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Bäckström, MattiasORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2674-4994
Publications (10 of 95) Show all publications
Åhlgren, K., Sjöberg, V., Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Understanding Groundwater composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from leaching tests and multivariate statistics. In: Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M.; Häkkinen, A. (Ed.), 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – Mine Water & Circular Economy: Proceedings, Volume 2. Paper presented at 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – "Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress" (IMWA 2017), Rauha, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 25-30, 2017 (pp. 770-776). International Mine Water Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Groundwater composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from leaching tests and multivariate statistics
2017 (English)In: 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – Mine Water & Circular Economy: Proceedings, Volume 2 / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M.; Häkkinen, A., International Mine Water Association , 2017, p. 770-776Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to oil production from alum shale, the Kvarntorp area is heavily polluted. A waste deposit consisting mostly of shale ash and fines is of important concern. Groundwater shows that parameters such as pH, U, V, Ni and Mo are different at different localities around the deposit. Leaching tests indicate that burned and unburned shale residues leave different signatures on leachates. Principal component analysis of groundwater and leaching tests suggest that ground-water is affected by the waste deposit and that it is more influenced by shale ash than by fines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Mine Water Association, 2017
Series
Tutkimusraportit – Research Reports, ISSN 2243-3376 ; 3
Keywords
Alum shale, Kvarntorp, Shale oil, Leaching, Uranium
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64732 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)978-952-335-066-3 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Mine Water Association Congress – "Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress" (IMWA 2017), Rauha, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 25-30, 2017
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
Saqib, N. & Bäckström, M. (2016). Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration bottom ashes. Fuel, 172, 105-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration bottom ashes
2016 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 172, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The release of trace elements from waste incineration bottom ash is problematic during utilization/landfilling. Thirteen bottom ashes (from various waste fuels and wooden/mixed wooden fuel) were investigated with respect to the total content, leaching behaviour by standard leaching procedure (EN 12457-3), and chemical association of trace elements by sequential extraction. Results showed that the content of trace elements in household/or industrial waste bottom ashes were of high level in comparison to in wooden/mixed wooden fuel/mixed wooden waste ashes. Type of fuel being treated greatly impacts the total inventory of trace elements. On average, trace element content in 13 ashes followed the decreasing order; Cu > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Sb > As. In this study the average total content of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cr was higher in grate bottom ash treating household/industrial waste in comparison to fluidized boilers ash using same waste, however, there were too few data points and variation in data was large. By Standard leaching procedure, an excessive amount (more than disposal limit) of leached Cr, Pb, Sb and Cu (mostly in household/industrial waste ash) was observed in 6, 5, 5 and 4 of the 13 samples, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) found between total and water leachable contents for Cu, Sb and As were 0.8, 0.7 and 0.6 respectively. Sequential extraction indicated that residual was the major fraction mostly, however, considerable amounts of trace elements had the potential to leach out. A large fraction of arsenic (57% based on average values) in 5 samples (mostly in waste/virgin wood and mixed wooden waste/fuel) and Zn (49% based on average values) in 4 of 13 samples (mostly household/or industrial) were found in the fractions that are easily available (acid soluble and exchangeable). Further, a considerable amount of Cu in 4 samples were found associated with the organic-bound phase. Dissolved organic matter might play an important role in leaching of Cu during utilization/landfilling. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fuel type affects the association of trace elements in bottom ash. Amounts of labile trace elements in wooden/mixed wooden fuel/waste bottom ashes were comparatively lower than other fuel bottom ashes. None of the samples exceeded the limit of disposal with respect to DOC leaching while chlorine in two and sulphate in three samples (household/industrial) exceeded limit. LOI (550 °C) values were higher for bottom ash from grate facilities probably due to no-pre-treatment of the waste fuel. While comparatively low values of LOI (1 000 °C) in few samples implies that the oxidation might have outweighed the loss of carbonates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Bottom ash; Speciation; Trace elements; Incineration; Mobility
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47348 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2016.01.010 (DOI)000368881200013 ()2-s2.0-84954326717 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Varmeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Association)

Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2016). Development of a low-tech treatment for neutral mine water - a case study. In: Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M. (Ed.), Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 (pp. 913-918). Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a low-tech treatment for neutral mine water - a case study
2016 (English)In: Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016 / [ed] Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M., Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 913-918Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lovisagruvan is a Pb-Zn-Ag mine in mid-south Sweden, with a yearly production of some 40 000 tons. There are four main levels in the mine: 55, 105, 145 and 190 m below ground. Water is continously pumped at a rate of 5 m3/h, passing sedimentation pools at each of the four main levels in the mine and finally one above ground. A modified backfill mining is used and in order to visually separate the ore from the waste rock limestone is used as a separating layer. Limestone addition in combination with non-acid producing mineralisation generates a pH-neutral mine water. For many years the mine has had problems with high levels of zinc and lead in the mine water released to recipient. The primary contaminants, lead and zinc, were mainly found as particles or associated to particles. With a combination of several measures including a sandfilter and FeSO4 addition suspended matter was reduced 93 %, lead 91 % and zinc 71 %.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering, 2016
Keywords
sand filter, sedimentation, iron hydroxides, lead, zinc
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58803 (URN)000402663400142 ()978-3-86012-533-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016
Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Åhlgren, K. & Bäckström, M. (2016). Identification of major point sources in the severely contaminated alum shale area in Kvarntorp, Sweden. In: Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M. (Ed.), Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 (pp. 377-382). Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of major point sources in the severely contaminated alum shale area in Kvarntorp, Sweden
2016 (English)In: Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016 / [ed] Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M., Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 377-382Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Scarcity of imported fuel led to oil production from alum shale in the Kvarntorp area, 200 km west of Stockholm, during 1941-1966. Remains from this are a 100 meter high waste deposit, Kvarntorpshogen, consisting mostly of shale ash and water filled open pits. As this shale is rich in sulphur and trace metals such as U, Ni and Mo, leaching from the waste deposit is feared. To elucidate the important question whether Kvarntorpshgen is the most important concern, or to what extent other sources might contribute with contamination, water sampling was extended to contain more localities than the ordinary control program. A new approach was the sulphur isotope analysis. The results point towards an area too complex for using sulphur isotopes for mixing calculations. Isotope fractionation during oil production is shown by the delta(34) difference between shale and shale ash. Current isotope fractionation indicates sulphate reduction. Some localities indicate pyrite weathering and others rather show buffer capacities due to the presence of lime. Sr concentrations also suggest weathering. It is indicated that Kvarntorpshgen has an impact on the surroundings, but also that the water filled open pits as well as an industrial area affect the water quality. It is concluded that Kvarntorpshgen is one of the most important contributors of metal dispersion, but other point sources cannot be discarded as environmental risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering, 2016
Keywords
Alum shale, Kvarntorp, Shale oil, Sulphur isotopes
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58801 (URN)000402663400060 ()978-3-86012-533-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016
Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L., Bäckström, M., Karlsson, S. & Allard, B. (2016). Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline leachates: Formation of solid precipitates and pH-buffering. Mine Water and the Environment, 35(1), 64-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline leachates: Formation of solid precipitates and pH-buffering
2016 (English)In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three metal-rich, acidic mine waters (from Bersbo and Ljusnarsberg, Sweden) were mixed with alkaline fly ash leachates in various proportions, representing a pH titration. Changes in pH and the loss of metals in solution due to precipitation of solid phases were tracked. Mineral equilibria and changes in pH and alkalinity were simulated using the geochemical code PHREEQC and the MINTEQv4 database, and the measured and simulated pH responses were compared. The formation of solid precipitates corresponded to fairly well-defined pH-buffering regions, reflecting the mine water compositions (notably the levels of Fe, Al, and Mn). Zn precipitation had a distinct buffering effect at near-neutral pH for the mine waters not dominated by iron. The formation of solid Mg phases (carbonate, as well as hydroxide) was indicated at high pH (above 9), but not formation of solid Ca phases, despite high sulfate levels. The phases that precipitated were various amorphous mixtures, mostly of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, and Mg. For the Fe-rich mine water, pH was poorly simulated with a simple MIX model, while alkalinity predictions agreed reasonably well with measured data. For the Al-rich mine waters, the simulated pH responses agreed well with the measurements. In an additional step, geochemical simulations were performed where selected proxy phases for major elements were forced to precipitate; this significantly improved the pH and alkalinity predictions. This approach may be more efficient than performing mixing experiments and titrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
ARD; CFB-fly ash; PHREEQC
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47911 (URN)10.1007/s10230-015-0347-3 (DOI)000371308400008 ()2-s2.0-84959228256 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

