oru.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Fiedler, Heidelore, Dr.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1496-9245
Publications (10 of 90) Show all publications
Henry, B. J., Carlin, J. P., Hammerschmidt, J. A., Buck, R. C., Buxton, L. W., Fiedler, H., . . . Hernandez, O. (2018). A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 14(3), 316-334
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 316-334Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of fluorinated substances that are in the focus of researchers and regulators due to widespread presence in the environment and biota, including humans, of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Fluoropolymers, high molecular weight polymers within the PFAS group, have unique properties that constitute a distinct class within the PFAS group. Fluoropolymers have thermal, chemical, photochemical, hydrolytic, oxidative and biological stability. They have negligible residual monomer and oligomer content and low to no leachables. Fluoropolymers are practically insoluble in water and not subject to long-range transport. With a molecular weight well over 100,000 Da, fluoropolymers cannot cross the cell membrane. Fluoropolymers are not bioavailable or bioaccumulative, as evidenced by toxicology studies on PTFE: acute and subchronic systemic toxicity, irritation, sensitization, local toxicity on implantation, cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity, hemolysis, complement activation, and thrombogenicity. Clinical studies of patients receiving permanently implanted PTFE cardiovascular medical devices demonstrate no chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity, reproductive or developmental or endocrine toxicity. This paper brings together fluoropolymer toxicity data, human clinical data, and physical-chemical-thermal-biological data for review and assessment to show that fluoropolymers satisfy widely accepted assessment criteria to be considered as "Polymers of Low Concern". This review concludes that fluoropolymers are distinctly different from other polymeric and non-polymeric per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and should be separated from them for hazard assessment or regulatory purposes. Grouping fluoropolymers with all classes of PFAS for "read across" or structure activity relationship assessment is not scientifically appropriate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2018
Keywords
Fluoropolymer; International regulation; Polytetrafluoroethylene; Polymer of low concern; PFAS
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64981 (URN)10.1002/ieam.4035 (DOI)000430059200002 ()29424474 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044537689 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Liu, X., Fiedler, H., Gong, W., Wang, B. & Yu, G. (2018). Potential sources of unintentionally produced PCB, HCB, and PeCBz in China: A preliminary overview. Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, 12(6), Article ID 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential sources of unintentionally produced PCB, HCB, and PeCBz in China: A preliminary overview
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISSN 2095-2201, E-ISSN 2095-221X, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), China is required not only to reduce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) but also unintentionally produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz). A baseline of the sources in China that generate these unintentional POPs is needed for both research and regulation purposes. In this paper, we have compiled production data of potential sources in China and assessed them in five-year intervals from 2000 to 2015. Most of these activities experienced changes from rapid growth to slow growth. Measured data for PCB, HCB and PeCBz in samples collected from potential sources in China were reviewed. Most information was associated to thermal processes with high potential of emission, including waste incineration and ferrous and non-ferrous metal production. In addition, high levels of PCB, HCB and PeCBz were found as impurities in a few chlorinated products or as by-products in solvent production, which suggested organochlorine industry might be important sources. Finally, based on the studies reviewed, recommendations for future actions in research and policy as well as a few regulatory issues in China are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Higher Education Press, 2018
Keywords
Unintentionally produced POPs, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Hexachlorobenzene, Pentachlorobenzene, sources of releases, Annual production activities
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68032 (URN)10.1007/s11783-018-1036-9 (DOI)000436049600006 ()2-s2.0-85046546978 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

National High Technology Research and Development Program of China  2013AA06A305 

Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University  

Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality project NSFC/UNEP  B07  21561142001 

Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Elgazali, A. A. S., Gajdosechova, Z., Abbas, Z., Lombi, E., Scheckel, K. G., Donner, E., . . . Krupp, E. M. (2018). Reactive gaseous mercury is generated from chloralkali factories resulting in extreme concentrations of mercury in hair of workers. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 3675.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive gaseous mercury is generated from chloralkali factories resulting in extreme concentrations of mercury in hair of workers
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 3675Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Occupational exposure of chloralkali workers to highly concentrated mercury (Hg) vapour has been linked to an increased risk of renal dysfunction and behavioural changes. It is generally believed that these workers are exposed to elemental Hg, which is used in abundance during the production process however, the lack in analytical techniques that would allow for identification of gaseous Hg species poses a challenge, which needs to be addressed in order to reach a consensus. Here, we present the results from simulated exposure studies, which provide sound evidence of higher adsorption rate of HgCl2 than Hg-0 and its irreversible bonding on the surface of hair. We found that chloralkali workers were exposed to HgCl2, which accumulated in extremely high concentrations on the hair surface, more than 1,000 times higher than expected from unexposed subjects and was positively correlated with Hg levels in the finger- and toenails.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65447 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-20544-5 (DOI)000426151800008 ()29487292 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042714707 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

