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Lundahl, Christian, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8173-7474
Biography [eng]

Christian Lundahl (b. 1972) is Professor of education at Örebro University. Lundahl is specialized in the history of assessments, evaluation and of Swedish educational research. Lundahl is presently involved in research projects concerning the production and internationalization of data in education systems. He leads an international research project about the history of comparative education financed by the Swedish Science council (Vetenskapsrådet).

Biography [swe]

Christian Lundahl (f. 1972) är professor i pedagogik vid Örebro universitet sedan september 2014. Han disputerade vid Uppsala universitet 2006 och blev docent där 2010. Fick ett lektorat vid Stockholms universitet 2011 och en professur vid Karlstad universitet 2012. Lundahl har studerat vid Örebro universitet 1991–1993 och var extern ledamot vid Lärarutbildningsnämnde vid Örebro universitet 2013–2014. Lundahl forskar om utbildningshistoria, internationella jämförelser och kunskapsbedömning. Lundahl ingår i flera internationella nätverk kring bedömning, utvärdering och utbildningspolitik och samverkar med Humboldt universitetet i Berlin, Universitetet i Edinburgh samt Oslo universitet.

Publications (10 of 89) Show all publications
Lundahl, C. & Serder, M. (2020). Is PISA more important to school reforms than educational research? The selective use of authoritative references in media and in parliamentary debates. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is PISA more important to school reforms than educational research? The selective use of authoritative references in media and in parliamentary debates
2020 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Two separate data searches underlie this analysis of how references to educational research and to PISA are used in the Swedish education debate. Our data consists of 380 newspaper articles from the eight largest print media outlets in Sweden and 200 protocols from parliamentary debates (2000 to 2016) that made explicit references to “PISA” and/or to “educational research”. Based on a content analysis of this material, in which notions of policy borrowing and de-/legitimisation are central, we describe the result as a selective use of PISA data and of educational research in the education debate. PISA is used to legitimise selective (party political) solutions, and these solutions are oriented towards problems of teaching. The analysis also shows that politics and the media debate concerning education seems disinterested in educational research in a broader sense and that PISA seems to offer sufficient and ‘neutral’ expert knowledge and support for policy and reforms. When educational research is called for, it is a practice-oriented form of educational research with expectations to provide evidence to the PISA data on how to improve teaching and learning. The paper will show that PISA has become the first way to obtain legitimate support for educational reforms. In so doing, the kind of problems that these reforms aim to solve have been narrowed down to teaching- or practice-oriented problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
Research, politics, international comparisons, data use, legitimisation
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79345 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-23 Created: 2020-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
Primus, F. & Lundahl, C. (2020). The Peripherals at the Core of Androcentric Knowledge Production – An Analysis of the Managing Editor’s Knowledge Work in “The International Encyclopedia of Education” (1985). Paedagogica historica
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Peripherals at the Core of Androcentric Knowledge Production – An Analysis of the Managing Editor’s Knowledge Work in “The International Encyclopedia of Education” (1985)
2020 (English)In: Paedagogica historica, ISSN 0030-9230, E-ISSN 1477-674XArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Building on the approach that knowledge is socially constructed, this study aims to deepen the understanding of knowledge production processesby adapting the concept of a laboratory and applying ethnography on historical textson an historical example of editorial collaboration. We use the editorial process of “The International Encyclopedia of Education” (IEE) (1985) as an example. Consideringknowledge as situated in contrast to the illusion of objectivity (Haraway, 1988, p. 581) the paper pursues to identify a perspective on the editing process that is located in its periphery. Routed in constructivist assumptions of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and in approaches of Feminist Standpoint Theory, the paper builds on the potential of understanding the social construction of knowledge by taking marginalised perspectives into account. Including the concept of gendered division of labour, theapproach offers a deeper understanding of the editorial process, beyond the presented picture of relevant actors and actions. The source material consists of correspondence concerning the editorial process of the encyclopedia, which is filed in the archive of Torsten Husén. There, weencountered the publisher’s Managing Editor Barbara Barrett, the only woman in the editorial board of the IEEs first edition. By analysing almost 4,000 pages of correspondence by coding according to the qualitative content analysis it is possible to show that the kind of work that Barrett performed was much more central than presented. Thisstudy contributes to a deeper understanding of knowledge production processes and of related marginalisation of certain groups in the past. Hereby, it offers a departure point for reflecting upon present practices.In the archive of Torsten Husén – one of the key figures in modern comparative education – regarding “The Encyclopedia of International Encyclopedia of Education” (IEE, 1985, 1994), we encountered the publisher’s Managing Editor Editor and later Editorial Director Barbara Barrett. We use her as a tracer to better understand the complexity of knowledge production, but also to highlight traditionally underestimated, but necessary work often performed by female “background” figures. The study focuses on the messiness of knowledge production, which allows us to acknowledge the random combination of rational and circumstantial aspects of the IEE’s editing process. The analysis takes socio-material relations into account by using general assumptions and concepts of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and Actor Network Theory (ANT). Using ethnography on historical texts - almost 4,000 pages of correspondence - it is possible to show that the kind of work that Barrett performs is much more sophisticated than is usually acknowledged. She represents a peripheral perspective in the production of the IEE by being just briefly mentioned in the preface and framed as support, even though she plays a central role in the editing process as the study shows. Barratt partially functioned as an intermediator, enabling the network of the IEE to meet and correspond with each other, and partially as a mediator, who negotiated, persuaded, forced, and translated between human and non-human parts of the network. The performance of these functions is in the end essential to the success of the IEE’s production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
science and technology studies, feminist standpoint theory, gendered division of labour, editorial work, knowledge production, qualitative content analysis
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78940 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Lundahl, C. (2019). Betygsmotståndet i Tidskriften Krut 1977-1986. Vägval i skolans historia (2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Betygsmotståndet i Tidskriften Krut 1977-1986
2019 (Swedish)In: Vägval i skolans historia, E-ISSN 2002-0147, no 2Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

