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Wölfer, R., Schmid, K., Hewstone, M. & van Zalk, M. (2016). Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood. Child Development, 87(5), 1466-1478
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood
2016 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 1466-1478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network approach to investigate intergroup contact (N=6,457; M-age=14.91years). Study 2 explored the developmental trajectories of intergroup contact by applying this validated network approach in a cross-sequential design (four-cohort-four-wave; N=3,815; 13-26years). Accelerated growth curve models showed that contact predicts the development of attitudes in adolescence, whereas acquired attitudes buffer against decreasing contact in adulthood. Findings highlight the potential of social network analysis and the developmental importance of early intergroup contact experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53516 (URN)10.1111/cdev.12598 (DOI)000385377700011 ()27684399 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988979407 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

NORFACE ERA

VENI scheme of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) 

Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Abdelzadeh, A., Özdemir, M. & Van Zalk, M. (2015). Dissatisfied Citizens: An Asset to or a Liability on the Democratic Functioning of Society?. Scandinavian Political Studies, 38(4), 410-436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissatisfied Citizens: An Asset to or a Liability on the Democratic Functioning of Society?
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 410-436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Past research has shown that, although a majority of citizens in democracies support the idea of democracy as a form of governance, some tend to be distrustful of democratic institutions and express dissatisfaction with the way democracy works. It is argued in this article that to better understand the role of various groups of dissatisfied citizens in the democratic functioning of a society, one should examine their democratic characteristics. Based on youth's dissatisfaction with the performance of political institutions and the principles of democracy, four distinct groups of citizens are identified. These groups are then compared in terms of their political engagement, knowledge and interest, values and attitudes, and disposition to break the law. The results showed that youths with high levels of principle- and performance-driven dissatisfaction were less likely to participate in politics, less knowledgeable and interested in political issues, and more likely to break the law, even if people got hurt compared with other groups. In contrast, youths who were only dissatisfied with the performance of democratic institutions were more likely to participate in politics, and had higher tolerance towards immigrants, and political interest and knowledge. They were also more likely, peacefully and without harming other people, to break the law to change society. Overall, by examining distinct groups of dissatisfied citizens and their democratic characteristics, this study contributes to the general debate on the role of dissatisfied citizens in democracies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46470 (URN)10.1111/1467-9477.12051 (DOI)000364650000006 ()2-s2.0-84946490843 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Van Zalk, N. & Van Zalk, M. (2015). The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety. Journal of personality, 83(3), 346-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety
2015 (English)In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 346-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.

Keywords
social anxiety
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43428 (URN)10.1111/jopy.12108 (DOI)000354125400010 ()24957362 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929023874 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-07 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Van Zalk, M. H., Van Zalk, N., Kerr, M. & Stattin, H. (2014). Influences Between Online-Exclusive, Conjoint and Offline-Exclusive Friendship Networks: The Moderating Role of Shyness. European Journal of Personality, 28(2), 134-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences Between Online-Exclusive, Conjoint and Offline-Exclusive Friendship Networks: The Moderating Role of Shyness
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research has indicated that shy adolescents are more motivated to form friendships online than to form friendships offline. Little is known about whether having friendships found exclusively online may impact self-esteem and forming offline friendships for these adolescents. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the moderating role of shyness in the longitudinal interplay between friendships in online and offline contexts in early adolescence. Adolescents and their friends (193 girls, 196 boys; M-age = 13.29) were followed with three consecutive measurements with intervals of eight months. Results showed that particularly for shy adolescents, having friends exclusively online predicted increases in self-esteem. Self-esteem, in turn, was found to predict forming more friendships found both offline and online and forming more friendships found exclusively offline. Thus, findings supported the social compensation perspective that shy adolescents may benefit from having friends exclusively online, as these friendships may increase self-esteem, thereby facilitating the formation of friendships found partially and completely offline. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keywords
friendships, online relationships, shyness, self-esteem
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34998 (URN)10.1002/per.1895 (DOI)000334033500003 ()
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Dahl, V. & Van Zalk, M. (2014). Peer networks and the development of illegal political behavior among adolescents. Journal of research on adolescence, 24(2), 399-409
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer networks and the development of illegal political behavior among adolescents
2014 (English)In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined to what extent peer influence explains the development of illegal political behavior controlling for peer selection, legal political peer influence, and gender effects. Late adolescents who filled out questionnaires at two annual measurements were used in a longitudinal social network approach (N = 1006; Mage = 16.62). Results showed that peers’ involvement in illegal political behavior predicted adolescents’ increases in illegal political behavior. Adolescents did not select other peers with similar illegal political behavior. Nevertheless, adolescents selected peers with similar legal political behavior. Findings were discussed in light of a stage process where adolescents initially chose peers with similar legal political behavior. Subsequently, peers influence adolescents on both legal and illegal political behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34031 (URN)10.1111/jora.12072 (DOI)000337571500015 ()2-s2.0-84901409973 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Dufner, M., Denissen, J., Sedikides, C., Van Zalk, M., Meeus, W. H. J. & van Aken, M. (2013). Are Actual and Perceived Intellectual Self-enhancers Evaluated Differently by Social Perceivers?. European Journal of Personality, 27(6), 621-633
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Actual and Perceived Intellectual Self-enhancers Evaluated Differently by Social Perceivers?
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2013 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 621-633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Do actual and perceived self-enhancement entail differing social impressions (i.e. interpersonal evaluations)? Actual self-enhancement represents unduly positive self-views, as gauged by an objective criterion (in this case, IQ scores), whereas perceived self-enhancement involves the extent to which an individual is seen by informants (i.e. peers or observers) as self-enhancing. In an online survey (N=337), a laboratory experiment (N=75), and a round-robin study (N=183), we tested the effects of actual and perceived intellectual self-enhancement on (informant-rated) emotional stability, social attractiveness, and social influence. Actual self-enhancers were rated as emotionally stable, socially attractive, and socially influential. High perceived self-enhancers were judged as socially influential, whereas low-to-moderate perceived self-enhancers were deemed emotionally stable and socially attractive. Privately entertained, illusory positive (even extreme) self-beliefs confer social benefits, whereas being perceived as self-enhancing buys social influence at the cost of being despised. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords
self-enhancement, person perception, likability, social influence, emotional stability
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32925 (URN)10.1002/per.1934 (DOI)000327735000009 ()
Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Veenstra, R., Dijkstra, J. K., Steglich, C. & Van Zalk, M. (2013). Network–Behavior Dynamics. Journal of research on adolescence, 23, 399-412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network–Behavior Dynamics
2013 (English)In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 23, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network–behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudinal social network modeling. First, an overview of mechanisms underlying selection and influence is given. After a description of the shortcomings of previous studies in this area, the stochastic actor-based model is sketched; this is used in this special issue to examine network–behavior dynamics. The preconditions for such analyses are discussed, as are common model specification issues. Next, recent empirical advances in research on adolescence are discussed, focusing on new insights into moderating effects, initiation of behaviors, time heterogeneity, mediation effects, and negative ties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43429 (URN)10.1111/jora.12070 (DOI)000327990000001 ()2-s2.0-84882733967 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-07 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
van Zalk, M., Kerr, M., van Zalk, N. & Stattin, H. (2013). Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(4), 627-639
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships
2013 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 627-639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M (age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia.

