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Sigurdsson, G., Giaretta, A. & Dragoni, N. (2020). Vulnerabilities and Security Breaches in Cryptocurrencies. In: Ciancarini, P.; Mazzara, M.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018. Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerabilities and Security Breaches in Cryptocurrencies
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Mazzara, M.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Springer, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357 ; 925
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71864 (URN)978-3-030-14686-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-14687-0 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M., Felipe, J. M. & Dragoni, N. (2019). ANTIBIOTIC 2.0: A Fog-based Anti-Malware for Internet of Things. In: 4th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops, EUROS and PW 2019: Proceedings. Paper presented at 4th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EUROS and PW 2019), Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2019 (pp. 11-20). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ANTIBIOTIC 2.0: A Fog-based Anti-Malware for Internet of Things
2019 (English)In: 4th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops, EUROS and PW 2019: Proceedings, IEEE , 2019, p. 11-20Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been one of the key disruptive technologies over the last few years, with its promise of optimizing and automating current manual tasks and evolving existing services. However, the increasing adoption of IoT devices both in industries and personal environments has exposed businesses and consumers to a number of security threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Along the way, Fog computing was born. A novel paradigm that aims at bridging the gap between IoT and Cloud computing, providing a number of benefits, including security. In this paper, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, an anti-malware that relies upon Fog computing to secure IoT devices and to overcome the main issues of its predecessor (ANTIBIOTIC 1.0). In particular, we discuss the design and implementation of the system, including possible models for deployment, security assumptions, interaction among system components, and possible modes of operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Fog Computing, Internet of Things, Security, Distributed Denial of Service, Malware, Anti-Malware
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76974 (URN)10.1109/EuroSPW.2019.00008 (DOI)000485315600002 ()2-s2.0-85071931412 (Scopus ID)9781728130262 (ISBN)
Conference
4th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EUROS and PW 2019), Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M. & Dragoni, N. (2019). Combining ANTIBIOTIC with Fog Computing: ANTIBIOTIC 2.0. In: 2019 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2019 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 3rd IEEE International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing (ICFEC 2019), Larnaca, Cyprus, May 14-17, 2019. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining ANTIBIOTIC with Fog Computing: ANTIBIOTIC 2.0
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2019 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been one of the key disruptive technologies over the last few years, with its promise of optimizing and automating current manual tasks and evolving existing services. From the security perspective, the increasing adoption of IoT devices in all aspects of our society has exposed businesses and consumers to a number of threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. To tackle this IoT security problem, we proposed ANTIBIOTIC 1.0 In However, this solution has some limitations that make it difficult (when not impossible) to be implemented in a legal and controlled manner. Along the way, Fog computing was born: a novel paradigm that aims at bridging the gap between IoT and Cloud computing, providing a number of benefits, including security. As a result, in this paper, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, an anti-malware that relies upon Fog computing to secure IoT devices and to overcome the main issues of its predecessor (ANTIBIOTIC 1.0). First, we present ANTIBIOTIC 1.0 and its main problem. Then, after introducing Fog computing, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, showing how it overcomes the main issues of its predecessor by including Fog computing in its design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Fog Computing, Internet of Things, Security, Distributed Denial of Service, Malware, Anti-Malware
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75969 (URN)10.1109/CFEC.2019.8733144 (DOI)000480444000001 ()2-s2.0-85068409281 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-2365-3 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd IEEE International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing (ICFEC 2019), Larnaca, Cyprus, May 14-17, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M., Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N., Bucchiarone, A. & Mazzara, M. (2019). Cyber-Storms Come from Clouds: Security of Cloud Computing in the IoT Era. Future Internet, 11(6), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Storms Come from Clouds: Security of Cloud Computing in the IoT Era
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly changing our society to a world where every thing is connected to the Internet, making computing pervasive like never before. This tsunami of connectivity and data collection relies more and more on the Cloud, where data analytics and intelligence actually reside. Cloud computing has indeed revolutionized the way computational resources and services can be used and accessed, implementing the concept of utility computing whose advantages are undeniable for every business. However, despite the benefits in terms of flexibility, economic savings, and support of new services, its widespread adoption is hindered by the security issues arising with its usage. From a security perspective, the technological revolution introduced by IoT and Cloud computing can represent a disaster, as each object might become inherently remotely hackable and, as a consequence, controllable by malicious actors. While the literature mostly focuses on the security of IoT and Cloud computing as separate entities, in this article we provide an up-to-date and well-structured survey of the security issues of cloud computing in the IoT era. We give a clear picture of where security issues occur and what their potential impact is. As a result, we claim that it is not enough to secure IoT devices, as cyber-storms come from Clouds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
