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Volchko, Y., Berggren Kleja, D., Back, P.-E., Tiberg, C., Enell, A., Larsson, M., . . . Rosén, L. (2020). Assessing costs and benefits of improved soil quality management in remediation projects: A study of an urban site contaminated with PAH and metals. Science of the Total Environment, 707, Article ID 135582.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing costs and benefits of improved soil quality management in remediation projects: A study of an urban site contaminated with PAH and metals
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2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 707, article id 135582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contaminants in the soil may threaten soil functions (SFs) and, in turn, hinder the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). A framework for ecological risk assessments (ERAs) within the APPLICERA - APPLICable site-specific Environmental Risk Assessment research project promotes assessments that consider other soil quality parameters than only contaminant concentrations. The developed framework is: (i) able to differentiate the effects of contamination on SFs from the effects of other soil qualities essential for soil biota; and (ii) provides a robust basis for improved soil quality management in remediation projects. This study evaluates the socio-economic consequences of remediation alternatives stemming from a Tier 1 ERA that focusses on total contaminant concentrations and soil quality standards and a detailed, site-specific Tier 3 Triad approach that is based on the APPLICERA framework. The present study demonstrates how Tier 1 and Tier 3 ERAs differ in terms of the socio-economic consequences of their remediation actions, as well as presents a novel method for the semi-quantitative assessment of on-site ES. Although the presented Tier 3 ERA is more expensive and time-consuming than the more traditional Tier 1 ERA approach, it has the potential to lower the costs of remediation actions, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, reduce other environmental impacts, and minimise socio-economic losses. Furthermore, the remediation actions stemming from the Tier 3 ERA were predicted to exert far less negative ES effects than the actions proposed based on the results of the Tier 1 ERA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Contaminated sites, Cost-benefit analysis, Ecological risk assessment, Ecosystem services, Remediation, Soil quality
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biologi med ekologisk inriktning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79362 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135582 (DOI)000507925700017 ()31776003 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075966863 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 210-2014-87
Note

Funding Agencies:

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency  

Swedish Geotechnical Institute 

Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Titaley, I. A., Eriksson, U. & Larsson, M. (2020). Rapid extraction method of polycyclic aromatic compounds in soil using basic silica selective pressurized liquid extraction. Journal of Chromatography A, Article ID 460896.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid extraction method of polycyclic aromatic compounds in soil using basic silica selective pressurized liquid extraction
2020 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, article id 460896Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Complex chemical mixtures found in soils at contaminated sites typically includes polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), thus posing potential environmental and human health risks. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by silica clean-up is one of the most often used extraction methods for PACs in soil. While silica clean-up provide satisfactory recovery of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs), this technique provides limited recovery of azaarenes. In this work, we used PLE and in-cell clean up with basic silica to increase the recovery of OPAHs and azaarenes. The optimized selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method used 4 g basic silica, dichloromethane, 100% flush volume, 100 and 120 °C extraction temperatures, with two static cycles for each temperature, no rinse in between the two extractions, and 20 and 120 s purge for the first and second extraction temperature, respectively. The method was validated for a wide range of PAC groups, including OPAHs, azaarenes, alkylated PAHs, and sulfur heterocycles (SPACs), in total 87 PACs, using certified reference material and in comparison to the results from previous inter-laboratory data. Our SPLE method yielded results that are in agreement with certified values and inter-laboratory data from prior analysis. The SPLE method also yielded lower variation than the results from the inter-laboratory data for analysis of OPAH and azaarenes, suggesting better precision than previous methods. More importantly, the SPLE method increases sample analysis throughput as extra clean-up step is not necessary anymore. The SPLE method was then successfully applied to rapidly screen PACs in three soil samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE), Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), Soil, Oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), Azaarenes
National Category
Natural Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80713 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2020.460896 (DOI)32005529 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078476432 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Note

This work was supported by the KK-stiftelsen (Knowledge foundation) [grant number 20160019 (Environmental Forensics)].

