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Persson, J., Wang, T. & Hagberg, J. (2019). Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?. Indoor and Built Environment, 28(4), 506-519
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?
2019 (English)In: Indoor and Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 506-519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of an airtight frame in low-energy buildings could increase the risk of health-related problems, such as allergies and sick building syndromes (SBS), associated with chemical emissions from building materials, especially if the ventilation system is not functioning properly. In this study, the indoor air quality (IAQ) was investigated in newly built low-energy and conventional preschools by monitoring the indoor air temperature, relative humidity, particle-size distribution and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The thermal comfort was satisfactory in all preschools, with average indoor air temperature and a relative humidity at 21.4C and 36%, respectively. The highest levels of TVOC (range: 130–1650 mg/m3 toluene equivalents) and formaldehyde (range: 1.9–28.8 mg/m3) occurred during the first sampling period associated with strong emissions from building materials. However, those preschools constructed with environmental friendly building materials (such as Swan Eco-label) had lower initial TVOC levels compared to those preschools constructed with conventional building materials. The IAQ and indoor chemical emissions were also strongly dependent on the functioning of the ventilation system. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that exposure to acrolein and crotonaldehyde might lead to respiratory-tract irritation among occupants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Indoor air quality, Low-energy preschool, Ventilation, Indoor air pollutants, Temporal trends, Maximum cumulative ratio, Volatile organic compounds
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70261 (URN)10.1177/1420326X18792600 (DOI)000461388600007 ()2-s2.0-85052561103 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Örebro University  

Healthy Building Forum (HBF)  

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (AMM) at Örebro University Hospital 

Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Persson, J., Wang, T. & Hagberg, J. (2019). Temporal Trends of Decabromodiphenyl Ether and Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Dust, Air and Window Surfaces of Newly Built Low-Energy Preschools. Indoor Air, 29(2), 263-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal Trends of Decabromodiphenyl Ether and Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Dust, Air and Window Surfaces of Newly Built Low-Energy Preschools
2019 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The envelope of low-energy buildings is generally constructed with significant amounts of plastics, sealants and insulation materials that are known to contain various chemical additives to improve specific functionalities. A commonly used group of additives are flame retardants to prevent the spread of fire. In this study, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and fourteen emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were analyzed in indoor dust, air and on the window surface of newly built low-energy preschools to study their occurrence and distribution. BDE-209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were frequently detected in the indoor dust (BDE-209: <4.1-1200 ng/g, DBDPE: <2.2-420 ng/g) and on window surfaces (BDE-209: <1000-20 000 pg/m2 , DBDPE: <34-5900 pg/m2 ) while the other thirteen BFRs were found in low levels (dust: <0.0020-5.2 ng/g, window surface: 0.0078-35 pg/m2 ). In addition, the detection frequencies of BFRs in the indoor air were low in all preschools. Interestingly, the dust levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were found to be lower in the environmentally certified low-energy preschools, which could be attributed to stricter requirements on the chemical content in building materials and products. However, an increase of some BFR levels in dust was observed which could imply continuous emissions or introduction of new sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Brominated flame retardants, indoor dust, low-energy buildings, preschool, semivolatile organic compounds, window wipe
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71193 (URN)10.1111/ina.12528 (DOI)000459637200010 ()30578573 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060170952 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Healthy Building Forum  

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital  

Örebro University

Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Alhamdow, A., Lindh, C., Hagberg, J., Graff, P., Westberg, H., Krais, A. M., . . . Broberg, K. (2018). DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Carcinogenesis, 39(7), 869-878
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
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2018 (English)In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 869-878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers (73.3%), but not chimney sweeps (76.6%) had lower methylation of F2RL3 cg03636183 than controls (76.7%). Linear regression analyses showed that chimney sweeps had lower AHRR cg05575921 methylation (B=-2.04; P<0.057, adjusted for smoking and age) and lower average AHRR methylation (B=-2.05; P<0.035), and non-smoking chimney sweeps had lower average F2RL3 methylation (B=-0.81; P<0.042, adjusted for age) compared with controls. These cancer-related markers were not associated with urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites. In conclusion, although we found no associations with PAH metabolites in urine (short-term exposure), our results suggest dose-response relationship between PAH exposure and DNA hypomethylation of lung cancer-related loci. These findings indicate that further protective measures should be taken to reduce PAH exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67021 (URN)10.1093/carcin/bgy059 (DOI)000438289600003 ()29722794 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-00402AFA Insurance, 120115The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Note

