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Stahre, N., Bäckström, M. & Sartz, L. (2019). Element leaching from green liqour dregs from 16 Swedish paper mills. In: Sardinia_2019: 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 30 sept-4 oct, 2019, Santa Margherita di Pula, Italy. Paper presented at 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Caligary, Italy, 30 sept.-4 Oct., 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Element leaching from green liqour dregs from 16 Swedish paper mills
2019 (English)In: Sardinia_2019: 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 30 sept-4 oct, 2019, Santa Margherita di Pula, Italy, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Green liquor dregs (GLD) is an alkaline by-product from the paper and pulp industry with a pH between 10 and 14. Today most of the produced GLD in Sweden are landfilled. In order to increase the utilization, the environmental performance needs to be determined. Samples were collected from 16 mills at 3 different times approximately 6 months apart, totalling 42 samples. Leaching was performed in two sequential steps at an L/S ratio of 2 and 8 on wet samples corresponding to 25 g DM. The liquid phases were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, anions and element concentrations. Leaching of sodium and potassium were as expected very high but leaching of calcium was low. Chromium, nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc leaches generally less than ≤5% of total concentrations. Sodium and potassium are present in GLD as easily soluble salts that are easily washed out. Calcium leaching is restricted by calcite solubility resulting in little effect on short time buffering capacity, however, in the long term calcium minerals will affect the buffering capacity. For nickel, copper, cadmium and lead there are some soluble salts present in the GLD but most of the elements are probably solubility controlled. Geochemical calculations indicated hydroxides as solubility controlling phases for at least copper and in some cases also for lead. Leaching of zinc is to some extent solubility controlled which is indicated by the fact that the soluble concentrations is similar for both L/S 2 and L/S 8. When comparing the leached concentrations from GLD with concentrations from mining waste there is an environmental benefit even if the GLD is not inert. In conclusion, GLD is well suited to be used for treatment of acidic mining waste instead of being landfilled in non-hazardous and hazardous landfills.

Keywords
Green liquor dregs, mine waste, co-disposal, paper pulp industry, leaching
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77700 (URN)
Conference
17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Caligary, Italy, 30 sept.-4 Oct., 2019
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2019-11-02 Created: 2019-11-02 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L., Sädbom, S. & Bäckström, M. (2018). Remediation of Historic Waste Rock by Injection of Green Liquor Dregs: Results From a Field Scale Trial, Gladhammar, Southern Sweden. In: Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Sartz, L., Weber, A., Burgess, J. and Tremblay, G (Ed.), Mine Water: Risk to Opportunity. Paper presented at 11th ICARD | IMWA | WISA MWD 2018 Conference – Risk to Opportunity, Pretoria, South Africa, 10-14 September, 2018 (pp. 1124-1129). Pretoria, South Africa: Tshwane University of Technology, II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Historic Waste Rock by Injection of Green Liquor Dregs: Results From a Field Scale Trial, Gladhammar, Southern Sweden
2018 (English)In: Mine Water: Risk to Opportunity / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Sartz, L., Weber, A., Burgess, J. and Tremblay, G, Pretoria, South Africa: Tshwane University of Technology , 2018, Vol. II, p. 1124-1129Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mining in Gladhammar, southern Sweden started in the 15th century, generating waste rock containing copper, cobalt, and arsenic. During remediation (2011) some waste rock was preserved, due to its geoscienti- c value, and placed on a geomembrane surface. Eventually, it became apparent that it had a substantial environmental impact (pH 3.8, Cu 96 mg/L, Co 21 mg/L). In 2017, green liquor dregs was injected in order to increase pH and decrease trace element mobility. Ten months a er injection pH was 8.3 and concentrations of copper and cobalt 1.3 mg/L and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. Evaluation will continue for at least five years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pretoria, South Africa: Tshwane University of Technology, 2018
Keywords
Mine waste, alkaline, cobalt, copper, arsenic, pH
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71960 (URN)978-0-620-80650-3 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ICARD | IMWA | WISA MWD 2018 Conference – Risk to Opportunity, Pretoria, South Africa, 10-14 September, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L., Hamilton, I., Macsik, J., Maurice, C., Sädbom, S., Westin, G. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Green Liquor Dregs from Pulp and Paper Industry used in Mine Waste Management: a Symbiosis Project (GLAD) between two Swedish Base Industries. In: Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A (Ed.), Mine Water & Circular Economy: . Paper presented at IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017 (pp. 862-868). Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green Liquor Dregs from Pulp and Paper Industry used in Mine Waste Management: a Symbiosis Project (GLAD) between two Swedish Base Industries
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2017 (English)In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 862-868Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mining has been and still is an important industry in Sweden. Leaching from sulfidic mining waste is however a serious environmental issue that can bring acidity and metals in solution. Simultaneously, green liquor dreg (GLD) with potential to decrease oxygen transport to the waste and neutralize acid leachate, is generated by the pulp and paper industry and deposited in landfills. The aim of the project is to promote valorisation of GLD, identify hinders and create a database providing information about the material and its variability to enhance establishment of circular economy for the pulp and paper mill waste.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2017
Keywords
Waste rock, alkaline by-product, sealing layer, injection
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71959 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M., Sartz, L. & Sädbom, S. (2017). Mining Waste as an Exploration Tool and Secondary Resource. In: Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A (Ed.), Mine Water & Circular Economy: . Paper presented at IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017 (pp. 964-971). Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mining Waste as an Exploration Tool and Secondary Resource
2017 (English)In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 964-971Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is today no overall information about how much mining waste there is in Sweden and what it contains. This project focused on samples from waste rock, tailings and slag from the historical mining region Bergslagen, Sweden. Modern dissolution and analytical methods were used in order to determine approximately 50 elements in the samples. Modern analytical data for the historical mining waste is useful as an exploration tool and can provide information about remaining or new resources underground. Results show that there is a potential for recovery of critical elements from mining waste as well as dealing with environmental problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2017
Keywords
Tailings, slag, trace elements, environment
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71957 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, S., Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Treatment of Historical Mining Waste using different Incineration Ashes. In: Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A (Ed.), Mine Water & Circular Economy: . Paper presented at IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017 (pp. 1125-1132). Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of Historical Mining Waste using different Incineration Ashes
2017 (English)In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 1125-1132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

