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MacDonald, Shane
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Garcia, D. & MacDonald, S. (2017). Dark personality profiles: Estimating the cluster structure of the Dark Triad. PsyCh Journal, 6(3), 239-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dark personality profiles: Estimating the cluster structure of the Dark Triad
2017 (English)In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 239-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We estimated the number of possible dark personality profiles in a large population (N = 18,088) using a subtractive clustering method, which suggested three cluster or dark personality profiles: high malevolent, intermediate malevolent, and low malevolent or benevolent. While the three profiles differed significantly in each dark trait, there was a considerably large cluster overlap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, cluster analysis, malevolent personality, narcissism, person-oriented methods, psychopathy
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61747 (URN)10.1002/pchj.175 (DOI)000411808000007 ()28745434 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029795037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
Garcia, D., MacDonald, S. & Rapp-Ricciardi, M. (2017). Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. PsyCh Journal, 6(2), 166-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen
2017 (English)In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 166-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to test the proposed three-factor structure of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen measure. A confirmatory factor analysis showed mixed evidence for model fit. In contrast to expectations, men did not score significantly higher than women in Machiavellianism and narcissism. Nevertheless, men scored higher than women in psychopathy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, Machiavellianism, Sweden, confirmatory factor analysis, narcissism, psychopathy
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60860 (URN)10.1002/pchj.168 (DOI)000404516600009 ()28544739 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021347112 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Linton, S. J., Nicholas, M. & MacDonald, S. (2015). Letter. IN RESPONSE: Re: Gabel et al. Commenting on Linton et al. Development of a Short Form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire [Letter to the editor]. Spine, 40(15), E914-E914
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter. IN RESPONSE: Re: Gabel et al. Commenting on Linton et al. Development of a Short Form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire
2015 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 40, no 15, p. E914-E914Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015
Keywords
Disability Evaluation, Female, Male, Musculoskeletal Pain/diagnosis, Pain, Measurement, Surveys, Questionnaires
National Category
Psychology Neurology
Research subject
Psychology; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47750 (URN)10.1097/BRS.0000000000000998 (DOI)000369219700010 ()26222665 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943359453 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-01-23 Created: 2016-01-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Garcia, D., MacDonald, S. & Archer, T. (2015). Two different approaches to the affective profiles model: median splits (variable-oriented) and cluster analysis (person-oriented). PeerJ, 3, Article ID e1380.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two different approaches to the affective profiles model: median splits (variable-oriented) and cluster analysis (person-oriented)
2015 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 3, article id e1380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The notion of the affective system as being composed of two dimensions led Archer and colleagues to the development of the affective profiles model. The model consists of four different profiles based on combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive and negative affect: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. During the past 10 years, an increasing number of studies have used this person-centered model as the backdrop for the investigation of between and within individual differences in ill-being and well-being. The most common approach to this profiling is by dividing individuals' scores of self-reported affect using the median of the population as reference for high/low splits. However, scores just-above and just-below the median might become high and low by arbitrariness, not by reality. Thus, it is plausible to criticize the validity of this variable-oriented approach. Our aim was to compare the median splits approach with a person-oriented approach, namely, cluster analysis.

Method: The participants (N = 2,225) were recruited through Amazons'Mechanical Turk and asked to self-report affect using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. We compared the profiles' homogeneity and Silhouette coefficients to discern differences in homogeneity and heterogeneity between approaches. We also conducted exact cell-wise analyses matching the profiles from both approaches and matching profiles and gender to investigate profiling agreement with respect to affectivity levels and affectivity and gender. All analyses were conducted using the ROPstat software.

Results: The cluster approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.62, Silhouette coefficients = 0.68) generated profiles with greater homogeneity and more distinctive from each other compared to the median splits approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.75, Silhouette coefficients = 0.59). Most of the participants (n = 1,736, 78.0%) were allocated to the same profile (Rand Index =.83), however, 489 (21.98%) were allocated to different profiles depending on the approach. Both approaches allocated females and males similarly in three of the four profiles. Only the cluster analysis approach classified men significantly more often than chance to a self-fulfilling profile (type) and females less often than chance to this very same profile (antitype).