Funding Agency:

Medical Training and Research Agreement (ALF grants; Region Örebro län)  OLL-550721

Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Bjurlid, F., Dam, M., Hoydal, K. & Hagberg, J. (2018). Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands. Chemosphere, 195, 11-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, Pilot whale blubber, Faroe Islands
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63414 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.044 (DOI)000424172400002 ()29248748 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037990841 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Danish Environmental Protection Agency as part of the environmental support program Dancea - Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Persson, J., Wang, T. & Hagberg, J. (2018). Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools. Science of the Total Environment, 628-629, 159-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools
2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The construction of extremely airtight and energy efficient low-energy buildings is achieved by using functional building materials, such as age-resistant plastics, insulation, adhesives, and sealants. Additives such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) can be added to some of these building materials as flame retardants and plasticizers. Some OPFRs are considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Therefore, in this pilot study, the occurrence and distribution of nine OPFRs were determined for dust, air, and window wipe samples collected in newly built low-energy preschools with and without environmental certifications. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were detected in all indoor dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.014 to 10 μg/g and 0.0069 to 79 μg/g, respectively. Only six OPFRs (predominantly chlorinated OPFRs) were detected in the indoor air. All nine OPFRs were found on the window surfaces and the highest concentrations, which occurred in the reference preschool, were measured for 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) (maximum concentration: 1500 ng/m2). Interestingly, the OPFR levels in the environmental certified low-energy preschools were lower than those in the reference preschool and the non-certified low-energy preschool, probably attributed to the usage of environmental friendly and low-emitting building materials, interior decorations, and consumer products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Organophosphate flame retardant, Plasticizer, Low-energy preschool, Environmental certified building, Indoor dust, Surface wipe
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65565 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.053 (DOI)000432462000018 ()29432927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041523162 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Healthy Building Forum (HBF)

Örebro University

Department of Occupational and Environ-mental Medicine at Örebro University Hospital

Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
Bjurlid, F., Roos, A., Ericson Jogsten, I. & Hagberg, J. (2018). Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617, 1374-1383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Dioxins, Furans, POPs, Marine mammal
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63413 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.178 (DOI)000424121800137 ()29066193 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038955003 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency  2213-15-022

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Bjurlid, F., Kärrman, A., Ricklund, N. & Hagberg, J. (2017). Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods. Science of the Total Environment, 599-600, 1213-1221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
PBDD/F, PCDD/F, Fire, Cutting extinguisher, Foam, Additive, Nozzle, Formation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59123 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.087 (DOI)000405253500018 ()28514839 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019068316 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Geng, D., Ericson Jogsten, I., Dunstan, J., Hagberg, J., Wang, T., Ruzzin, J., . . . van Bavel, B. (2016). Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum. Journal of Chromatography A, 1453, 88-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1453, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300 pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r2) &gt;0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4 pg/μL) and CS 3 (4 pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
PCBs, OCPs, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS), human serum
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50854 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.030 (DOI)000378182800010 ()27236485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84969722268 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

China Scholarship Council (CSC) under the Grant CSC 201206400003

Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Kärrman, A., Bjurlid, F., Hagberg, J., Ricklund, N., Larsson, M., Stubleski, J. & Hollert, H. (2016). Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University, 2016. p. 57
National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54919 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
van Bavel, B., Geng, D., Cherta, L., Nacher-Mestre, J., Portoles, T., Abalos, M., . . . Hernandez, F. (2015). Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins. Analytical Chemistry, 87(17), 9047-9053
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins
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2015 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 17, p. 9047-9053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (El). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 mu m film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/mu L, to 1000 pg/mu L. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HEMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is much easier to use.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46035 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02264 (DOI)000360773100062 ()26267710 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84940971553 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Generalitat Valenciana, as research group of excellence PROMETEO/2009/054

Serveis Centrals d'Instrumentacio Cientifica (SCIC) of the University Jaume I

China Scholarship Council 201206400003

Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4128-8226

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