Keywords
Xenophobia, Tolerance, Friendship influence, Friendship selection, Immigrants
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29604 (URN)10.1007/s10802-012-9694-8 (DOI)000318368900010 ()
Available from: 2013-06-17 Created: 2013-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Dufner, M., Denissen, J. J. A., van Zalk, M., Matthes, B., Meeus, W. H. J., van Aken, M. A. G. & Sedikides, C. (2012). Positive intelligence illusions: on the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment. Journal of personality, 80(3), 537-572
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive intelligence illusions: on the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment
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2012 (English)In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 537-572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relation between self-enhancement and psychological adjustment has been debated for over 2 decades. This controversy is partly due to the variety of approaches implicated in the assessment of mainly self-enhancement but also psychological adjustment. We adopted a face-valid approach by statistically removing actual intellectual ability variance from self-rated intellectual ability variance. Study 1 (N?=?2,048), a concurrent Internet investigation, provided initial insight into the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment. Study 2 (N?=?238), a longitudinal round-robin investigation, allowed a closer examination of the dynamic processes underlying this relation. Self-enhancement was positively linked to multiple indicators of intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment, and predicted rank-order increases in adjustment over time. The links between intellectual self-enhancement and intrapersonal adjustment were mediated by self-esteem. Finally, the interpersonal costs and benefits of self-enhancement systematically varied depending on methodology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23355 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00742.x (DOI)000304035400001 ()2-s2.0-84861191796 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-06-11 Created: 2012-06-11 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Kerr, M., van Zalk, M. & Stattin, H. (2012). Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 53(8), 826-835
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency
2012 (English)In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 826-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents (targets) and their peers psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic personality: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. Methods: We used a peer network approach with five waves of longitudinal data from 847 adolescents in one community. Peer nominations were not limited to the school context, thus allowing us to capture all potentially important peers. In addition, peers reported on their own delinquency, thus allowing us to avoid problems of false consensus or projection that arise when individuals report on their peers delinquency. We used simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (SIENA), which is the only program currently available that can be used to study peer influence effects in peer networks of multiple relationships while controlling for selection effects. Results: Targets and peers callous-unemotional and grandiose-manipulative traits uniquely moderated peer influence on delinquency. Relative to those with low levels, targets who were high on these traits were less influenced by peers delinquency, and peers who were high on these traits were more influential on targets delinquency. Selection effects were found for impulsive-irresponsible traits, but these traits did not moderate peer influence on delinquency. Conclusions: As the first study to look at moderating effects of psychopathic traits on peer influence, this study advances knowledge about peer influence on delinquency and about psychopathic traits in adolescents. In addition, the study contributes to the literature by looking at unique effects of the three dimensions of psychopathy and taking a peer network approach, in which network effects, self-selection, and other selection effects are controlled when examining influence and moderators of influence.

Keywords
Psychopathic traits, callous-unemotional traits, delinquency, peer influence, peer network
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24616 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02492.x (DOI)000306310200003 ()
Available from: 2012-08-21 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0185-8805

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