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Salihovic, S., Kärrman, A., Lind, L., Lind, P. ., Lindström, G. & van Bavel, B. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Environment International, 82(Sept 2015), 21-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)
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2015 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 82, no Sept 2015, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001–2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70 year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Perfluoroalkyl substances; Biomonitoring; Human plasma; Gender; PFOS; Structural isomers; PFOA
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44868 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.003 (DOI)000357909800003 ()26001496 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929469573 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-06-10 Created: 2015-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Kärrman, A., Lindström, G., Lind, P. M., Lind, L. & van Bavel, B. (2013). A rapid method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in human serum using 96-well plates and column-switching ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1305, 164-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A rapid method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in human serum using 96-well plates and column-switching ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1305, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To facilitate high-throughput analysis suitable for large epidemiological studies we developed an automated column-switching ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs; C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12, and C-13), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C-4, C-6, C-8, and C-10), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and five groups of structural perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers in human serum or plasma. The analytical procedure involves rapid protein precipitation using 96-well plates followed by an automated sample clean-up using an on-line trap column removing many potentially interfering sample components while through the mobile phase gradient the target analytes are eluted onto the analytical column for further separation and subsequent mass detection. The method was linear (R-2 <0.995) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 60 ng mL(-1) with method detection limits ranging between 0.01 and 0.17 ng mL(-1) depending on the analyte. The developed method was precise, with repeatability (n = 7) and reproducibility (n =103) coefficients of variation between 2% and 20% for most compounds including PFOS (2% and 8%) and its structural isomers (2-6% and 4-8%). The method was in conformity with a standard reference material. The column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural PFOS isomers in human plasma from an epidemiological study.

Keywords
Human blood, Perfluoroalkyl substances, Structural isomers, Column-switch, PFOS, PFOA
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30786 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2013.07.026 (DOI)000323362200021 ()
Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, S., Hagberg, J., Bäckström, M., Persson, I. & Lindström, G. (2013). Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden: a GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution. Environmental Pollution, 180, 19-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden: a GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 180, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in soil from a Swedish sawmill site where chlorophenols (CPs) had been used more than 40 years ago. The most contaminated area at the site was the preservation subarea where the PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQ level was 3450 times higher than the current Swedish guideline value of 200 ng TEQ/kg soil for land for industrial use. It was also shown that a fire which destroyed the sawmill might have affected the congener distribution at the concerned areas. To get a broader picture of the contamination both GIS (spatial interpolation analysis) and multivariate data analysis (PCA) were applied to visualize and compare PCDD/F levels as well as congener distributions at different areas at the site. It is shown that GIS and PCA are powerful tools in decisions on future investigations, risk assessments and remediation of contaminated sites.

Keywords
Dioxins, Contamination profile, Sawmill site, Geographic information systems (GIS), Principal component analysis (PCA)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30721 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.002 (DOI)000322425300004 ()23727563 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans. Environment International, 51, 8-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
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2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28803 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2012.09.001 (DOI)000314618100002 ()23138016 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84868330094 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Cancer and Allergy Foundation 

Available from: 2013-04-24 Created: 2013-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions. Environmental science. Processes & impacts, 15(4), 814-822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
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2013 (English)In: Environmental science. Processes & impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 814-822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8: 2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per-and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mu g m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 mg m(-3) (mean = 114 mu g m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 mu g m(-3) (mean = 0.53 mu g m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (<30 ng m(-3)) levels. FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed an average level of 12 mu g m(-3) (range = 1.2-47 mu g m(-3)). The ski waxers' exposure to paraffin fumes and PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28912 (URN)10.1039/c3em30739e (DOI)000316869900013 ()
Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Abalos, M., Abad, E., van Leeuwen, S. P., Lindström, G., Fiedler, H., de Boer, J. & van Bavel, B. (2013). Results for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCBs in the first round of UNEPs biennial global interlaboratory assessment on persistent organic pollutants. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 46, 98-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCBs in the first round of UNEPs biennial global interlaboratory assessment on persistent organic pollutants
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2013 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first worldwide interlaboratory assesment on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized in the Asian/Pacific, Latin American and African regions during 2009-11.

A relatively large number of laboratories reported data for the PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, especially in the Asian region. Within the Asian region, several participants used high-resolution GC/high-resolution MS systems optimized for dioxin analysis. The availibility of High-resolution mass spectrometer instrumentation is limited in the Latin America and African regions, although recently several new laboratories for dioxins have started in the Latin American region.

Keywords
Biennial Global Inter laboratory Assessment, Dioxin, Fish, Fly ash, Human milk, Persistent organic pollutant (POP), Proficiency testing, Sediment, Stockholm Convention (SC)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29855 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2012.11.003 (DOI)000319087800024 ()
Available from: 2013-06-28 Created: 2013-06-28 Last updated: 2018-05-19Bibliographically approved
Kärrman, A. & Lindström, G. (2013). Trends, analytical methods and precision in the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in human milk. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 46, 118-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends, analytical methods and precision in the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in human milk
2013 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The review describes trends and precision in analytical methods measuring perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in human milk [e.g., perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)]. A worldwide interlaboratory proficiency test with two human milk samples is reported showing a large inter-laboratory variation. High relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the 20 laboratories for PFOS (38, 49%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 53, 71%) indicates that there is a performance variation in the current data.

