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Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, F., Yeung, L. W. Y., Taniyasu, S., Yamazaki, E., . . . Dai, J. (2013). Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis). Environmental Pollution, 179, 61-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 179, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Bioaccumulation factors (BAF); Biomagnifications; Chinese alligators; Perfluorinated carboxylates; Perfluoroalkyl substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49965 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.020 (DOI)000320745800009 ()23660395 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84877326610 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

National Natural Science Foundation of China 31025006

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-05-27Bibliographically approved
Loi, E. I. H., Yeung, L. W. Y., Mabury, S. A. & Lam, P. K. S. (2013). Detections of Commercial Fluorosurfactants in Hong Kong Marine Environment and Human Blood: A Pilot Study. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(9), 4677-4685
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detections of Commercial Fluorosurfactants in Hong Kong Marine Environment and Human Blood: A Pilot Study
2013 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 4677-4685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previously, much of the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) research has focused on perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) or perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs). Recent studies indicate that known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 5-95% of the organofluorine (OF) in human and wild rat blood samples suggesting that a relatively large proportion of OF remained unknown. Until recently, some studies reported commercially available compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSAs) in human blood and sludge samples. The present investigation is a pilot study aiming at surveying some newly identified PFASs such as diPAPs, FTSAs, and perfluorinated phosphinates (PFPiAs) in different environmental samples including surface water, sediment, sewage treatment plant influent and effluent, sludge, benthic worm, and human blood from Hong Kong. DiPAPs (6:2, 6:2/8:2, and 8:2) were detected in some of the samples at part-per-billion (ppb) levels in sludge, sub ppb levels in influent and effluent, sediment, worm, and human blood samples, and sub part-per-trillion (ppt) levels in surface waters. Sub ppt to ppb levels of 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs were observed in worm, surface water, and human blood samples. PFPiAs were only observed in worm samples. The detected "new PFASs" accounted for a minor proportion (less than 5%) of the total PFASs in benthic worm and human blood, but up to 95% in sewage sludge samples from Hong Kong. This is the first report of commercial fluorosurfactants (PFPiAs, diPAPs, and FTSAs) in the samples from the environment and human blood in Hong Kong; further information on the distribution, fate, and transport of "new PFASs" in other Asian cities, as well as toxicity, is needed for further assessing the human exposure and risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49967 (URN)10.1021/es303805k (DOI)000318756000091 ()23521376 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84877597061 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Research Grants Councils of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China CityU160610

City University Postgraduate Studentship

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Taniyasu, S., Yeung, L. W. Y., Lam, P. K. S., Wang, J., . . . Dai, J. (2013). Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China. Environmental Pollution, 176, 10-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 176, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Economically developed areas of China; Fate; Municipal wastewater treatment plants; Perfluoroalkyl substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49968 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2012.12.019 (DOI)000317028800002 ()23410673 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84873658091 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

National Natural Science Foundation of China 31025006 20837004

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Taniyasu, S., Kannan, K., Wu, Q., Kwok, K. Y., Yeung, L. W. Y., Lam, P. K. S., . . . Yamashita, N. (2013). Inter-laboratory trials for analysis of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in water samples: Performance and recommendations. Analytica Chimica Acta, 770, 111-120
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-laboratory trials for analysis of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in water samples: Performance and recommendations
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2013 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 770, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ISO 25101 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva) describes a new international standard method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in unfiltered samples of drinking and surface waters. The method is based on the extraction of target analytes by solid phase extraction, solvent elution, and determination by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). For the determination of the performance of this method, more than 20 laboratories from 9 different countries participated in an inter-laboratory trial in 2006. In addition, inter-laboratory trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 for the analysis of perfluoroalkylsubstances (PFASs), including PFOS and PFOA, in water samples by following the protocols of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Overall, the repeatability coefficients of variation (i.e., within-laboratory precision) for PFOS and PFOA in all water samples were between 3 and 11%, showing a adequate precision of the ISO and JIS methods. The reproducibility coefficients of variation (i.e., between-laboratory precision) were found to vary within a range of 7-31% for surface water and 20-40% for wastewater. The recoveries of PFOS and PFOA, as a measure of accuracy, varied from 84 to 100% for surface water and from 84 to 100% for wastewater among the samples with acceptable criteria for internal standards recovery. The determined concentrations of PFASs in samples compared well with the " true" values. The results of the inter-laboratory trial confirmed that the analytical methods are robust and reliable and can be used as a standard method for the analysis of target compounds in water samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
HPLC-MS/MS, ISO; Inter-laboratory trial; Perfluoroalkyl substances; PFOS; Water
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49971 (URN)10.1016/j.aca.2013.01.056 (DOI)000317252900014 ()23498693 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84874976205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Ministry of the Environment B-1106

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science 23710032

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Yeung, L. W. Y., De Silva, A. O., Loi, E. I. H., Marvin, C. H., Taniyasu, S., Yamashita, N., . . . Lam, P. K. S. (2013). Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario. Environment International, 59, 389-397
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario
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2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg-1 d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Core; Flux; PFAS; PFOS; Sediment; Unidentified fluorine
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49964 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2013.06.026 (DOI)000324901000041 ()23911339 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84881095375 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Environment Canada's Chemical Management Plan

