oru.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Levin, J., Löfgren, H. & Dessus, S. (2015). Impact of aid and public spending: a macro-micro framework. Journal of International Development, 27(8), 1479-1495
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of aid and public spending: a macro-micro framework
2015 (English)In: Journal of International Development, ISSN 0954-1748, E-ISSN 1099-1328, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1479-1495Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we have used Tanzania as a case to illustrate how a simulation model can beused to evaluate the impact of aid and the trade-offs between public spending categories and theirimpact on income poverty and other social development targets. Our results suggest the following.First, under plausible growth, fiscal and foreign assistance assumptions, in line with observedpatterns, the enormous difficulty of achieving most millennium development goals (MDGs) by2015 is evident. Second, there existed trade-offs between the various MDGs, in particular betweenachievements for poverty and other social development targets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
MDGs, Tanzania, CGE
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46499 (URN)10.1002/jid.3190 (DOI)000364785500007 ()2-s2.0-84946549581 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Vimefall, E. & Levin, J. (2015). Welfare impact of higher maize prices when allowing for heterogeneous price increases. Food Policy, 57, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welfare impact of higher maize prices when allowing for heterogeneous price increases
2015 (English)In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 57, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we explore the short-term welfare impact of higher maize prices on different regions and socioeconomic groups in Kenya. We find that approximately 80% of the population would be negatively affected by higher maize prices and that poor households would lose a larger proportion of their welfare than wealthy households. More specifically, rural landless households would lose the most, whereas households with landholdings of five acres or more would gain. We simulate a 25% increase in maize prices and find that rural poverty would increase by approximately 1 percentage point and urban poverty by 0.5 percentage points. Moreover, the impact differs among regions; poverty would increase by 3 percentage points in the rural parts of Coast Province, whereas it would be almost unchanged in the rural parts of Western Province. Furthermore, we relax the standard assumption that consumer and producer prices change in the same proportions and allow for heterogeneity in marketing margins among districts. We demonstrate that relaxing this assumption substantially affects the results and that the results from previous research were thus likely biased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Food prices; Kenya; Maize; Poverty
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46141 (URN)10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.08.004 (DOI)000366764000001 ()2-s2.0-84941926799 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Levin, J. & Widell, L. (2014). Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports. Economic Modelling, 39, 151-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports
2014 (English)In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 39, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we estimate the amount of tax evasion in customs authorities in both Kenya and Tanzania by calculating measurement errors in reported trade flows between the two countries and correlate those errors with tax rates. We find that the measurement error is correlated with the tax rates in Tanzania.We also introduced a third country into our analysis, the United Kingdom, and tax evasion seems to be more severe in trade flows between Kenya and Tanzania compared to trade flows between the United Kingdom and Kenya/Tanzania. Finally we also find that the tax evasion coefficient is lower in the Kenya–United Kingdom case compared to the Tanzanian– United Kingdom case which suggests that tax evasion is more severe in the Tanzanian customs authority.