security, Internet of Things, Cloud computing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75237 (URN)10.3390/fi11060127 (DOI)000473805800007 ()2-s2.0-85067464961 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N. & Massacci, F. (2019). IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract. Sensors, 19(19), Article ID E4121.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract
2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 19, article id E4121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cybersecurity is one of the biggest challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, as well as one of its most embarrassing failures. As a matter of fact, nowadays IoT devices still exhibit various shortcomings. For example, they lack secure default configurations and sufficient security configurability. They also lack rich behavioural descriptions, failing to list provided and required services. To answer this problem, we envision a future where IoT devices carry behavioural contracts and Fog nodes store network policies. One requirement is that contract consistency must be easy to prove. Moreover, contracts must be easy to verify against network policies. In this paper, we propose to combine the security-by-contract (S × C) paradigm with Fog computing to secure IoT devices. Following our previous work, first we formally define the pillars of our proposal. Then, by means of a running case study, we show that we can model communication flows and prevent information leaks. Last, we show that our contribution enables a holistic approach to IoT security, and that it can also prevent unexpected chains of events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Fog computing, IoT, configurability, security, security-by-contract
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76829 (URN)10.3390/s19194121 (DOI)000494823200065 ()31548501 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072578077 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N. & Massacci, F. (2019). Protecting the Internet of Things with Security-by-Contract and Fog Computing. In: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT): . Paper presented at 5th IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT 2019), Limerick, Ireland, April 15-18, 2019. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protecting the Internet of Things with Security-by-Contract and Fog Computing
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), IEEE , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a consolidated reality. Smart homes are equipped with a growing number of IoT devices that capture more and more information about human beings lives. However, manufacturers paid little or no attention to security, so that various challenges are still in place. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure IoT systems that combines the concept of Security-by-Contract (SxC) with the Fog computing distributed paradigm. We define the pillars of our approach, namely the notions of IoT device contract, Fog node policy and contract-policy matching, the respective life-cycles, and the resulting SxC workflow. To better understand all the concepts of the SxC framework, and highlight its practical feasibility, we use a running case study based on a context-aware system deployed in a real smart home.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
security-by-contract, Fog computing, IoT
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78009 (URN)10.1109/WF-IoT.2019.8767243 (DOI)000492865800001 ()2-s2.0-85073699472 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-4980-0 (ISBN)
Conference
5th IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT 2019), Limerick, Ireland, April 15-18, 2019
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Tange, K., De Donno, M., Fafoutis, X. & Dragoni, N. (2019). Towards a Systematic Survey of Industrial IoT Security Requirements: Research Method and Quantitative Analysis. In: Ramachandran, GS; Ortiz, J (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (IOT-FOG '19): . Paper presented at 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (IoT-Fog 2019), Montreal, Canada, April 15, 2019 (pp. 56-63). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Systematic Survey of Industrial IoT Security Requirements: Research Method and Quantitative Analysis
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (IOT-FOG '19) / [ed] Ramachandran, GS; Ortiz, J, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 56-63Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industry 4.0 and, in particular, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represent two of the major automation and data exchange trends of the 21st century, driving a steady increase in the number of smart embedded devices used by industrial applications. However, IoT devices suffer from numerous security flaws, resulting in a number of large scale cyber-attacks. In this light, Fog computing, a relatively new paradigm born from the necessity of bridging the gap between Cloud computing and IoT, can be used as a security solution for the IIoT. To achieve this, the first step is to clearly identify the security requirements of the IIoT that can be subsequently used to design security solutions based on Fog computing. With this in mind, our paper represents a preliminary work towards a systematic literature review of IIoT security requirements. We focus on two key steps of the review: (1) the research method that will be used in the systematic work and (2) a quantitative analysis of the results produced by the study selection process. This lays the necessary foundations to enable the use of Fog computing as a security solution for the IIoT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT, Industry 4.0, Security, Fog Computing, Systematic Literature Review