I denna text beskrivs hur debatten, eller diskursiva kampen om utbildningspolitiken, kom till uttryck i tidskriften Krut (Kritisk utbildningstidskrift) särskilt vad gäller betygsfrågan, eller som den då benämndes: betygskampen. Varför engagerade sig Krut i betygskampen och vad ledde det till?, hur såg den kamp, eller motmakt, ut som bedrevs och vad fick den inte fram? samt, hur kan vi mer övergripande förstå diskursiv kamp, dess möjligheter och begränsningar?

Fokus ligger på de första åren efter tidskriftens tillblivelse till några år in på 1980-talet när betygskampen ebbar ut något.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria, 2019
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78943 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bagger, A., Norén, E., Boistrup, L. & Lundahl, C. (2019). Digitalized national tests in mathematics: a way of increasing and securing equity?. In: Jayasree Subramanian (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AND SOCIETY CONFERENCE: Hyderabad, India January 28th to February 2nd, 2019. Paper presented at The tenth International Mathematics Education and Society conference (MES10), Hyderabad, India, Jan 28th-Feb 2nd, 2019. Hyderabad, India
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalized national tests in mathematics: a way of increasing and securing equity?
2019 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AND SOCIETY CONFERENCE: Hyderabad, India January 28th to February 2nd, 2019 / [ed] Jayasree Subramanian, Hyderabad, India, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On one hand, the Swedish governing discourse on equity in the context of digitizing education portrays modernization, progress and democracy as a foundation in the equity work. On the other hand, in the context of digitized tests, equity is rather framed within a neoliberal logic while related to all individuals’ possibilities of choosing a ‘good life’, and to compete on equal terms. Not all disadvantaged groups are the target, though. It is mainly boys who are supposed be given better grades, and, in addition, students with disabilities who are supposed to (as far as possible) be able to have the opportunity to show their knowledge during the test. Language or socioeconomically diverse settings are not mentioned with regard to digitized national tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hyderabad, India: , 2019
Keywords
Equity, National tests, Mathematics, Quality, Policy
National Category
Social Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71668 (URN)
Conference
The tenth International Mathematics Education and Society conference (MES10), Hyderabad, India, Jan 28th-Feb 2nd, 2019
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Lundahl, C. & Serder, M. (2019). “I have read some articles on the subject”– selective truths in the education debate. In: : . Paper presented at American Educational Research Association (AERA 2019), Toronto, Canada, April 5-9, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“I have read some articles on the subject”– selective truths in the education debate
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of post-truths – or, rather, a version that we call selective truths – in educational debate. Specifically, we look at how references to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) and/or to educational research are used as arguments for various reforms. We investigate this in two sets of data: press media and Parliamentary debates between 2000 and 2018. Our main findings are (1) that educational research has become less interesting to public debate, only to be replaced with references to PISA; (2) that, PISA is referred to, for almost any educational cause, in a highly selective way.

