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Baccini, L., Lodefalk, M. & Sabolová, R. (2024). Economic Determinants of Attitudes Toward Migration: Firm-level Evidence from Europe. International Organization, 1-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Determinants of Attitudes Toward Migration: Firm-level Evidence from Europe
2024 (English)In: International Organization, ISSN 0020-8183, E-ISSN 1531-5088, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

What are the distributional consequences of migration, and how do they affect attitudes toward migration? In this paper we leverage a natural experiment generated by the ousting of former Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi, which created an unprecedented influx of economic migrants from African countries to Europe. This surge of low-skilled labor benefited low-productivity firms by lowering their production costs and expanding their labor supply. Employing a triple difference-in-differences design, we document that attitudes toward migration became more positive in Western European regions with large shares of migrants and low-productivity firms. Evidence from Sweden, which provides finely grained geographical data, confirms these findings. We then test the economic microfoundations of this attitudinal shift. We show that the surge in the supply of low-skilled labor increased the profitability of low-productivity firms more in areas that experienced larger migration flows. We find no evidence that migration worsened natives’ labor market conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2024
Keywords
Migration, attitudes toward migration, firm profitability, Western Europe
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-110938 (URN)10.1017/s0020818323000255 (DOI)001140733800001 ()
Note

Funding for this research was provided by the Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Société et Culture (grantagreement 2017-NP-198967).

Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Hatzigeorgiou, A., Karpaty, P., Kneller, R. & Lodefalk, M. (2024). Immigrant employment and the contract enforcement costs of offshoring. Review of World Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immigrant employment and the contract enforcement costs of offshoring
2024 (English)In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Offshoring continues to be an important dimension of firms' internationalization choices. However, offshoring also increases contract enforcement costs by inhibiting the coordination and monitoring of performance. Immigrant employees may reduce such costs through their specific knowledge of the employer, their country of birth and access to foreign networks. In this paper, we investigate the role of immigrant employees within firms on firm offshoring, employing rich administrative Swedish microlevel data that include specific information about the characteristics of employees, manufacturing firms and their bilateral offshoring. Our results support the hypothesis that immigrant employees increase offshoring by lowering contract enforcement costs. Hiring one additional immigrant employee is linked to a relatively larger increase in offshoring at the intensive than the extensive margin, on average. The association to offshoring is considerably stronger for skilled immigrant employees and for contract and R&D intensive offshoring. Instrumental variable estimations demonstrate qualitatively similar results, while a placebo test with randomized immigrant employment does not generate any link between immigrants and offshoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Offshoring, Contract enforcement, Immigrant employees, Networks, Information, F22, F23, F14, D21, D83
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-110944 (URN)10.1007/s10290-023-00519-z (DOI)001140398900001 ()2-s2.0-85182241679 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius FoundationÖrebro University
Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lodefalk, M. & Andersson, F. W. (2023). Business angels and firm performance: First evidence from population data. PLOS ONE, 18(3), Article ID e0283690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business angels and firm performance: First evidence from population data
2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e0283690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Business angels dominate early-stage investment in firms, but research on their effects on firms is scarce and limited by sample selection. To address sample selection, we propose using population data and we develop an algorithm for identifying business angel investments in such data. We illustrate this novel approach by applying it to detailed and longitudinal total population data for individuals and firms in Sweden. In our application, we focus on a subset of business angels-active business angels who are themselves successful entrepreneurs with a profitable exit. We then study active business angels' effects on firm performance, using population data. Employing a quasi-experimental estimator, we find that the business angels invest in firms that already perform above par. There is also a positive effect on subsequent growth compared with control firms. However, contrary to previous research on business angels, we cannot find any impact on firm survival. Overall, the paper underlines the need to address sample selection when studying business angels and suggests using population data for identification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLOS, 2023
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-105282 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0283690 (DOI)000987423200001 ()36996067 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151404776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
Agarwal, N., Chan, J., Lodefalk, M., Tang, A., Tano, S. & Wang, Z. (2023). Mitigating information frictions in trade: Evidence from export credit guarantees. Journal of International Economics, 145, Article ID 103831.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigating information frictions in trade: Evidence from export credit guarantees
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2023 (English)In: Journal of International Economics, ISSN 0022-1996, E-ISSN 1873-0353, Vol. 145, article id 103831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information frictions make foreign trade risky. In particular, the risk of buyer default deters firms from selling abroad. To address this issue, many countries offer export credit guarantees to provide insurance to exporters. In this paper, we investigate the causal effects of guarantees by exploiting a quasi-natural experiment in Sweden and rich register data on guarantees, firms and trade. Estimates from a fuzzy regression discontinuity design show large positive effects on the probability of exporting and the value of exports to the destination for which the guarantees are issued. These results are robust to an alternative approach using a difference-in-differences matching estimator. Further findings suggest that guarantees impact firms heterogeneously and play an important role in resolving buyer default risk and easing liquidity constraints. Larger impacts are observed in non-OECD countries, on smaller, liquidity constrained exporters and for firms selling products that face a relatively high cost of buyer default.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Buyer default, Export credit guarantees, Firm performance, Information frictions, Liquidity constraints, Trade
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-110190 (URN)10.1016/j.jinteco.2023.103831 (DOI)001110247800001 ()2-s2.0-85178237104 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 2016-149Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E38-16
Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Lodefalk, M., Sjöholm, F. & Tang, A. (2022). International Trade and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants. The World Economy, 45(6), 1650-1689
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International Trade and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants
2022 (English)In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1650-1689Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examine if international trade improves labor market integration of immigrants in Sweden. Immigrants participate substantially less than natives in the labor market. However, trading with a foreign country is expected to increase the demand for immigrants from that country. By hiring immigrants, a firm may access foreign knowledge and networks needed to overcome information frictions in trade. Using granular longitudinal matched employer–employee data and an instrumental variable approach, we estimate the causal effects of a firm’s bilateral trade on employment and wages of immigrants from that country. We find a positive, yet heterogeneous, effect of trade on immigrant employment but no effect on immigrant wages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2022
Keywords
employment, export, immigrants, import, wages
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-96199 (URN)10.1111/twec.13240 (DOI)000751291100001 ()2-s2.0-85124478724 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Migration, integration och företagens globalisering
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P20160099:1
Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2022-06-14Bibliographically approved
Lodefalk, M., Tang, A. & Yu, M. (2022). Stayin' Alive: Export Credit Guarantees and Export Survival. Örebro: Örebro University School of Business
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stayin' Alive: Export Credit Guarantees and Export Survival
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We use survival analysis to analyse the impact of export credit guarantees on firms’ export duration using granular Swedish panel data at the firm-country and firm-country-product levels. The estimation results show that firms’ export survival substantially increases with guarantees, at both levels. The associations are particu- larly strong for smaller firms and contracts as well as in trade with riskier markets. The findings have implications for policies to promote long-run export growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University School of Business, 2022. p. 13, 7
Series
Working Papers, School of Business, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 10/2022
Keywords
Survival, Exports, Export credit guarantees
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-107893 (URN)
Projects
Insatser för utrikeshandelns finansering
Funder
Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E38/16
Available from: 2023-08-29 Created: 2023-08-29 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Hatzigeorgiou, A. & Lodefalk, M. (2021). A literature review of the nexus between migration and internationalization. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, 30(3), 319-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A literature review of the nexus between migration and internationalization
2021 (English)In: Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, ISSN 0963-8199, E-ISSN 1469-9559, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 319-340Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Protectionism and anti-globalization tides have been rising already before the COVID-19 pandemic, with Brexit and the China-U.S. trade war, as two examples. A continued disruption to global trade, investment and value chains could worsen global development. Economic recovery will require restoring firms' ability to trade, offshore and invest globally. To achieve this, it will be useful to understand the role of migration for foreign trade, investment and other aspects of internationalization. In this paper we review and discuss over 100 papers published about migrants' roles on international trade, foreign direct investment and offshoring. Although the evidence suggests that migration facilitates trade and internationalization, we also note substantial gaps and inconsistencies in the existing literature. The aim of this paper is to encourage further research and assist policymakers in their efforts to promote economic recovery including internationalization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
Migration, networks, information, trade, foreign direct investment
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-89891 (URN)10.1080/09638199.2021.1878257 (DOI)000614487900001 ()2-s2.0-85100555641 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Migration Studies Delegation  