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Larsson, M., Lam, M. M., Engwall, M., Giesy, J. P., Rochman, C. & Kärrman, A. (2019). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(9), 9097-9088
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 9097-9088Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic is able to sorb environmental pollutants from ambient water and might act as a vector for these pollutants to marine organisms. The potential toxicological effects of plastic-sorbed pollutants in marine organisms have not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, organic extracts from four types of plastic deployed for 9 or 12 months in San Diego Bay, California, were examined for their potential to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway by use of the H4IIE-luc assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including the 16 priority PAHs, were quantified. The AhR-mediated potency in the deployed plastic samples, calculated as bio-TEQ values, ranged from 2.7 pg/g in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to 277 pg/g in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Concentrations of the sum of 24 PAHs in the deployed samples ranged from 4.6 to 1068 ng/g. By use of relative potency factors (REP), a potency balance between the biological effect (bio-TEQs) and the targeted PAHs (chem-TEQs) was calculated to 24-170%. The study reports, for the first time, in vitro AhR-mediated potencies for different deployed plastics, of which LDPE elicited the greatest concentration of bio-TEQs followed by polypropylene (PP), PET, and polyvinylchloride (PVC).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Ah receptor, H4IIE-luc, In vitro bioassays, Microplastics, PAH
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72376 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-04281-4 (DOI)000464851100063 ()30715715 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061216163 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Meyer-Alert, H., Larsson, M., Hollert, H. & Keiter, S. (2019). Benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3-benzofuran induce divergent temporal patterns of AhR-regulated responses in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 183, Article ID UNSP 109505.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3-benzofuran induce divergent temporal patterns of AhR-regulated responses in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio)
2019 (English)In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 183, article id UNSP 109505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biotests like the fish embryo toxicity test have become increasingly popular in risk assessment and evaluation of chemicals found in the environment. The large range of possible endpoints is a big advantage when researching on the mode of action of a certain substance. Here, we utilized the frequently used model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine regulative mechanisms in the pathway of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in early development. We exposed embryos to representatives of two chemical classes known to elicit dioxin-like activity: benzo[a]pyrene for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 2,3-benzofuran for polar O-substituted heterocycles as a member of heterocyclic compounds in general (N-, S-, O-heterocycles; NSO-hets). We measured gene transcription of the induced P450 cytochromes (cyp1), their formation of protein and biotransformation activity throughout the whole embryonic development until 5 days after fertilization. The results show a very specific time course of transcription depending on the chemical properties (e.g. halogenation, planarity, Kow), the physical decay and the biodegradability of the tested compound. However, although this temporal pattern was not precisely transferable onto the protein level, significant regulation in enzymatic activity over time could be detected. We conclude, that a careful choice of time and end point as well as consideration of the chemical properties of a substance are fairly important when planning, conducting and especially evaluating biotests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Biotransformation, Cytochrome P450, Dioxin-like activity, EROD, Zebrafish embryo
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75813 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109505 (DOI)000487178000011 ()31394372 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070090993 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

German Federal Environment Foundation (DBU)  