ARD from historical mining sites in Sweden is a major source for trace elements to surface waters. In order to be able to treat a large portion of these sites cost effective reclamation methods is necessary. Incineration ashes were used in leaching tests to study their effect on a highly weathered mining waste in order to neutralize acidity and immobilize trace elements. This study shows that ashes can be used to increase pH and decrease trace element mobility from oxidized mining waste. Increased leaching of Cl, Mo and Sb, however, needs to be considered for waste fuel ashes before use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2017
Keywords
Antimony, molybdenum, chloride, leaching
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71958 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Åhlgren, K., Sjöberg, V., Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Understanding Groundwater composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from leaching tests and multivariate statistics. In: Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M.; Häkkinen, A. (Ed.), 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – Mine Water & Circular Economy: Proceedings, Volume 2. Paper presented at 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – "Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress" (IMWA 2017), Rauha, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 25-30, 2017 (pp. 770-776). International Mine Water Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Groundwater composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from leaching tests and multivariate statistics
2017 (English)In: 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – Mine Water & Circular Economy: Proceedings, Volume 2 / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M.; Häkkinen, A., International Mine Water Association , 2017, p. 770-776Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to oil production from alum shale, the Kvarntorp area is heavily polluted. A waste deposit consisting mostly of shale ash and fines is of important concern. Groundwater shows that parameters such as pH, U, V, Ni and Mo are different at different localities around the deposit. Leaching tests indicate that burned and unburned shale residues leave different signatures on leachates. Principal component analysis of groundwater and leaching tests suggest that ground-water is affected by the waste deposit and that it is more influenced by shale ash than by fines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Mine Water Association, 2017
Series
Tutkimusraportit – Research Reports, ISSN 2243-3376 ; 3
Keywords
Alum shale, Kvarntorp, Shale oil, Leaching, Uranium
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64732 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)978-952-335-066-3 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Mine Water Association Congress – "Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress" (IMWA 2017), Rauha, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 25-30, 2017
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Åhlgren, K., Sjöberg, V., Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Understanding Groundwater Composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from Leaching Tests and Multivariate Statistics. In: Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A (Ed.), Mine Water & Circular Economy: . Paper presented at IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017 (pp. 770-776). Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Groundwater Composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from Leaching Tests and Multivariate Statistics
2017 (English)In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 770-776Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to oil production from alum shale, the Kvarntorp area is heavily polluted. A waste deposit consisting mostly of shale ash and fines is of important concern. Groundwater shows that parameters such as pH, U, V, Ni and Mo are different at different localities around the deposit. Leaching tests indicate that burned and unburned shale residues leave different signatures on leachates. Principal component analysis of groundwater and leaching tests suggest that ground-water is affected by the waste deposit and that it is more influenced by shale ash than by fines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2017
Keywords
Alum shale, Kvarntorp, Shale oil, Leaching, Uranium
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71956 (URN)978-952-335-065-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IMWA 2017, Mine Water & Circular Economy, 13th International Mine Water Association Congress, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June, 2017
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L. & Bäckström, M. (2016). Development of a low-tech treatment for neutral mine water: a case study. In: Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M. (Ed.), Mining Meets Water: Conflicts and Solutions. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 (pp. 913-918). Freiberg, Germany: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a low-tech treatment for neutral mine water: a case study
2016 (English)In: Mining Meets Water: Conflicts and Solutions / [ed] Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M., Freiberg, Germany: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 913-918Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lovisagruvan is a Pb-Zn-Ag mine in mid-south Sweden, with a yearly production of some 40 000 tons. There are four main levels in the mine: 55, 105, 145 and 190 m below ground. Water is continously pumped at a rate of 5 m3/h, passing sedimentation pools at each of the four main levels in the mine and finally one above ground. A modified backfill mining is used and in order to visually separate the ore from the waste rock limestone is used as a separating layer. Limestone addition in combination with non-acid producing mineralisation generates a pH-neutral mine water. For many years the mine has had problems with high levels of zinc and lead in the mine water released to recipient. The primary contaminants, lead and zinc, were mainly found as particles or associated to particles. With a combination of several measures including a sandfilter and FeSO4 addition suspended matter was reduced 93 %, lead 91 % and zinc 71 %.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg, Germany: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering, 2016
Keywords
Sand filter, sedimentation, iron hydroxides, lead, zinc
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58803 (URN)000402663400142 ()978-3-86012-533-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016
Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Sartz, L., Bäckström, M., Karlsson, S. & Allard, B. (2016). Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline leachates: Formation of solid precipitates and pH-buffering. Mine Water and the Environment, 35(1), 64-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline leachates: Formation of solid precipitates and pH-buffering
2016 (English)In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three metal-rich, acidic mine waters (from Bersbo and Ljusnarsberg, Sweden) were mixed with alkaline fly ash leachates in various proportions, representing a pH titration. Changes in pH and the loss of metals in solution due to precipitation of solid phases were tracked. Mineral equilibria and changes in pH and alkalinity were simulated using the geochemical code PHREEQC and the MINTEQv4 database, and the measured and simulated pH responses were compared. The formation of solid precipitates corresponded to fairly well-defined pH-buffering regions, reflecting the mine water compositions (notably the levels of Fe, Al, and Mn). Zn precipitation had a distinct buffering effect at near-neutral pH for the mine waters not dominated by iron. The formation of solid Mg phases (carbonate, as well as hydroxide) was indicated at high pH (above 9), but not formation of solid Ca phases, despite high sulfate levels. The phases that precipitated were various amorphous mixtures, mostly of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, and Mg. For the Fe-rich mine water, pH was poorly simulated with a simple MIX model, while alkalinity predictions agreed reasonably well with measured data. For the Al-rich mine waters, the simulated pH responses agreed well with the measurements. In an additional step, geochemical simulations were performed where selected proxy phases for major elements were forced to precipitate; this significantly improved the pH and alkalinity predictions. This approach may be more efficient than performing mixing experiments and titrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
ARD; CFB-fly ash; PHREEQC
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47911 (URN)10.1007/s10230-015-0347-3 (DOI)000371308400008 ()2-s2.0-84959228256 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