Available from: 2021-02-25 Created: 2021-02-25 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
Lodefalk, M., Hatzigeorgiou, A. & Alm, C. (2021). Migration can Play a Role in the Post-Pandemic Reboot of Global Trade. VoxEU.org (April 27)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration can Play a Role in the Post-Pandemic Reboot of Global Trade
2021 (English)In: VoxEU.org, no April 27Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic rise in protectionism and restrictions around the world. This column sheds light on the role migration can play in restoring globalisation in the wake of COVID-19. It draws upon evidence from macro-, sub-national, and micro-level research to demonstrate that migration has the potential to promote economic recovery through facilitating foreign trade, investment, and offshoring. The findings carry implications not only for physical migration, but also for whether or not recent technological advances may enable foreign-based online workers to promote globalisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEPR, 2021
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-96201 (URN)
Projects
Migration, integration och företagens globalisering - hur bidrar migration och integration i arbetslivet till företagens globalisering?
Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H., Lodefalk, M. & Wernberg, J. (2021). The EU Digital Market Regulations: Rule-Maker or Deal-Breaker?. TIISA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The EU Digital Market Regulations: Rule-Maker or Deal-Breaker?
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TIISA, 2021. p. 4
Series
TIISA Network Working Paper
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-96202 (URN)
Projects
Tjänstefiering och internationalisering av tillverkningsindustrin
Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2022-01-04Bibliographically approved
Borchert, I., Cory, N., Drake-Brockman, J., Fan, Z., Findlay, C., Kimura, F., . . . Yagci, M. (2020). Digital Technologies, Services and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. TIISA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Technologies, Services and the Fourth Industrial Revolution
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2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasingly rapid uptake of digital technologies is launching the global economy into the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ and the next transformative wave of globalisation. Trade in merchandise is in long-run relative decline; trade in services, especially e services, is on a long-term relative upward trend - and associated cross-border data flows are growing exponentially. These structural shifts, and their impacts on competitiveness, are set to intensify. The G20 must assert a leadership role by signalling best practice policy and regulatory settings, including sustained openness to international trade, investment and data flows, so every nation can reap the productivity gains of the digital age. This Working Paper has been prepared as background for a short Policy Brief for the 2020 THINK20 Taskforce 1: Trade and Investment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TIISA, 2020. p. 16
Series
TIISA Network Working Paper ; 2020-02
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-84050 (URN)
Projects
Jean Monnet TIISA Network (The Trade and Investment in Services Associates Network)
Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2020-07-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0149-9598

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