EnForce laboratory - Knowledge Foundation  20160019

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Larsson, M., Dubocq, F., Rotander, A., Van der Zande, R., Engwall, M. & Kärrman, A. (2019). Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To facilitate the study of potential harmful compounds sorbed to microplastics, an effect-directed analysis using the DR CALUX® assay as screening tool for Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds in extracts of marine deployed microplastics and chemical analysis of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) was conducted. Pellets of three plastic polymers [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)] were deployed at Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for up to 8 months. Detected AhR-mediated potencies (bio-TEQs) of extracted plastic pellets ranged from 15 to 100 pg/g. Contributions of target HOCs to the overall bioactivities were negligible. To identify the major contributors, remaining plastic pellets were used for fractionation with a gas chromatography (GC) fractionation platform featuring parallel mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The bioassay analysis showed two bioactive fractions of each polymer with bio-TEQs ranging from 5.7 to 14 pg/g. High resolution MS was used in order to identify bioactive compounds in the fractions. No AhR agonists could be identified in fractions of HDPE or LDPE. Via a multivariate statistical approach the polystyrene (PS) trimer 1e- Phenyl-4e-(1- phenylethyl)-tetralin was identified in fractions of HIPS and in fractions of the blank polymer of HIPS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
polyethylene, polystyrene, PCBs, reporter gene assay, fractionation
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75769 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00120 (DOI)000478726600002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Meyer-Alert, H., Ladermann, K., Larsson, M., Schiwy, S., Hollert, H. & Keiter, S. H. (2018). A temporal high-resolution investigation of the Ah-receptor pathway during early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology, 204, 117-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A temporal high-resolution investigation of the Ah-receptor pathway during early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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2018 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 204, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the regulating mechanisms of the aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AHR) in zebrafish embryos, we aimed to elucidate the interaction of proteins taking part in this signaling pathway during early development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) after chemical exposure. We managed to illustrate initial transcription processes of the implemented proteins after exposure to two environmentally relevant chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and β-Naphthoflavone (BNF). Using qPCR, we quantified mRNA every 4 h until 118 h post fertilization and found the expression of biotransformation enzymes (cyp1 family) and the repressor of the AHR (ahr-r) to be dependent on the duration of chemical exposure and the biodegradability of the compounds. PCB126 induced persistently increased amounts of transcripts as it is not metabolized, whereas activation by BNF was limited to the initial period of exposure. We did not find a clear relation between the amount of transcripts and activity of the induced CYP-proteins, so posttranscriptional mechanisms are likely to regulate biotransformation of BNF. With regard to zebrafish embryos and their application in risk assessment of hazardous chemicals, our examination of the AHR pathway especially supports the relevance of the time point or period of exposure that is used for bioanalytical investigations and consideration of chemical properties determining biodegradability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Arylhydrocarbon receptor, Biotransformation, Cytochrome P450, Polychlorinated biphenyl 126, Zebrafish embryo, β-Naphthoflavone
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69587 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.09.007 (DOI)000449240800012 ()30245344 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053782365 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

German Federal Environment Foundation (DBU)  

European FP7 Collaborative Project SOLUTIONS  603437 

Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Lam, M. M., Bülow, R., Engwall, M., Giesy, J. P. & Larsson, M. (2018). Methylated PACs Are More Potent than Their Parent Compounds: A Study on AhR-mediated Activity, Degradability and Mixture Interactions in the H4IIE-luc Assay. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 37(5), 1409-1419
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methylated PACs Are More Potent than Their Parent Compounds: A Study on AhR-mediated Activity, Degradability and Mixture Interactions in the H4IIE-luc Assay
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 1409-1419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Twenty-six polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs; including native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], hydroxylated PAHs, alkylated and oxygenated PAHs, and [alkylated] heterocyclic compounds) were investigated for their aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated potencies in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Potential degradabilities of PACs were investigated by use of various durations of exposure (24, 48, or 72 h), and various mixtures of PACs including PAHs, alkylated and oxygenated PAHs, and heterocyclic compounds were tested for their joint AhR-mediated potency. Additive behaviors of PACs in mixtures were studied by comparing observed mixture potencies with mixture potencies predicted by use of the concentration addition model. Methylated derivatives were more potent than their parent compounds in the H4IIE-luc assay. A time-dependent decrease in relative potency was observed for all AhR-active compounds, which may be indicative of in vitro biotransformation. Monomethylated compounds seemed to be more rapidly transformed than analogous unsubstituted compounds. In addition, the results showed that the predictive power of the concentration addition model increased with the number of compounds, suggesting additivity in multicomponent mixtures. Due to the greater potency of methylated derivatives and their ubiquitous occurrence, there is a need for further research on the toxicity and mixture behavior of these environmentally and toxicologically relevant compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Polycyclic aromatic compounds, Relative potency factors, In vitro bioassays, Mixture toxicity
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64509 (URN)10.1002/etc.4087 (DOI)000430916000017 ()29334126 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044416468 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding Agencies:

KK Foundation (SOILEFFECT)  2013/0157 

KK Foundation (EnForce)  20160019 

Canada Research Chair program  

"High Level Foreign Experts" program - People's Republic of China State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs  