UNEP Chemicals

Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Fiedler, H., van der Veen, I. & de Boer, J. (2017). Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants: Third Round 2016/2017, Dioxin-like POPs and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances. Organohalogen Compounds, 79, 237-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants: Third Round 2016/2017, Dioxin-like POPs and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances
2017 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 79, p. 237-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dioxin20XX, 2017
Keywords
Proficiency test, dioxins/furans, PFAS, interlaboratory
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72014 (URN)
Projects
UNEP GMP2 project
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
van der Veen, I., Fiedler, H. & de Boer, J. (2017). Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants – Third Round 2016/2017, Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs and Brominated Flame Retardants. Organohalogen Compounds, 79, 575-578
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants – Third Round 2016/2017, Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs and Brominated Flame Retardants
2017 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 79, p. 575-578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dioxin201XX, 2017
Keywords
Proficiency test, organochlorine pesticides, broinated flame retardants, PCB
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72015 (URN)
Projects
UNEP GMP2
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Jin, R., Liu, G., Zheng, M., Fiedler, H., Jiang, X., Yang, L., . . . Xu, Y. (2017). Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method. Journal of Chromatography A, 1509, 114-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1509, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Isotopic dilution method; 13C labelled compounds; Chlorinated PAHs; Brominated PAHs; Atmosphere; Stack gas
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58623 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2017.06.022 (DOI)000407868800013 ()28622970 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020458767 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Chinese National 973 Program  2015CB453100 

National Natural Science Foundation of China  91543108  21477147  21361140359 

United Nations Environment Programme  21361140359 

Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  XDB14020102 

Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  2016038 

Available from: 2017-07-09 Created: 2017-07-09 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Malisch, R., Denison, M. S., Fiedler, H., Fürst, P., Hoogenboom, R. L. A., Schaechtele, A., . . . van den Berg, M. (2017). Do PCDD/PCDF standard solutions used in dioxin analysis pose a risk as potentially acutely toxic to lab personnel?. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (ICHMET), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, September 12-15, 2016. Chemosphere, 185, 489-498
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do PCDD/PCDF standard solutions used in dioxin analysis pose a risk as potentially acutely toxic to lab personnel?
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, p. 489-498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory safety requires protecting personnel from chemical exposures. Working with stock solutions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in routine analysis of feed and food with bioanalytical or physicochemical methods raises some concerns. Since PCDD/PCDFs are considered as possibly acutely toxic, the potential risks were evaluated to determine whether supervision of their use is necessary. Based on LD50-data for oral or dermal intake, hazard classification of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a substance (category 1) and in commercially available TCDD standard solutions (category 4) is different. As worst case exposure scenario during routine laboratory work it was assumed that a dose of 100 ng TCDD gets onto the skin and is absorbed. This would result in the total body burden of a 70 kg person with 15 kg fat increasing from 10 (upper range of current background levels) to similar to 17 pg of toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDD/PCDFs per g lipid, a level commonly observed over past decades. Chloracne, the main acute effect occurring weeks after exposure, is observed at much higher blood concentrations than estimated from accidental laboratory exposure. Immunotoxicity, developmental effects and other toxic effects may occur at lower blood levels, but require longer periods to develop. Since acute toxic symptoms don't occur within an "8 h acute time window", no supervision is necessary when working with standard solutions in routine analysis. Nevertheless, precautionary measures are needed regarding long-term adverse health effects and appropriate workplace conditions must exist to ensure that additional occupational exposure to PCDD/PCDFs by laboratory personnel is negligible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
PCDD/PCDF, Standard solutions, Acute toxicity, Laboratory incidents, Safety partnerships
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61033 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.021 (DOI)000408597300056 ()28715759 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85023610689 (Scopus ID)
Conference
18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (ICHMET), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, September 12-15, 2016
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Gong, W., Fiedler, H., Liu, X., Wang, B. & Yu, G. (2017). Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF. Environmental Pollution, 230, 516-522
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 230, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) have been listed as unintentional POPs in the annex of the Stockholm Convention and thus, attracted attention by government and researchers. Since the intentional production and use has ceased in most countries, the unintentional releases to the environment have increased. This study gathered 206 and 78 emission factors (EFs) of unintentional HCB and PeCBz from scientific publications and governmental reports, respectively. Most of the EFs referred to the release vector "air" (EFAir) and to a less extent to "product" (EFProduct). EFs were proposed for different source categories/classes used in the Toolkit according to the technologies that released the HCB or PeCBz. Overall, lowest and highest EFAir for HCB were found in the metallurgical industry range from 1 μg/t in well controlled plants (coke, iron and steel) up to 40,000 μg/t (secondary zinc). EFs for PeCBz were in similar order of magnitude. Due to lack of data, EFs to water, land or residue cannot be proposed. Using linear regression and statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation, we found strongest correlation of EFAir between HCB and PeCBz (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.01) and weaker, but still significant, correlations for EFAir between PCDD/PCDFTEQ and HCB (R(2) = 0.56; P < 0.01) or PeCBz (R(2) = 0.31 P < 0.01) for various thermal processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Hexachlorobenzene; Pentachlorobenzene; Emission factors; Unintentional formation; Correlation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61469 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.082 (DOI)000412250900055 ()28697468 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021935562 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