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78945 (URN)
Conference
American Educational Research Association (AERA 2019), Toronto, Canada, April 5-9, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Gorur, R., Hamilton, M., Lundahl, C. & Sundström Sjödin, E. (2019). Politics by other means?: STS and research in education. Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 40(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Politics by other means?: STS and research in education
2019 (English)In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Science and Technology Studies (STS) has been surprisingly slow to become widely known and deployed in the field of education. Yet STS has a rich array of concepts and analytical methods to offer to studies of: knowledge practices and epistemic cultures; the interrelationship between states and knowledge; regulatory practices, governance and institutions; and classrooms, pedagogy, teaching and learning. Most importantly, it provides a fresh perspective on how power operates in ordering societies, disciplining actors and promoting ideas and practices. In this paper, we provide an introduction to STS and elaborate what it offers education scholars. Using examples from the emerging body of STS work in the field of education, and in particular from the papers in this special issue, we argue that STS is not only useful, but an exciting and generative form of critique - one that is especially suited to investigating contemporary issues in education policies and practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Science and Technology Studies (STS), Actor-Network Theory (ANT), politics of the mundane, knowledge practices, education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71532 (URN)10.1080/01596306.2018.1549700 (DOI)000454587300001 ()2-s2.0-85059353888 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lundahl, C. (2019). Review of: Testing and inclusive schooling – International challenges and opportunities. (ed Björn Hamre, Anne Morin and Christian Ydesen, 2018) [Review]. Uddannelseshistorie 2019. Årbog fra Selskabet for skole- og uddannelsehistorie, 53, 220-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of: Testing and inclusive schooling – International challenges and opportunities. (ed Björn Hamre, Anne Morin and Christian Ydesen, 2018)
2019 (Swedish)In: Uddannelseshistorie 2019. Årbog fra Selskabet for skole- og uddannelsehistorie, ISSN 978-87-87185-11-0, Vol. 53, p. 220-225Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Selskabet for skole- og uddannelsehistorie, 2019
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78941 (URN)
Note

Testing and inclusive schooling : international challenges and opportunities / edited by Bjorn Hamre, Anne Morin, Christian Ydesen.. - 2018. - ISBN: 9781138701489

Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Guror, R., Hamilton, M., Lundahl, C. & Sundström Sjödin, E. (Eds.). (2019). Special Issue: Politics by other means: STS and research in education. Taylor & Francis Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Issue: Politics by other means: STS and research in education
2019 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Series
Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739 ; Vol. 40:1
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71794 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Lundahl, C., Skott, P. & Mickwitz, L. (2019). Sustainable learning – challenges for high performing schools. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference for Education Research (ECER 2019), Hamburg, Germany, September 2-6, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable learning – challenges for high performing schools
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Approach, aim & theory 

In everyday school debate high performing students and schools are often seen as something desirable. Not least since the introduction of goal and result systems, benchmarking, accountability, we have entered, more clearly than before, what sometimes is called a performance culture (Ball, 2009; Biesta, 2009 ). But is high performance always something good? Could it be that there is another side to high performing schools than just great scores? Stress and a high workload belong to everyday life at the schools in our project, but it is also common among students in general in Sweden (Skolverket 2016b, Folkhälsoinstitutet 2014, 2016). Studies also indicate that teachers and school leaders stress and workload has increased (Skolverket 2012, 2016; Ärlestig, Day & Johansson 2015; Folkhälsoinstitutet 2014, 2016). When it comes to international research on stress and achievement, the field where we find this type of problems (Welford 1965), it is seldom about education and learning (cf McClelland 1987). When looking at research and evaluations on school stress it often takes a health perspective and give no advice on how to approach these challenges in teaching, assessment and learning (cf. Folkhälsomyndigheten 2014, 2016). 