EU

Bergslagen region

Örebro University

Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M. & Sartz, L. (2016). Use of multivariate statistics in order to understand the flow of acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7(3), 358-371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of multivariate statistics in order to understand the flow of acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2152-2197, E-ISSN 2152-2219, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 358-371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pathways for acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site (sulphidic ore) were investigated by analysing ground, seepage and surface waters. It was found that in affected ground and seepage waters pH was lower (average pH 5.0); sulphate higher (average 350 mg/L) and trace element concentrations were significantly increased (4330 μg/L copper and 7700 μg/L zinc) compared to surrounding waters. Multivariate statistics (principal component analysis) were used on the data set. Obtained loading plot showed a clear negative correlation between pH and parameters found at high concentrations, indicating that these parameters are found at the source term (acid rock drainage). Lead was also found in close proximity to iron and turbidity indicating that lead might be associated with particles. The score plot presented almost all samples from high concentrations to low concentrations along the first principal component (explaining 63% of the variation in the data set) indicating that dilution was an important mechanism for the decrease in concentrations as opposed to immobilisation on surfaces along the flowpath. Decrease in fluoride and sulphate along one of the suspected flowpath coincided with an increase in calcium. Through geochemical calculations it was concluded that calcite (CaCO3) dissolved along the flowpath and thus induced precipitation of gypsum (CaSO4) and fluorite (CaF2). Through a combination of PCA and geochemical calculations the most likely flowpaths for contaminated water from the abandoned mining site were presented, making it possible to prevent further negative effects on the surface water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2016
Keywords
PCA, PHREEQC, Metals, ARD, Flowpath
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47913 (URN)10.4236/jep.2016.73032 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Saqib, N. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration fly ashes. Fuel, 165, 193-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration fly ashes
2015 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 165, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The migration of trace elements from waste incineration fly ash is problematic during utilization/ landfilling. This study investigated the chemical association and potential mobility of trace elements in fly ashes originating from incineration of different fuels [virgin wood, recovered waste wood (RWW), mixed wooden fuel/waste, household, industrial, and mixed waste]. Fly ashes were characterized for total content of trace elements, chemical association by sequential extraction and leaching behaviour by standard leaching method (EN 12457-3). Results showed that average total content of trace elements in 13 fly ashes decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Pb > Sb > Cr > As > Cd. Sequential extraction results indicated that overall, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb were the most mobile elements and excessive leaching was associated with high content of acid exchangeable fractions. Sequential extraction showed thatthe average percentage of trace elements in labile and stable fractions for all 13 fly ashes decreased in the order:Cd > Cu > Sb > Zn > As > Pb > Cr (ion-exchangeable), Pb > Zn > Sb > Cd > Cu > As > Cr(acid soluble),Cr > As > Pb > Sb > Cu > Zn > Cd (residual). The standard leaching procedure of ashes indicated that the leached amount of Pb in all samples, Zn in 7 while Cu in 6 (out of 13) samples, respectively, exceeded the regulatory level for disposal. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fuel type affects the chemical association of trace elements in fly ash. Further, risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that most of fly ashes presented very high risk due to high RAC values for Cd, Zn, Cu and Sb.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Chemical speciation; Fly ash; Risk assessment; Trace elements mobility; MSWI
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46305 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.062 (DOI)000364655000023 ()2-s2.0-84946087137 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Saqib, N. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies. Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), 36(1 Oct.), 9-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies
2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 36, no 1 Oct., p. 9-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Sb > As > Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in > 50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science Press, 2015
Keywords
Incineration residues; Leaching behavior; Biofuel incineration; Metal distribution; Waste incineration
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45103 (URN)10.1016/j.jes.2015.03.006 (DOI)000362983500002 ()26456601 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943225103 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Varmeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Association) Q4-251

Available from: 2015-07-04 Created: 2015-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Saqib, N. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Uranium in 31 Swedish ashes – differences between boiler type and fuels. In: Merkel, B.J. and Arab, A. (Ed.), Uranium – Past and Future Challenges: . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology, Freiberg, Germany, September 21-25, 2014 (pp. 745-750). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uranium in 31 Swedish ashes – differences between boiler type and fuels
2015 (English)In: Uranium – Past and Future Challenges / [ed] Merkel, B.J. and Arab, A., Springer, 2015, p. 745-750Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

From 14 Swedish boilers (grate fired as well as fluidized bed) 31 different ashes were collected and analysed for uranium. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.32 to 22 mg/kg dw. Average uranium concentration in the bottom ash and fly ash was 1.3 and 2.7 mg/kg dw, respectively, indicating that uranium in the fuel is quite volatile during combustion. Highest concentration of uranium was found in a fly ash from a boiler burning peat indicating that peat is a natural source of uranium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40598 (URN)978-3-319-11059-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-11058-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology, Freiberg, Germany, September 21-25, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M. & Sartz, L. (2015). Uranium leaching from a burning black shale deposit: Present conditions and future scenarios. In: Broder, J; Arab, Alireza (Ed.), Uranium – Past and Future Challenges: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology, September 21-25, 2014. Freiberg, Germany. (pp. 47-54). Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uranium leaching from a burning black shale deposit: Present conditions and future scenarios
2015 (English)In: Uranium – Past and Future Challenges: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology / [ed] Broder, J; Arab, Alireza, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 47-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During WW2 oil was produced through pyrolysis of alum shale giving rise to waste that was deposited in the open pits and in a waste deposit. The waste deposit still today has significantly elevated temperatures (above 500 °C). Remaining pyrite in the waste material has also led to ARD with elevated trace metal concentrations. The waste deposit is no great environmental problem today but as soon as the waste pile cools off both the volumes of drainage and concentration of uranium will increase significantly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2015
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40599 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-11059-2_5 (DOI)978-3-319-11059-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-11058-5 (ISBN)
Conference
7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology, September 21-25, 2014. Freiberg, Germany.
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2674-4994

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