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41276111

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-05-27Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Lam, J. C. W., So, M. K., Yeung, L. W. Y., Cai, Z., Hung, C. L. H. & Lam, P. K. S. (2012). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in waterbird eggs of Hong Kong, China. Chemosphere, 86(3), 242-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in waterbird eggs of Hong Kong, China
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2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 242-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were measured in 56 egg samples collected from waterbirds of different species (Great Egret, Little Egret, Night Heron and Chinese Pond Heron) from different regions of Hong Kong (Ho Sheung Heung, Mai Po Village and Mai Po Lung Village) during 2000 and 2006. Dominance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF indicates a signature associated with commercial usage of PCBs. Although no significant variations were observed within- and between-site in the levels of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs and PBDEs, the concentrations of coplanar PCBs were much higher than PCDD/Fs. Similarity in composition profiles of PCDD/F and coplanar PCBs from different egretries is possibly associated with non-point sources of these contaminants to Hong Kong. Predominant accumulation of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 suggested the penta-BDE technical mixtures usage in Hong Kong and its vicinity. Toxic equivalency and Monte Carlo simulation technique showed potential risks on waterbirds due to their exposure to PCDD/Fs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Coplanar PCBs; Egg; Hong Kong; PBDEs; PCDD/Fs; Waterbirds
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49975 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.032 (DOI)000300210200005 ()22024097 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84855205930 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

University Grants Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, China AoE/P-04/2004

CityU research Grant 7008035

Hong Kong Research Grants Council CityU 160610

Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Ahrens, L., Yeung, L. W. Y., Taniyasu, S., Lam, P. K. S. & Yamashita, N. (2011). Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment. Chemosphere, 85(5), 731-737
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment
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2011 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 731-737Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
Partitioning; PFCs; PFOA; PFOS; PFOSA; Sediment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49976 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.046 (DOI)000297959600005 ()21742366 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-80555126789 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

German Federal Environmental Foundation

International Bureau from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research JPN 08/A02

University Grants Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China AoE/P-04/2004

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Murphy, M. B., Lam, J. C. W., Jiao, L., Wong, C. C. L., Yeung, L. W. Y. & Lam, P. K. S. (2011). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: Risk assessment to local waterbirds. Chemosphere, 83(7), 891-896
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: Risk assessment to local waterbirds
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2011 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 891-896Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11100ngg-1 lipid and 453-49000ngg-1 lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
DDT; Organochlorinated pesticides; PCBs; Risk assessment; Waterbird egg
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49978 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.073 (DOI)000290507800001 ()21440927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79954621870 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

University Grants Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, China AoE/P-04/2004

CityU Strategic Research Grant 7008035

Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lu, G.-H., Yang, Y.-L., Taniyasu, S., Yeung, L. W. Y., Pan, J., Zhou, B., . . . Yamashita, N. (2011). Potential exposure of perfluorinated compounds to Chinese in Shenyang and Yangtze River Delta areas. Environmental Chemistry, 8(4), 407-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential exposure of perfluorinated compounds to Chinese in Shenyang and Yangtze River Delta areas
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2011 (English)In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental contextA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including PFOS were quantified in river waters, sewage, sea waters, shallow ground waters as well as fish and domestic poultry, focussed on the main river basins in Shenyang and the Yangtze River Delta areas, China. The distribution characteristics of PFCs in the aquatic environment and evaluation of the potential risk for human health via the diet of fish was discussed. Comprehensive research was carried out using the world leading knowledge about PFOS-related chemicals in AIST, Japan to enable reliable evaluation of PFOS risk in Chinese environments, supported by ISO25101. AbstractA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in water and biota samples collected from Shenyang in North-east China and the Yangtze River Delta area in East China. The human health risk owing to intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) via fish and domestic poultry dietary was evaluated. The total PFC concentration (∑PFC) in water samples from the rivers in Shenyang averaged 5.32ngL-1, with PFOS and PFOA as the predominant compounds. The urban sewage could be the source of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in the surface waters. The total PFCs in water samples from the Yangtze River Delta area ranged from 42.4 to 170ngL-1. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in waters from the Shanghai section of the Yangtze River. In the biota samples, PFOS and PFUnDA (perfluoroundecanoic acid) were the most abundant. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) and hazard ratio (HR) values for PFOS and PFOA intake through the diet of fish and poultry in the studied areas were calculated, and showed that the HR values for PFOS and PFOA are all less than 1.0 for both the areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CSIRO Publishing, 2011
Keywords
biota; groundwater; river water; seawater
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49980 (URN)10.1071/EN10139 (DOI)000294056000009 ()2-s2.0-80052004728 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Ministry of Science and Technology of China 2006DFA21280

Natural Science Foundation of China 40773010

National Research Center for Geoanalysis China 201012CSJ05

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
Loi, E. I. H., Yeung, L. W. Y., Taniyasu, S., Lam, P. K. S., Kannan, K. & Yamashita, N. (2011). Trophic Magnification of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds in a Subtropical Food Web. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(13), 5506-5513
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trophic Magnification of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds in a Subtropical Food Web
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2011 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 13, p. 5506-5513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, worms, shrimps, fishes, and waterbirds collected in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in Hong Kong were analyzed. Trophic magnification was observed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) in this food web. Risk assessment results for PFOS, PFDA, and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suggest that current PFC concentrations in waterbird livers are unlikely to pose adverse biological effects to waterbirds. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and PFOA are less than one, which suggests that the detected levels will not cause any immediate health effects to the Hong Kong population through the consumption of shrimps and fishes. However, only 10-12% of the EOF in the shrimp samples was comprised of known PFCs, indicating the need for further investigation to identify unknown fluorinated compounds in wildlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2011
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49977 (URN)10.1021/es200432n (DOI)000292075100010 ()21644538 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79959896721 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Research Grants Councils of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China CityU160408

City University

Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2134-3710

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