In our project Sustainable learning, we are working with two of the highest performing schools in Sweden with issues concerning human and learning sustainability. Even though the pupils at these schools perform at a top grade in almost all of their subjects, they also show symptoms of mental illness and a disinterest for learning. These schools produce lots of graduates with all options for further studies available to them, but without, in many cases, any eager to actually learn, and without a sound life – work balance. We define this situation as a risk losing young people with a great potential into either instrumental learning or into an unhealthy, stressful, way of working. Using a so called ‘interactive research model’ we are working with the principals and staff over three years to find possible causes and solutions to the students’ unsustainable approach to learning. 

Sustainable learning is not a common agreed upon concept. If used it is often related to teaching sustainability to pupils and students (e.g. www.sustainablelearning.com). We propose a definition of sustainable learningas a quality in teaching allowing teachers and students to interact in high quality learning without getting stressed out (cf Boud 2000; Boud & Soler 2016). In the concept we also put a long sightedness when it comes to the quality of knowledge learnt. It should be of value for the students not only now, but also in their future life. 

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the rarely problematized ideal of high performing schools and the individuals performing in them. We do this by analyzing field notes and interviews conducted at two high performing schools in Sweden. A first question that is answered in this paper is how challenges in high achieving schools can be understood. A second question that will be elaborated concerns which kinds of strategies school staff can use to approach these challenges when it comes to teaching and assessment.

Added to sustainable learning the project uses knowledge from the latest research about assessment, motivation and learning with practical and theoretical school development strategies.

Therefore, the novelty in the project and in this paper lays in our effort to find out how we can work with teachers to detect ways of adjusting their teaching and their assessment methods in order to reduce stress and promote a more sustainable learning?

Method

The project is designed in line with an interactive action research perspective (Svensson, et al, 2002). This means that we recognize the different logics of research- and practice based systems. Whereas research is built on theories and concepts, works through data collection and analysis which aims for theoretical knowledge production, schools are practice based and build on practical theories and aims for local school development. Both however formulate problems and questions and through interaction they can qualify each other´s processes and outcomes. This means that the project involves frequent interaction during the different phases: problematization, planning, action, observations and reflecting. In other words, the research project is based on an approach to school improvement where the whole school is involved in the work. 

This paper reports on our empirical research from the first year of the project. It includes five main empirical data sources:

  • Recurrent observations of lessons and daily activities in school, as background for our understanding of the schools work and culture.
  • Eight focus group interviews with teachers and two with principals at the two schools during spring 2018. 
  • 53 meetings with principals and pedagogical leaders at the two schools.
  • Observations of professional development seminar groups with teachers during year one. During the year, the teachershave worked with theoretical input concerning sustainable learning which they have contextualized into the challenges they experience in their school practice. 

The focus group interviews allow us to explore attitudes, norms, experiences and ideas expressed in professional narratives (Bloor 2001). Observations provides an understanding of how collective actions relate to institutional conditions in the school practice (Czarniawska, 2007).

In the analysis we used a thematic approach in which themes are developed in line with the aim of the project, statements in the group interviews and notes from our observation in schools (Kreuger & Casey, 2000). The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The empirical analysis was organized in three steps. After reading the transcripts, we compared and contrasted them with our observations and notes from teachers’ seminar meetings. Thereafter, we analyzed the contents, ideas and frequency of statements. In this process, certain categories were arranged from which specific themes emerged.

Outcomes 

The analysis of the focus group interviews and of the field notes from our observations, indicate several specific challenges for high performing schools. In the analysis five intertwined themes emerges: Sustainable assessment, teachers practice, students’ learning and stress, lifelong learning/deep learning and organizational aspects.

When it comes to for example assessment, we see that established methods for formative assessment needs to be revised since high performing students have other needs than low or even ordinary, performing students. Whereas assessment for learning literature often recommends clear cut performing goals, we find that this leads to a too instrumental approach at high performing schools. Together with the teachers this can be further explored through practice based actions regarding for example how to start lessons without focusing on to narrow performing goals.

