/L) were detected in the Rhine River flowing through Germany. The estimated total riverine mass discharges of HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and ΣPFESAs reached 2.6, 6.0, and 4.3 ton/year in five of the major river systems in China. Our results indicated that novel PFECAs and PFESAs might become global contaminants, and future investigations are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67005 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.8b00829 (DOI)000439397800006 ()29749740 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049342448 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Natural Science Foundation of China  21737004  31320103915 

Chinese Academy of Sciences  XDB14040202 

Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-08-02Bibliographically approved
Ericson Jogsten, I. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2017). Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro university, 2017. p. 18
Keywords
Ultra-short chain PFAS, water
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64607 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-16-030
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Joudan, S., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Mabury, S. A. (2017). Biological cleavage of the C-P bond in perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids in male Sprague-Dawley rats and the formation of persistent and reactive metabolites. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(11), Article ID 117001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological cleavage of the C-P bond in perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids in male Sprague-Dawley rats and the formation of persistent and reactive metabolites
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, no 11, article id 117001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs) have been detected in humans, wildlife, and various environmental matrices. These compounds have been used with perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) as surfactants in consumer products and as nonfoaming additives in pesticide formulations. Unlike the structurally related perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids, little is known about the biological fate of PFPiAs.

OBJECTIVES: We determined the biotransformation products of PFPiAs and some pharmacokinetic parameters in a rat model.

METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an oral gavage dose of either C6/C8PFPiA, C8/C8PFPiA, or C8PFPA. Blood was sampled over time, and livers were harvested upon sacrifice. Analytes were quantified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: PFPiAs were metabolized to the corresponding PFPAs and 1H-perfluoroalkanes (1H-PFAs), with 70% and 75% biotransformation 2 wk after a single bolus dose for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively. This is the first reported cleavage of a C-P bond in mammals, and the first attempt, with a single-dose exposure, to characterize the degradation of any perfluoroalkyl acid. Elimination half-lives were 1.9±0.5 and 2.8±0.8 days for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively, and 0.95±0.17 days for C8PFPA. Although elimination half-lives were not determined for 1H-PFAs, concentrations were higher than the corresponding PFPAs 48 h after rats were dosed with PFPiAs, suggestive of slower elimination.

CONCLUSIONS: PFPiAs were metabolized in Sprague-Dawley rats to form persistent PFPAs as well as 1H-PFAs, which contain a labile hydrogen that may undergo further metabolism. These results in rats produced preliminary findings of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PFPiAs, which should be further investigated in humans. If there is a parallel between the disposition of these chemicals in humans and rats, then humans with detectable amounts of PFPiAs in their blood may be undergoing continuous exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 2017
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63315 (URN)10.1289/EHP1841 (DOI)000416837300004 ()29135439 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85033388855 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

National Science and Engineering Research Council Discovery grant

Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Kvist, M., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Ericson Jogsten, I. (2017). Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters. In: : . Paper presented at 37th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Dioxin 2017), Vancouver, Canada, August 20-25, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ubiquitous distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been documented worldwide in different environmental samples including humans. In Sweden, severe PFAS contamination in drinking water has resulted in elevated blood PFAS concentrations in residents living in contaminated areas. In many cases, the use of aqueous film forming-foams (AFFFs) at both civil and military airports has resulted in this contamination, as PFASs are one of the active ingredients in AFFFs. According to a nationwide survey, it was estimated that 30 % of the Swedish population has their closest drinking water source contaminated with these substances. A guideline value for safe use of drinking water set by the Swedish Food Agencyis the sum of eleven PFASs including perfluoroalkylated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8), perfluoroalkylated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate.This is set to 90 ng/L, while the health based limit, based on the tolerable daily intake,is set to 900 ng/L. In the US, Barzen-Hansen et al.showed the presence of ultra-short chain PFASs, perfluoropropanesulfonate (PFPrS) and perfluoroethanesulfonate (PFEtS), in five AFFFs. In ground water samples from eleven US military bases, PFEtS was detected in eight out of eleven samples ranging from 11-7500 ng/L, while PFPrS was detected in all samples, ranging from 19-63000 ng/L). Conventional reversed-phase LC using C18 column is not suitable to chromatograph these ultra-short chain PFAS, because they are highly polar; ion-exchange column has been demonstrated useful for separating these ultra-short chain PFAS. In this study a new analytical approach employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was developed for chromatographic separation of these ultra-short chain PFASs. Environmental water samples (surface water, ground water, rain water, snow and sediment) from various locations with suspected PFAS contamination were analyzed to investigate the potential occurrence of these ultra-short chain compounds in the Swedish environment. Solid phase extraction according to ISO method was used to concentrate water samples prior to instrumental analyses using both UPLC-MS/MS and UPC2-MS/MS.

Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples from Sweden using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed,the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 390 μg/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in 24 out of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07-5 680 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport.

Keywords
Supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra-short chain PFAS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64649 (URN)
Conference
37th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Dioxin 2017), Vancouver, Canada, August 20-25, 2017
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection AgencyKnowledge FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
Pan, Y., Wang, X., Yeung, L. W. Y., Sheng, N., Cui, Q., Cui, R., . . . Dai, J. (2017). Dietary exposure to di-isobutyl phthalate increases urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine level and affects reproductive function in adult male mice. Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), 61, 14-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary exposure to di-isobutyl phthalate increases urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine level and affects reproductive function in adult male mice
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental pollutants suspected of being endocrine disruptors. Epidemiological studies have associated phthalate metabolites with decreased reproductive parameters and linked phthalate exposure with the level of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC, a product of methylated DNA). In this study, adult male mice were exposed to 450mg di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP)/(kg·day) via dietary exposure for 28days. Mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, the urinary metabolite) and reproductive function parameters were determined. The levels of 5mdC and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC) were measured in urine to evaluate if their contents were also altered by DiBP exposure in this animal model. Results showed that DiBP exposure led to a significant increase in the urinary 5mdC level and significant decreases in sperm concentration and motility in the epididymis, accompanied with reduced testosterone levels and down-regulation of the P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) gene in the mice testes. Our findings indicated that exposure to DiBP increased the urinary 5mdC levels, which supported our recent epidemiological study about the associations of urinary 5mdC with phthalate exposure in the male human population. In addition, DiBP exposure impaired male reproductive function, possibly by disturbing testosterone levels; P450scc might be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by DiBP or other phthalates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
5-Methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5mdC), Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Reproductive function, Testosterone
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62949 (URN)10.1016/j.jes.2017.04.036 (DOI)000416721600003 ()29191310 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020387739 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Basic Research Program of China  2013CB945004 

National Natural Science Foundation of China  21477127 

Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Binnington, M. J., Lei, Y. D., Pokiak, L., Pokiak, J., Ostertag, S. K., Loseto, L. L., . . . Wania, F. (2017). Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 19(8), 1000-1015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1000-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings demonstrated that contaminant concentration differences were greater between the two sets of whale samples, based on age differences, than they were within each set of whale samples, due to variable preparation methods. When considering means to minimize human contaminant exposure while maximizing nutrient intake, consumption of aged liquid from younger male whales would be preferred, based on possible PUFA enhancement and selective depletion of hydrophilic environmental contaminants in this food item.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59037 (URN)10.1039/c7em00167c (DOI)000407767100002 ()28752885 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85027440875 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada  

Northern Scientific Training Program  

Arctic Institutes of North America  

Northern Contaminants Program of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada  H-07 

Available from: 2017-08-02 Created: 2017-08-02 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
Zhou, S., Yeung, L. W. Y., Forbes, M. W., Mabury, S. & Abbatt, J. P. (2017). Epoxide formation from heterogeneous oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene with gas-phase ozone and indoor air. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 19(10), 1292-1299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epoxide formation from heterogeneous oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene with gas-phase ozone and indoor air
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The formation of two classes of epoxide products from the heterogeneous reaction of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with gas-phase ozone was demonstrated. BaP was coated on a Pyrex glass tube and oxidized with different concentrations of ozone. After oxidation, the epoxide products were derivatized by N-acetylcystein (NAC) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that in addition to mono-epoxides, diol-epoxides were also formed. BaP exposed to genuine indoor air also produces mono- and diol-epoxides, having similar chromatograms to those produced by oxidation of BaP by low concentrations of ozone. Although it is well recognized that diol-epoxides are formed from BaP oxidation in the human body and that they exhibit carcinogenicity via formation of adducts with DNA, this is the first demonstration that such classes of compounds can be formed by abiotic heterogeneous oxidation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61513 (URN)10.1039/c7em00181a (DOI)000413199000008 ()28848957 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85031785683 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation  

NSERC 

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
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