Einstein Professor Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  

Distinguished Visiting Professorship in the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Hong Kong 

Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Lam, M. M., Engwall, M., Denison, M. S. & Larsson, M. (2018). Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 37(2), 385-397
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils
2018 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 385-397Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study 42 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were investigated for their estrogenic potential using the VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay. Relative potencies were determined for mass-balance analysis. In addition, compounds were tested in combination with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist vertical bar C vertical bar 182,780 (vertical bar C vertical bar) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor a-naphthoflavone. Luciferase induction and CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured to assess whether the estrogenic activity was elicited by the compound itself and/or by its metabolites. Relative potencies ranged between 10(-7) and 10(-4). The ability of ICI to decrease luciferase activity stimulated by all compounds indicated that the induction responses were ER-dependent. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor a-naphthoflavone decreased luciferase induction and EROD activity by several compounds, including the methylated chrysenes, suggesting that metabolites of these chemicals contributed to ER activation. Several PACs, such as acridine and its derivatives, appear to directly activate the ER. Furthermore, extracts of soils from industrial areas were examined using this bioassay, and estrogenic activity was detected in all soil samples. Mass-balance analysis using a combination of relative potencies and chemical analysis of the samples suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, such as 1-and 3-methylchrysene, are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity. However, these results revealed that a considerable proportion of the estrogenic activity in the soil remained unexplained, indicating the presence of other significant estrogenic compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Estrogen receptor–mediated activity; Relative potency; Metabolite; VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay; Mass-balance analysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61710 (URN)10.1002/etc.3958 (DOI)000423425700009 ()28834568 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041099349 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2013/0157
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Lam, M. M., van Hees, P., Giesy, J. P. & Engwall, M. (2018). Occurrence and leachability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in contaminated soils: Chemical and bioanalytical characterization. Science of the Total Environment, 622-623, 1476-1484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and leachability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in contaminated soils: Chemical and bioanalytical characterization
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622-623, p. 1476-1484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important concern regarding sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) is the risk of groundwater contamination by release of the compounds from soils. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and leachability of 77 PACs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (NSO-PACs) among total aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in soils from historical contaminated sites. A novel approach combining chemical and bioanalytical methods in combination with characterization of leachability by use of a column leaching test was used. Similar profiles of relative concentrations of PACs were observed in all soils, with parent PAHs accounting for 71 to 90% of total concentrations in soils. Contribution of oxy-PAHs, alkyl-PAHs and N-PACs ranged from 2 to 9%, 3 to 9% and 1 to 14%, respectively. Although the contributions of groups of PACs were small, some compounds were found in similar or greater concentrations than parent PAHs. Leachable fractions of 77 PACs from soils were small and ranged from 0.002 to 0.54%. Polar PACs were shown to be more leachable than parent PAHs. The contribution of analyzed PACS to overall AhR-mediated activities in soils and leachates suggests presence of other AhR agonists in soils, and a potential risk. Only a small fraction of AhR agonists was available in soils, indicating an overestimation of the risk if only total initial concentrations in soils would be considered in risk assessment. The results of the study strongly support that focus on 16US EPA PAHs may result in inadequate assessment of risk and hazard of PACs in complex environmental samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Alkyl-PAHs; Oxy-PAHs; NSO-heterocyclic compounds; Ah receptor; H4IIE-luc bioassay; Column leaching test
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64301 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.015 (DOI)000426349000143 ()2-s2.0-85038841340 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2013/0157
Note

Funding Agencies:

Applicera and Formas  210-2014-87 

Canada Research Chair program  

State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs  GDT20143200016 

P.R. China  

Chinese Academy of Sciences  

Distinguished Visiting Professorship in the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Hong Kong  

Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada  326415-07 

Western Economic Diversification Canada  6578  6807  000012711 

Canada Foundation for Infrastructure  

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Kärrman, A., Bjurlid, F., Hagberg, J., Ricklund, N., Larsson, M., Stubleski, J. & Hollert, H. (2016). Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University, 2016. p. 57
National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54919 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1404-3186

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