Another example, from the teachers’ practice, is the teachers needs to challenge their students. Since the students are high performing there is a clear tendency at both schools to teach more advanced courses than what the curriculum prescribes, and thus further increase the workload for the stressed out students. 

In sum, the project has shown this far that high performing schools has a very particular culture of performativity, that is shared as much among the students as between the staff members. This culture is both an asset and a burden. Teachers and students both realize the need to work in a more sustainable way and are willing to try new directions, but they are at the same time constrained in changing too much in their every day school life by their eager to reach top grades and high scored outcomes. 

References 

Ball, S. J. (2009). Privatising education, privatising education policy, privatising educational research: network governance and the ‘competition state’, Journal of Education Policy, 24:1, 83-99

Biesta, G. (2009). Good education in an age of measurement: on the need to reconnect with the question of purpose. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability21:1, s. 33–46

Bloor, M. (red.) 2001. Focus Groups in Social Research. London: SAGE

Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable Assessment: Rethinking assessment for thelearning society, Studies in Continuing Education, 22:2, 151-167

Boud, D. & Soler, R. (2016) Sustainable assessment revisited, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41:3, 400-413

Czarniawska, B. (2007). Shadowing and other techniques for doing fieldwork in modern societies. Malmö: Liber.

Folkhälsomyndigheten (2014). Skolbarns hälsovanor i Sverige 2013/2014. Grundrapport. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/pagefiles/18915/skolbarns-halsovanor-sverige-2013-14.pdf

Folkhälsomyndigheten (2016). Skolprestationer, skolstress och psykisk ohälsa bland tonåringar. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/pagefiles/23029/skolprestationer-skolstress-psykisk-ohalsa-tonaringar-16003-webb.pdf

Krueger, R.A. & Casey, M.A. (2000).Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 

McClelland, D. C. (19879: Human motivation. CUP Archive.

Skolverket (2012). Attityder till skolan. Stockholm: Fritzes.

Skolverket (2016). Attityder till skolan. Stockholm: Fritzes.

Svensson, L., Brulin, G. & Ellström, P-E. (2002).Interaktiv forskning – för utveckling av teori och praktik. Mediatryck.

Welford, A. T. (1965). Stress and achievement. Australian Journal of Psychology17(1), 1-11.

Ärlestig, H., Day, C., & Johansson, O. (Eds.). (2015). A decade of Research on School Principals: Cases from 24 countries (Vol. 21). Springer.

 

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78944 (URN)
Conference
European Conference for Education Research (ECER 2019), Hamburg, Germany, September 2-6, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Lundahl, C. & Primus, F. (2019). The hidden work in international knowledge production - acknowledging the efforts of a managing editor in the 1980s. In: : . Paper presented at 63rd Annual Conference, Education for Sustainability (CIES 2019), San Francisco, USA, April 14-18, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The hidden work in international knowledge production - acknowledging the efforts of a managing editor in the 1980s
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In his influential book A social history of knowledge Peter Burke writes: “Intellectuals are masters of some kinds of knowledge, but other fields of expertise or ‘know-how’ are cultivated by such groups as bureaucrats, artisans, peasants, midwives and popular healers.” (Burke 2000: 14). The history of knowledge cannot just be understood from the perspective of successful scholars and great thinkers. This of course also applies to the knowledge of comparative education. To understand the complex process of knowledge production it is vital to include further and especially peripheral perspectives (Haraway 1988: 583f) who might not be visible at first sight.

In Torsten Husén’s - one of the founding ‘fathers’ of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement(IEA) - archive regarding The Encyclopedia of International Education (IEE) we encountered the publisher’s managing editor Barbara Barrett. She is figuratively speaking a midwife - not at random typically a rather female role - in the history of comparative education. Barrett in many different ways helped giving birth to both IEE editions (1984, 1995) and thus contributed to the IEE’s knowledge production. Nevertheless, by not being part of the list of references, which are essential support of knowledge claims in academia (Latour 1987), she seems to be a forgotten female knowledge worker in the field of comparative education. Theoretically based on the ‘practice turn’ within the sociology of knowledge (Camic, Gross & Lamont 2011) this paper aims to give identity to knowledge workers like Barrett, who might be mentioned in a preface, but are rarely acknowledged further.