Conclusions: Although the question whether one approach is more appropriate than the other is still without answer, the cluster method allocated individuals to profiles that are more in accordance with the conceptual basis of the model and also to expected gender differences. More importantly, regardless of the approach, our findings suggest that the model mirrors a complex and dynamic adaptive system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PeerJ Inc., 2015
Keywords
Cluster analysis, Affective profiles model, Negative affect, Person-oriented approach, Positive affect, Variable-oriented approach, Median splits, Complex adaptive systems
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47304 (URN)10.7717/peerj.1380 (DOI)000365801900009 ()26539337 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946223332 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 130345
Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, N. S., Harvey, A. G., MacDonald, S., Jansson-Fröjmark, M. & Linton, S. J. (2013). Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(8), 1223-1233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1223-1233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16–18, n = 1,760, 49 % girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
Adolescence; Sleep; Depression; Catastrophizing; Worry; Gender
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29023 (URN)10.1007/s10964-012-9811-6 (DOI)000321973800009 ()22968332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84880514938 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
MacDonald, S. & Kormi-Nouri, R. (2013). The affective personality, sleep, and autobiographical memories. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(4), 305-313
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The affective personality, sleep, and autobiographical memories
2013 (English)In: Journal of Positive Psychology, ISSN 1743-9760, E-ISSN 1743-9779, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 305-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patterns of affect, sleep, and autobiographical memories seem related but there are no studies we know of to verify the notion. The purpose of this research is to investigate interrelationships between profiles of affect, sleep, and autobiographical memories. A cross-sectional design is employed. Three hundred and thirteen adult students participated.

The data generated are viewed from two complementary perspectives. Our cluster analyses identified a group of individual states whose lives appear to be arousing and stressful (high positive and negative affect) yet they slept significantly better than self-destructive states (high on negative affect and low on positive affect). Our regressions imply that negative autobiographical memories are involved in a relationship with sleep independently of fairly stable patterns of affect, biological sex, and age. We finish by noting that apart from investigating these relationships longitudinally, cultural differences in patterns of affect and their health correlates should be explored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
affect, autobiographical; memory, sleep, positive psychology
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35914 (URN)10.1080/17439760.2013.800904 (DOI)000320751900004 ()2-s2.0-84879624106 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Boersma, K., MacDonald, S. & Linton, S. J. (2012). Longitudinal relationships between pain and stress problems in the general population: predicting trajectories from cognitive behavioral variables. Journal of applied biobehavioral research, 17(4), 229-248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal relationships between pain and stress problems in the general population: predicting trajectories from cognitive behavioral variables
2012 (English)In: Journal of applied biobehavioral research, ISSN 1071-2089, E-ISSN 1751-9861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 229-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lately, cognitive behavioral models have put forth that the co-occurrence of pain and stress might be explained by mutually maintaining psychological mechanisms such as catastrophizing and avoidance. This study aimed to map the interrelationship between pain, stress, catastrophizing, cognitive, and behavioral avoidance across time. A general population sample (n = 551) was followed from baseline to 3-month and 1-year follow-up. The results revealed subgroups with stress and pain in combination as well as in isolation. The subgroups were highly stable across time, and catastrophizing, cognitive, and behavioral avoidance were related to the development of symptoms. The results support that shared, but also specific cognitive and behavioral, processes may maintain and drive the development of pain and stress problems.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28928 (URN)10.1111/jabr.12000 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Flink, I. K., Boersma, K., MacDonald, S. & Linton, S. J. (2012). Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17(2), 408-419
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective
2012 (English)In: British Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-107X, E-ISSN 2044-8287, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 408-419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives.  The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004).

Design.  In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later.

Methods.  Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation.

Results.  The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour.

Conclusion.  These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-19741 (URN)10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02044.x (DOI)000301175800011 ()22106932 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84858025240 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Linton, S. J., Nicholas, M. K. & MacDonald, S. (2011). Development of a short form of the Örebro musculoskeletal pain screening questionnaire. Spine, 36(22), 1891-1895
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a short form of the Örebro musculoskeletal pain screening questionnaire
2011 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 36, no 22, p. 1891-1895Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Study Design: A longitudinal design where the questionnaire was completed at a pre test and predictive ability evaluated with a one-year follow-up. A second sample was employed to provide a replication.

Objective: The aim of the study was to validate a short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening

Questionnaire: Summary of Background Data. Several studies demonstrate the research and clinical utility of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire. Calls have been made for a shorter form that requires less time in administering.

Methods: The short version was constructed by taking two items from each of the five factors shown to have predictive power. It was then tested against the long form in two samples of people with musculoskeletal pain where one reflects an occupational health care population (N = 324) and the other a primary care population (N = 183) thus providing a built-in replication. All participants completed the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire and were then followed over the course of a year to evaluate disability as measured by sick leave.

Results: The correlation between the short and long forms was.91. The ROC curve was nearly identical for the long and short versions of the questionnaire (e.g. primary care sample:.84 versus.81; occupational sample:.72 versus.70). Of those who developed disability, a cutoff of 50 on the short version identified 85% in the occupational and 83% in the primary care samples which was nearly as good as the full version (92% respectively 83%).

Conclusions: The short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire is appropriate for clinical and research purposes since it is nearly as accurate as the longer version.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13706 (URN)10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181f8f775 (DOI)000295877800023 ()21192286 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-80053953772 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-13 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
MacDonald, S. (2011). Stress, musculoskeletal pain and insomnia: distinct difficulties or variations of the same problem?. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress, musculoskeletal pain and insomnia: distinct difficulties or variations of the same problem?
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 86
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 20
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-18838 (URN)978-91-7668-825-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-10, Örebro universitet, Hörsal L3, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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