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Edholm, P. (2020). Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscle mass and physical function in ageing: the effects of physical activity and healthy diet
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in physical function, accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, leading to loss of independency. In this respect, physical activity and healthy diet represent key lifestyle factors with potential to delay onset of age-related physical disability. The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore the effects of physical activity behaviours in general and resistance training (RT) in particular, with or without addition of a healthy diet (HD), on muscle mass and physical function in older community-dwelling women. A main finding was that physical activity of at least moderate intensity at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a previously sedentary lifestyle. Additionally, engagement in exercise-related activities during middleage years is linked to better physical function and higher muscle massat old age, regardless of present physical activity level. This thesis further highlights that in older women RT combined with HD rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elicits significant gains in muscle mass, whereas no corresponding gain was induced by RT alone. Likewise, larger improvements in muscle strength and physical function were evident in response to combined effects by RT and HD compared to RT alone. Taken together, findings from this thesis support public health efforts aiming to promote physical activity of at least moderate intensity together with a healthy diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to combat age-related decline in muscle mass and physical function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2020. p. 103
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535 ; 32
Keywords
Healthy ageing, Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, Functional capacity, Resistance training, Omega-3 fatty acids, Muscle mass, Body fat
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80056 (URN)978-91-7529-326-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-04-17, Örebro universitet, Gymnastik- och idrottshuset, Hörsal G, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-02-18 Created: 2020-02-18 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P. & Nilsson, A. (2019). Fysisk funktion hos äldre – nuvarande och tidigare aktivitet har betydelse. Läkartidningen, 14, Article ID 116:FL4I.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysisk funktion hos äldre – nuvarande och tidigare aktivitet har betydelse
2019 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 14, article id 116:FL4IArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Läkartidningen Förlag AB, 2019
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80207 (URN)
Available from: 2020-02-26 Created: 2020-02-26 Last updated: 2020-03-12Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Nilsson, A. & Kadi, F. (2019). Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29(3), 415-421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
aerobic capacity, aging, exercise, muscle strength, sedentary
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72758 (URN)10.1111/sms.13350 (DOI)000458294800011 ()30506596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059033224 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2012/102 P2014/117 P2015/120
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women. In: : . Paper presented at Nobel Day Festivities, Örebro, Sweden, December 10, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66427 (URN)
Conference
Nobel Day Festivities, Örebro, Sweden, December 10, 2017
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women. In: : . Paper presented at European College of Sport Science Congress, Bochum, Germany, 5-8 July, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A healthy diet rich in N-3 PUFAS enhances the effects of resistance training in elderly women
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Physiology Sport and Fitness Sciences Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66426 (URN)
Conference
European College of Sport Science Congress, Bochum, Germany, 5-8 July, 2017
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Strandberg, E. & Kadi, F. (2017). Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet. Journal of applied physiology, 123(1), 190-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2017
Keywords
aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Edholm, P., Krustrup, P. & Randers, M. B. (2015). Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25(1), E40-E49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 1, p. E40-E49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the acute effects of a half-time re-warm up on performance and movement patterns in soccer match play. Using a crossover design, 22 professional male players performed traditional passive rest (CON) or a low-intensity re-warm up (RW) during the half-time period of two soccer matches. Before and after the first half and before the second half, maximal sprint and jump performance were evaluated. Time-motion analysis of the first 15 min of each half was conducted. Sprint and jump performance were reduced (P < 0.05) by 2.6% and 7.6%, respectively, during the half-time period in CON, whereas sprint performance was maintained and the decrement in jump performance (3.1%; P < 0.05) was lower after RW. No significant interaction for high-intensity running was observed, but less defensive high-intensity running was observed after RW than CON (0.14 ± 0.06 vs 0.22 ± 0.07 km; P < 0.01). Moreover, RW had more possession of the ball in the beginning of the second half. In conclusion, traditional passive half-time rest leads to impaired sprint and jump performance during the initial phase of the second half in professional soccer players whereas a re-warm up effectively attenuates such deteriorations. Less defensive high-intensity running and more ball possession were observed after RW, indicating a game advantage at the onset of the second half.

Keywords
Countermovement jump; Football; High-intensity exercise; Sprint performance; Time-motion analysis
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38678 (URN)10.1111/sms.12236 (DOI)000348839100005 ()25048430 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84921268027 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Football Association

Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-17 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, E., Edholm, P., Ponsot, E., Wåhlin-Larsson, B., Hellmén, E., Nilsson, A., . . . Kadi, F. (2015). Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of applied physiology, 119(8), 918-925
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
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2015 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2015
Keywords
aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Marklund, P., Mattsson, C. M., Wåhlin-Larsson, B., Ponsot, E., Lindvall, B., Lindvall, L., . . . Kadi, F. (2013). Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle in response to an ultraendurance exercise bout in experienced athletes. Journal of applied physiology, 114(1), 66-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle in response to an ultraendurance exercise bout in experienced athletes
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2013 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of a 24-h ultraendurance exercise bout on systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions was investigated in nine experienced athletes. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected before (Pre), immediately after the exercise bout (Post), and after 28 h of recovery (Post28). Circulating blood levels of leukocytes, creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and selected inflammatory cytokines were assessed together with the evaluation of the occurrence of inflammatory cells (CD3(+), CD8(+), CD68(+)) and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) in skeletal muscle. An extensive inflammatory cell infiltration occurred in all athletes, and the number of CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD68(+) cells were two- to threefold higher at Post28 compared with Pre (P < 0.05). The inflammatory cell infiltration was associated with a significant increase in the expression of MHC class I in muscle fibers. There was a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and CK at Post. At Post28, total leukocytes, IL-6, and CK had declined, whereas IL-8 and CRP continued to increase. Increases in IL-1β and TNF-α were not significant. There were no significant associations between the magnitude of the systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions. Signs of muscle degenerative and regenerative events were observed in all athletes with various degrees of severity and were not affected by the 24-h ultraendurance exercise bout. In conclusion, a low-intensity but very prolonged single-endurance exercise bout can generate a strong inflammatory cell infiltration in skeletal muscle of well-trained experienced ultraendurance athletes, and the amplitude of the local reaction is not proportional to the systemic inflammatory response.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31995 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.01538.2011 (DOI)000313051000009 ()23104690 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84871782629 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Wahlin-Larsson, P., Edholm, P., Mattsson, C., Ponsot, E., Lindvall, B., Ekblom, L. & Kadi, F. (2012). Ultra-endurance exercise is associated with extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle of experienced athletes. In: : . Paper presented at European College of Sport Science Congress, Bruges, Belgium, July 4-6, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-endurance exercise is associated with extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle of experienced athletes
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66425 (URN)
Conference
European College of Sport Science Congress, Bruges, Belgium, July 4-6, 2012
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5401-9255

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