The archive offers 3852 pages of correspondence between the editors-in-chief, publisher’s staff like the managing editor, section editors and commissioned authors. Hereby it allows detailed insights in the social process of the IEE production. Not only by numbers - 447 pages of correspondence which are explicitly related to Barrett by the archive label - the fundamental role of the managing editor in the process becomes apparent but also through closer reading. By applying the Qualitative Content Analysis (Schreier 2012) it is possible to show a pattern of Barretts influence and give qualitative insights in the way she was administratively, socially and content-related involved in the knowledge production.

Thus, the study considers historical material with an ethnographic perspective.The origins of the powerful contemporary international research organizations, such as IEA, in education and their increasing influence in the shaping of national and transnational education governance lie in the construction of new research networks, associations and publications in post-war Europe (e.g. Hofstetter & Schneuwly, 2004). Approaches contributing to understanding the history of educational research since then emphasize for example the role of research institutes (and inter­national conferences or international networks in general (Lawn, 2008).Access to the unique archive of Professor Torsten Huséngives the opportunity to reconstruct circumstances and the production process of the IEE as an example of an publication in and cause for interational networks and associations in the second half of the twentieth century. The archive makes it possible toexplore knowledge production in retrospect. By analysing archive material, it is possible to recreate a kind of social science laboratory in retrospective which allows to trace networks between humans and non-humans, and their actions; here it is possible to retrace how they performed the IEE. Therefore, we can speak of ethnography being applied on historical texts (Nimmo 2011).

The study view IEE both as a network and an inscription and focus on Barretts role within it. IEE consists of several hundred individuals in different positions and practices in relation to each other, as well as of material conditions such as funding, typewriters, papers, letters, software, etc. This socio-material network materializes: it generates inscriptions such as headings and articles that follow particular standards. IEE as a network extends and expands across time, space and language – it travels through its members, who meet at conferences and symposia all over the world and correspond from a distance. Finally, the outcome, the encyclopedia itself, becomes part of new networks; it circulates around the world (Schreiwer and Martinez 2004), gathers allies, shapes thoughts and actions, gets quoted, and grows in strength – it even becomes a standard reference work. However, after some years, it becomes obsolete. 

The growth of a network of comparative education required actors and mediators that were able to translate between human and non-human entities from all over the world. Torsten Husén was such an actor, but so was Barbara Barrett, working in the shadows of the researchers. Partially she functioned as an intermediator enabling them to meet and correspond with each other and partially as a mediator, who negotiated, persuaded, forced and also translated between them. Without someone performing these functions in the network of the IEE, the end result would not have been the inscripted, materialized encyclopedia.

Bibliography

Burke, P. (2000):  A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Camic, C., Gross, N. & Lamont, M. (eds.) (2011): Social knowledge in the making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Haraway, D.(1988): Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective. Feminist Studies,vol.14 1988, No 3, p. 575-599.

Hofstetter, R & Schneuwly, B. (2004), Introduction: Educational Sciences in Dynamic and Hybrid Institutionalization, Paedagogica Historica 40(5/6): 569–589.

Husén, T. & Postlethwaite, T. N. (eds.) (1985): The International Encyclopedia of Education: Research and Studies. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Latour, B. (1987): Science in action: how to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lawn, M. (2008) (ed), An Atlantic Crossing? The Work of the International Examination Inquiry, Its Researchers, Methods and Influence. Oxford: Symposium Books.

Nimmo, R. 2011. “Actor-Network Theory and Methodology: Social Research in a More-Than-Human World.” Methodological Innovations Online 6(3): 108-119.

Schreier, Margrit (2012): Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

 

 

 

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71822 (URN)
Conference
63rd Annual Conference, Education for Sustainability (CIES 2019), San Francisco, USA, April 14-18, 2019
Note

Accepted to the CIES 2019 conference

Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
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