NSFC-UNEP  21561142001 

Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University  IRT1261 

Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality 

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jin, R., Liu, G., Jiang, X., Liang, Y., Fiedler, H., Yang, L., . . . Zheng, M. (2017). Profiles, sources and potential exposures of parent, chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze associated atmosphere. Science of the Total Environment, 593-594, 390-398, Article ID S0048-9697(17)30654-X.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Profiles, sources and potential exposures of parent, chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze associated atmosphere
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 593-594, p. 390-398, article id S0048-9697(17)30654-XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Profiles, sources and potential exposures of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs and BrPAHs) in haze associated atmosphere remain unclear. Haze events happened frequently during heating period in Beijing provided a typical urban context to investigate the concentrations, profiles, sources and potential exposures of ClPAHs, BrPAHs and their non-halogenated parent compounds (PAHs) in air samples. Average concentrations of PAHs, ClPAHs and BrPAHs during heating periods (with more frequent haze events) were about 3-9 times higher than during non-heating periods. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM)-associated ClPAHs and BrPAHs were higher in heating period than in non-heating period, while for gas-associated ClPAHs and BrPAHs, this distinction was not significant. Congener patterns and congener profiles indicated that with increasing coal combustion during the heating period, concentrations of PAHs and ClPAHs in air were elevated in comparison to the non-heating period. Inhalation of PM-associated PAHs, ClPAHs and BrPAHs accounted for higher exposure than inhalation of gas phase and dermal contact of both gas phase and particulate phase. In this study we found that the particulate phase is the dominant exposure pathway of atmospheric PAHs, ClPAHs and BrPAHs during haze days, which is different from previous studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Air pollution, Dermal contact, Halogenated PAHs, Haze events, Inhalation risk
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57356 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.134 (DOI)000401201800041 ()28351807 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85016052924 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Natural Science Foundation of China  91543108  21577148  21361140359 

United Nations Environment Programme  21361140359 

State's Key Project of Research and Development Plan  2016YFC0202500 

Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  XDB14020102 

Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  2016038 

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Gong, W., Fiedler, H., Liu, X., Wang, B. & Yu, G. (2017). Reassessment and update of emission factors for unintentional dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Science of the Total Environment, 605, 498-506
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reassessment and update of emission factors for unintentional dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605, p. 498-506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the major goals of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to continuously reduce the releases of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from anthropogenic sources. Until now, most efforts have focused on the releases of PCDD/PCDF and to a lesser extent on unintentionally generated PCB, and therefore, release inventories reported as toxic equivalents (TEQ) do not include the twelve dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB). In order to facilitate the development of national release inventories for the total TEQ - consisting of PCDD, PCDF and PCB - this study collected and summarized published emission factors (EFs) of unintentional dl-PCB or calculated them from measured data for the sources listed in the UNEP Toolkit. In total, 286 EFs for dl-PCB were found (or could be calculated) whereby 233 described release to air, 23 EFs addressed to residue, 25 EFs to product; and only 5 EFs addressed releases to land. Taking into account performance criteria such as the facility type and scale or abatement technologies, the EFs were grouped and assigned to the source categories and/or classes used in the UNEP Toolkit. With these newly added data and EFs of dl-PCB, the already existing EFs in the Toolkit can be improved and amended. In addition, a statistically significant correlation between the EFAir of dl-PCB proposed in this study and EFAir of PCDD/PCDF recommended in the Toolkit was observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Persistent organic pollutants, Emission factor, Unintentional dl-PCB, Correlation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61030 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.068 (DOI)000408275500052 ()28672238 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021673814 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

NSFC-UNEP Joint Research Project  21561142001 

Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University  IRT1261 

Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality of Tsinghua University 

Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1496-9245

Search in DiVA

Show all publications