Keywords
Tax evasion, Kenya, Tanzania
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34936 (URN)10.1016/j.econmod.2014.02.021 (DOI)000336467200015 ()2-s2.0-84896468803 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sida/Sarec
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Levin, J. & Sayeed, Y. (2014). Welfare impact of broadening VAT by exempting local food markets: The case of Bangladesh. (Licentiate dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welfare impact of broadening VAT by exempting local food markets: The case of Bangladesh
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The spread of value-added tax (VAT) in developing countries has been dramatic since the beginning of 1990’s. Adopted by more than 130 countries, including many of the poorest, VAT has been, and remains, the key of tax reform in many developing countries. While adopting VAT, there are arguments for and against uniform general VAT system. A uniform and general VAT on all commodities is considered to be efficient and less distortionary. On the other hand, from the distributional perspective many goods especially food is exempted from VAT as low income households spend a high share of income on food. The contribution of this study is to analyze the income distribution and welfare impact of VAT reform when the food sectors are divided into local markets and supermarkets. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is used to evaluate the consequences of VAT reforms for Bangladesh. Our simulation results show that, a VAT reform that exempts the agriculture sector and local market food commodities provides the best welfare and distributional impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2014. p. 58
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41645 (URN)
Presentation
2014-12-19, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-10 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Levin, J., Köhlin, G. & Mekonnen, A. (2012). Distributive effect and food security implications of biofuelsinvestment in Ethiopia: a CGE analysis. In: Åke Barklund (Ed.), The global need forfood, fibre and fuel: land use perspectives on constraintsand opportunities in meeting future demand. Paper presented at Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, 27 September and 22 November 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributive effect and food security implications of biofuelsinvestment in Ethiopia: a CGE analysis
2012 (English)In: The global need forfood, fibre and fuel: land use perspectives on constraintsand opportunities in meeting future demand / [ed] Åke Barklund, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Agricultural Sciences Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26457 (URN)
Conference
Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, 27 September and 22 November 2011
Available from: 2012-11-20 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-10-09Bibliographically approved
Levin, J. (2011). After the crisis: what about the MDGs?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>After the crisis: what about the MDGs?
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20606 (URN)
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Kiringai, J. & Levin, J. (2008). Achieving the MDGs in Kenya with some aid and reallocation of public expenditures. Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving the MDGs in Kenya with some aid and reallocation of public expenditures
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Kenya has ascribed to the Millennium Declaration and is already in the process of mobilising resources and instituting measures to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). A MDGs status report on Kenya indicates that progress has been made towards achieving the goal of universal primary education. However, the Government will need to scale-up its efforts beyond the current momentum, if the other goals are to be realised by 2015. A preliminary conclusion is that the resource requirements are not extremely large to reach the MDGs in Kenya. If the resources are effectively used and targeted to MDG sectors they could have a substantial impact on whether Kenya would reach the MDGs or not. Some targets seem to be easier to reach than others. The target of 100 percent completion in primary school can be achieved with some additional resources targeted to the primary sector. However, a substantial increase of resources is needed at secondary and tertiary level of education to reach other goals set by the Kenyan government. Even if higher investment in all MDG-sectors is needed the water sector seems to be requiring a substantial increase compared to what have been invested in the past. With regard to poverty our results show that annual average real GDP growth rate of around 8 percent would be enough to meet the poverty target of reducing the number of poor by half.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2008. p. 43
Series
Working paper series, Swedish business school at Örebro university, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 10
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3839 (URN)
Available from: 2009-01-15 Created: 2009-01-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Asmah, E. & Levin, J. (2008). Aid-financed public investments and the Dutch disease: evidence from Tanzania. Örebro: Örebro university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aid-financed public investments and the Dutch disease: evidence from Tanzania
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we discuss the impact of scaling-up aid in Tanzania using an economy-wide dynamic CGE model. The major conclusions coming out from this work is that productivity effects matter. If additional aid and consequently increased public spending has a positive impact on productivity this would spur GDP growth and reduce the risk of an appreciating real exchange rate. In a way this resembles previous results in the aid-growth literature that aid has a positive impact on growth in a country with good economic policies assuming that good policies have a positive impact on productivity. Presenting various scenarios on the impact of additional aid a sustained GDP growth rate of around 7 percent would be possible to achieve in a modest scaling-up aid scenario without any significant changes in the real exchange rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2008. p. [34]
Series
Working paper series, Swedish business school at Örebro university, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 3
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3841 (URN)
Available from: 2009-01-15 Created: 2009-01-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Levin, J. & Ohlin, M. (2008). Trade policies and export growth: employment and poverty impact in Tanzania. Stockholm: Sida
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trade policies and export growth: employment and poverty impact in Tanzania
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study on Tanzania is part of a series of annual studies, undertaken by various Swedish universities and academic research institutes in collaboration with Sida. The main purpose of these studies is to enhance our knowledge and understanding of current economic development processes and challenges in Sweden's main partner countries for development co-operation. The hope is also that they will have a broader academic interest and that the collaboration will serve to strengthen the Swedish academic resource base in the field of development economics. The study contains an analysis of the determinants of export in Tanzania in light of the changing composition of exports in the past years. This is followed by an analysis of the impact of trade reforms on employment and poverty. The report was prepared by Jörgen Levin and Mikael Ohlin at the Department of Economics at Örebro University.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Sida, 2008. p. 54
Series
Country economic report, ISSN 1404-031X ; 2008:7
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3840 (URN)978-91-586-4072-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-01-15 Created: 2009-01-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Bigsten, A., Levin, J. & Persson, H. (2004). Debt relief and growth: a study of Tanzania and Zambia. In: Tony Addison, Henrik Hansen, Finn Tarp (Ed.), Debt relief for poor countries (pp. 181-208). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Debt relief and growth: a study of Tanzania and Zambia
2004 (English)In: Debt relief for poor countries / [ed] Tony Addison, Henrik Hansen, Finn Tarp, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, p. 181-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses some issues on how to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative to current actual debt service is small in both cases, which implies that the impact of debt relief per se would be expected to be modest. However, as illustrated in the case of Tanzania the impact could be considerably higher if additional public investment succeeds to improve private sector productivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
Series
Studies in development economics and policy
National Category
Economics and Business Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26461 (URN)1-4039-3482-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4078-7349

Search in DiVA

Show all publications