EU

Bergslagen region

Örebro University

Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M. & Sartz, L. (2016). Use of multivariate statistics in order to understand the flow of acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7(3), 358-371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of multivariate statistics in order to understand the flow of acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2152-2197, E-ISSN 2152-2219, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 358-371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pathways for acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site (sulphidic ore) were investigated by analysing ground, seepage and surface waters. It was found that in affected ground and seepage waters pH was lower (average pH 5.0); sulphate higher (average 350 mg/L) and trace element concentrations were significantly increased (4330 μg/L copper and 7700 μg/L zinc) compared to surrounding waters. Multivariate statistics (principal component analysis) were used on the data set. Obtained loading plot showed a clear negative correlation between pH and parameters found at high concentrations, indicating that these parameters are found at the source term (acid rock drainage). Lead was also found in close proximity to iron and turbidity indicating that lead might be associated with particles. The score plot presented almost all samples from high concentrations to low concentrations along the first principal component (explaining 63% of the variation in the data set) indicating that dilution was an important mechanism for the decrease in concentrations as opposed to immobilisation on surfaces along the flowpath. Decrease in fluoride and sulphate along one of the suspected flowpath coincided with an increase in calcium. Through geochemical calculations it was concluded that calcite (CaCO3) dissolved along the flowpath and thus induced precipitation of gypsum (CaSO4) and fluorite (CaF2). Through a combination of PCA and geochemical calculations the most likely flowpaths for contaminated water from the abandoned mining site were presented, making it possible to prevent further negative effects on the surface water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2016
Keywords
PCA, PHREEQC, Metals, ARD, Flowpath
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47913 (URN)10.4236/jep.2016.73032 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9348-6481

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