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75280 (URN)10.1145/3313150.3313228 (DOI)000473542200012 ()2-s2.0-85066055366 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6698-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (IoT-Fog 2019), Montreal, Canada, April 15, 2019
Note

Funding Agency:

European Union  764785

Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2019-07-24Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., De Donno, M. & Dragoni, N. (2018). Adding Salt to Pepper: A Structured Security Assessment over a Humanoid Robot. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018), Hamburg, Germany, August 27-30, 2018. ACM, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adding Salt to Pepper: A Structured Security Assessment over a Humanoid Robot
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ACM , 2018, article id 22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rise of connectivity, digitalization, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly changing our society and shaping its future development. During this technological and societal revolution, security has been persistently neglected, yet a hacked robot can act as an insider threat in organizations, industries, public spaces, and private homes. In this paper, we perform a structured security assessment of Pepper, a commercial humanoid robot. Our analysis, composed by an automated and a manual part, points out a relevant number of security flaws that can be used to take over and command the robot. Furthermore, we suggest how these issues could be fixed, thus, avoided in the future. The very final aim of this work is to push the rise of the security level of IoT products before they are sold on the public market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM, 2018
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series
Keywords
Internet of Things (IoT), Penetration Testing, Pepper, Robot, Security
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71106 (URN)10.1145/3230833.3232807 (DOI)000477981800043 ()2-s2.0-85055287152 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6448-5 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018), Hamburg, Germany, August 27-30, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Argyriou, M., Dragoni, N. & Spognardi, A. (2018). Analysis and Evaluation of SafeDroid v2.0, a Framework for Detecting Malicious Android Applications. Security and Communication Networks, Article ID UNSP 4672072.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and Evaluation of SafeDroid v2.0, a Framework for Detecting Malicious Android Applications
2018 (English)In: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, article id UNSP 4672072Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Android smartphones have become a vital component of the daily routine of millions of people, running a plethora of applications available in the official and alternative marketplaces. Although there are many security mechanisms to scan and filter malicious applications, malware is still able to reach the devices of many end-users. In this paper, we introduce the SafeDroid v2.0 framework, that is a flexible, robust, and versatile open-source solution for statically analysing Android applications, based on machine learning techniques. The main goal of our work, besides the automated production of fully sufficient prediction and classification models in terms of maximum accuracy scores and minimum negative errors, is to offer an out-of-the-box framework that can be employed by the Android security researchers to efficiently experiment to find effective solutions: the SafeDroid v2.0 framework makes it possible to test many different combinations of machine learning classifiers, with a high degree of freedom and flexibility in the choice of features to consider, such as dataset balance and dataset selection. The framework also provides a server, for generating experiment reports, and an Android application, for the verification of the produced models in real-life scenarios. An extensive campaign of experiments is also presented to show how it is possible to efficiently find competitive solutions: the results of our experiments confirm that SafeDroid v2.0 can reach very good performances, even with highly unbalanced dataset inputs and always with a very limited overhead.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69259 (URN)10.1155/2018/4672072 (DOI)000444877600001 ()2-s2.0-85053706618 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M., Dragoni, N., Giaretta, A. & Mazzara, M. (2018). AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks. In: Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016. Paper presented at 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, Rome, Italy, May 10, 2016 (pp. 59-72). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016 / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 59-72Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 2016 is remembered as the year that showed to the world how dangerous Distributed Denial of Service attacks can be. Gauge of the disruptiveness of DDoS attacks is the number of bots involved: the bigger the botnet, the more powerful the attack. This character, along with the increasing availability of connected and insecure IoT devices, makes DDoS and IoT the perfect pair for the malware industry. In this paper we present the main idea behind AntibIoTic, a palliative solution to prevent DDoS attacks perpetrated through IoT devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (AISC), ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365 ; 717
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64665 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70578-1_7 (DOI)000434086000007 ()2-s2.0-85041797799 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-70577-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-70578-1 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, Rome, Italy, May 10, 2016
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9575-2990

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