Assessing the worldwide effectiveness of declining levels as a result of regulations and bans demands analytical precision and accuracy. The Stockholm Convention aims to reduce human levels by 20%. Assessing such a reduction of PFOS levels in human milk is currently impossible due to analytical difficulties. Crucial for improving precision and accuracy is better control of contamination and achieving higher sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28800 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2012.10.009 (DOI)000319087800026 ()2-s2.0-84876801647 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-04-24 Created: 2013-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Nilsson, H., Hagberg, J. & Lindström, G. (2013). Trends in the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 46, 129-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood
2013 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The general demands on analytical practices in laboratories involved in monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood in the context of the Stockholm Convention are met by the validated analytical procedures applied in most laboratories today. At the same time, as the concentrations of many of the legacy POPs are decreasing in the general populations, more specific, sensitive, and accurate analytical techniques are required. Thus, a challenge for the Stockholm Convention is the analytical capacity, in terms of quality and availability worldwide, to monitor declining concentrations of POPs in human blood. However, other POP issues (e.g., those targeted by epidemiological studies) might require different information and therefore more specialized analytical procedures having greater instrumental sensitivity.

We review current and emerging analytical procedures used for analysis of the chlorinated, brominated, and fluorinated classes of POPs in human blood with a focus on the compounds included in the Stockholm Convention. In general, analytical trends in sample clean-up, separation, detection techniques and quality protocols provide a tool for POP laboratories to measure POPs in human blood. Techniques based on established mass-selective instruments are most commonly employed but declining concentrations in humans in the future might require more selective, more sensitive techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Gas chromatography (GC), High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), Human blood, Liquid chromatography (LC), Organochlorine (OC) pesticide, Perfluoroalkylated substance (PFAS), Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), Polychlorinated diphenyl ether (PBDE), Stockholm Convention
National Category
Chemical Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29858 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2012.06.009 (DOI)000319087800027 ()2-s2.0-84876816513 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-06-28 Created: 2013-06-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Mattioli, L., Lindström, G., Lind, L., Lind, P. M. & van Bavel, B. (2012). A rapid method for screening of the Stockholm Convention POPs in small amounts of human plasma using SPE and HRGC/HRMS. Chemosphere, 86(7), 747-753
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A rapid method for screening of the Stockholm Convention POPs in small amounts of human plasma using SPE and HRGC/HRMS
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2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 7, p. 747-753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rapid analytical screening method allowing simultaneous analysis of 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human plasma was developed. Sample preparation based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with additional clean-up using small multilayer silica gel columns. SPE was performed using a custom made polystyrene-divinylbenzene sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated and brominated POPs. Special efforts to reduce sample volume and improve speed and efficiency of the analytical procedure were made. Determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE #47) in 0.5 mL human plasma was performed by using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Recovery of POPs ranged between 46% and 110%, and reproducibility was below 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all target compounds, except for trans-nonachlor and OCDD, which were present only at low levels. Limits of detection (LOD) were for the PCBs between 0.8 and 117.7 pg mL(-1) plasma and for the OC pesticides between 5.9 and 89.1 pg mL(-1) plasma. The LOD for OCDD and BDE #47 were 1.4 pg mL(-1) plasma, and 9.2 pg mL(-1) plasma, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to 1016 human plasma samples from an epidemiological study on cardiovascular disease. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Persistent organic pollutants, Sample extraction, Human plasma, HRGC/HRMS, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Organochlorine pesticides
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22315 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.006 (DOI)000301166700008 ()22153485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84856031844 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-04-02 Created: 2012-04-02 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Lampa, E., Lindström, G., Lind, L., Lind, P. M. & van Bavel, B. (2012). Circulating levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) among elderly men and women from Sweden: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Environment International, 44, 59-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) among elderly men and women from Sweden: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)
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2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 44, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a huge group of chemicals that have been linked to various adverse health effects in humans. Large epidemiological studies investigating gender differences in levels of POPs in the elderly are limited and the results from these are not always consistent. The present study was undertaken to examine the background levels of a broad range of POPs in human plasma samples among elderly men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender. Levels of 23 POPs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (50.2% women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Measurements were performed using high resolution gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and the POPs studied were 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, and one brominated flame retardant. The concentrations of the selected POPs were found similar, or comparable, to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations from Sweden and Europe. Differences in levels of POPs between men and women were assessed by using Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Significant (p<0.0001) gender differences in levels of specific POPs were observed and a number of POP concentrations were found to differ between men and women. More specifically, levels of HCB, OCDD, and PCB congeners #74, #105, and #118 were found to be higher in women, while the rest of the majority of POPs were higher in men.

National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23923 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2012.01.011 (DOI)000304745900008 ()
Available from: 2012-07-05 Created: 2012-07-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4959-2807

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