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Westerdahl, E., Engman, K. O., Arne, M. & Larsson, M. (2019). Spirometry to increase smoking cessation rate: A systematic review. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 17, Article ID 31.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spirometry to increase smoking cessation rate: A systematic review
2019 (English)In: Tobacco Induced Diseases, ISSN 1617-9625, E-ISSN 1617-9625, Vol. 17, article id 31Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Addressing tobacco use is an important issue in general health care. In order to improve smoking cessation advice, spirometry values can be displayed to the smoker to demonstrate possible lung function impairment. The estimate of so-called lung age may show a decrease in lung function associated with smoking. It has been suggested that performing spirometry on patients who smoke but are asymptomatic can be a useful way to show the adverse effects of smoking. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if providing spirometry results in combination with smoking cessation counselling can increase smoking cessation rates compared to what is achieved through counselling alone.

METHODS: In this systematic review, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating smoking cessation interventions for adult smokers. The systematic search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Embase, Amed and PsycInfo.

RESULTS: The literature search resulted in 946 studies, which, after reading by two independent reviewers, were reduced to seven trials that matched the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs showed significant improvement in smoking cessation when giving patients feedback on spirometry results in combination with smoking cessation counselling, compared to patients who received only smoking cessation counselling. In both studies, the spirometry results were expressed as lung age. In the other five studies no difference was found. Five further published study protocols for ongoing RCT studies in the field have been found, and therefore this systematic overview will likely need to be updated within a few years.

CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have been undertaken to examine the efficacy of spirometry in increasing smoking quit rates. Studies conducted to date have shown mixed results, and there is currently limited evidence in the literature that smoking cessation counselling that includes feedback from spirometry and a demonstration of lung age promotes quit rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Publishing, 2019
Keywords
smoking cessation, prevention, spirometry
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75275 (URN)10.18332/tid/106090 (DOI)000471794400008 ()2-s2.0-85068177633 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2019-07-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. & Abbott, B. W. (2018). Is the Capacity for Vocal Learning in Vertebrates Rooted in Fish Schooling Behavior?. Evolutionary biology, 45(4), 359-373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the Capacity for Vocal Learning in Vertebrates Rooted in Fish Schooling Behavior?
2018 (English)In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 359-373Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The capacity to learn and reproduce vocal sounds has evolved in phylogenetically distant tetrapod lineages. Vocal learners in all these lineages express similar neural circuitry and genetic factors when perceiving, processing, and reproducing vocalization, suggesting that brain pathways for vocal learning evolved within strong constraints from a common ancestor, potentially fish. We hypothesize that the auditory-motor circuits and genes involved in entrainment have their origins in fish schooling behavior and respiratory-motor coupling. In this acoustic advantages hypothesis, aural costs and benefits played a key role in shaping a wide variety of traits, which could readily be exapted for entrainment and vocal learning, including social grouping, group movement, and respiratory-motor coupling. Specifically, incidental sounds of locomotion and respiration (ISLR) may have reinforced synchronization by communicating important spatial and temporal information between school-members and extending windows of silence to improve situational awareness. This process would be mutually reinforcing. Neurons in the telencephalon, which were initially involved in linking ISLR with forelimbs, could have switched functions to serve vocal machinery (e.g. mouth, beak, tongue, larynx, syrinx). While previous vocal learning hypotheses invoke transmission of neurons from visual tasks (gestures) to the auditory channel, this hypothesis involves the auditory channel from the onset. Acoustic benefits of locomotor-respiratory coordination in fish may have selected for genetic factors and brain circuitry capable of synchronizing respiratory and limb movements, predisposing tetrapod lines to synchronized movement, vocalization, and vocal learning. We discuss how the capacity to entrain is manifest in fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, and propose predictions to test our acoustic advantages hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Vocal learning, Incidental sound, Locomotion, Respiration, Locomotor-respiratory coupling, Fish schooling, Entrainment, Synchronization, FoxP2
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70297 (URN)10.1007/s11692-018-9457-8 (DOI)000449506400001 ()30459479 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048491612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607150
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Westerdahl, E., Arne, M., Larsson, M. & Engman, K. O. (2018). Spirometry to motivate smoking cessation - a systematic review. Paper presented at 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), SEP 15-19, 2018, Paris, FRANCE. European Respiratory Journal, 52(Suppl. 62), Article ID PA1734.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spirometry to motivate smoking cessation - a systematic review
2018 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52, no Suppl. 62, article id PA1734Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Respiratory Society, 2018
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72100 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2018.PA1734 (DOI)000455567102143 ()
Conference
28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), SEP 15-19, 2018, Paris, FRANCE
Available from: 2019-02-05 Created: 2019-02-05 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. (2017). Did heart asymmetry play a role in the evolution of human handedness?. Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science, 1(2), 65-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Did heart asymmetry play a role in the evolution of human handedness?
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science, ISSN 2520-100X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Almost 90% of humans are right handed, but why is unclear. It has been suggested that right handedness evolved in the context of escalating motor and cognitive demands related to tool use. Literature indicates that homicide may have been common in early hominins. Since, in combat with sharp implements, handedness may influence the relative level of exposure of left and right thorax, the hypothesis presented here is that thoracic anatomic asymmetry resulted in a survival advantage for right handed individuals. While fighting with sharp tools, a left hand unilateral grip will rotate the left hemi-thorax towards an opponent. The aims of this study were to quantify the degree of thoracic/cardiac asymmetry in humans and to estimate any difference in risk of injury from a sharp implement attack to the left and the right human thorax. CT-scans of 37 men showed a mean of 73% (SD 7%) of the heart volume to be situated in the left hemi-thorax. Nineteen physicians unaware of the hypothesis estimated the outcome of weapons penetrating the left and right thorax/abdomen at random points. The difference in estimated mortality for left and right thorax was significant, p\0.001 (Wilcoxon- signed-ranks-test for two related samples). These results suggest greater vulnerability of the left side of the body in combat, and, accordingly, an adaptive value of right-handedness. Thoracic asymmetry may have contributed to the development of right hand preference in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2017
Keywords
Laterality, Language evolution, Combat, The warfare shield theory, Primate
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67167 (URN)10.1007/s41809-017-0009-z (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. (2017). How did 3D vision develop?. University of Cambridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How did 3D vision develop?
2017 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
University of Cambridge, 2017
Series
The Naked Scientists
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64804 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Meehan, A. D., Abbott, B. W. & Larsson, M. (2017). Movement Is the Song of the Body: Reflections on the Evolution of Rhythm and Music and Its Possible Significance for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture, 1(2), 73-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Movement Is the Song of the Body: Reflections on the Evolution of Rhythm and Music and Its Possible Significance for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
2017 (English)In: Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture, ISSN 2472-9884, E-ISSN 2472-9876, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Schooling fish, swarms of starlings, plodding wildebeest, and musicians all display impressive synchronization. To what extent do they use acoustic cues to achieve these feats? Could the acoustic cues used in movement synchronization be relevant to the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans? In this paper, we build on the emerging view in evolutionary biology that the ability to synchronize movement evolved long before language, in part due to acoustic advantages. We use this insight to explore potential mechanisms explaining why music therapy has beneficial effects for PD patients. We hypothesize that rhythmic auditory cues, particularly music, can stimulate neuronal and behavioral processes that ease the symptoms and potentially the causes of PD because the neural circuits used in auditory entrainment at individual and group levels are associated with dopamine production. We summarize current treatment of PD and outline how new insights from an evolutionary perspective could improve understanding and eventual treatment of movement disorders in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Studies Press, 2017
Keywords
Rhythm, synchronization, locomotion, music, respiration, Parkinson’s disease
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64786 (URN)10.26613/esic/1.2.49 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. (2017). Samtal om tobak och kvalificerad rökavvänjning: sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i klinisk praxis. Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, 94(2), 147-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samtal om tobak och kvalificerad rökavvänjning: sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i klinisk praxis
2017 (Swedish)In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smoking-cessation support and anti-tobacco-legislation have the potential to generate substantial health improvements, and reduce socioeconomic differences. It is exceedingly cost-effective. Current smoking is an important risk-indicator, influencing prognosis and treatment e.g. in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, air-way diseases, and before elective surgery.  Raising the question timely, empathy and professional support are crucial factors. It is essential to ask and document tobacco habits of all patients, including ex-smokers and never users. Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy, given in combination, significantly increase long-term abstinence rates. First-line pharmacotherapy to support quit attempts are nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Health-care professionals are trusted and have unique possibilities to raise the tobacco issue in meetings with patients and in the society debate.

Abstract [sv]

Rökavvänjning och antitobakslagar kan genera betydande hälsoeffekter och reducera socioekonomiska klyftor till mycket låg kostnad. Pågående rökvanor är en betydande riskfaktor och påverkar prognos och behandling till exempel vid rheumatoid arthrit, hjärt- och luftvägssjukdom och inför elektiv kirurgi.  Fråga därför om tobak i patientmöten; dokumentera även tidigare rökning, ex-rökning och ”aldrig-rökning”. Ställ tobaksfrågan tidigt och med timing, ”Har du någonsin använt tobak?” fungerar ofta bra. Generös rådgivningstid, strukturerad samtalsmetodik (till exempel Motiverande Samtal), empatiskt förhållningssätt är framgångsfaktorer. Kvalificerat rökavvänjningsstöd, gärna kombinerat med farmaka, förbättrar möjligheten att bli och förbli rökfri. Första linjens farmaka är nikotinläkemedel, vareniklin och bupropion. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal har stort förtroende och unika möjligheter att ta upp frågan om tobak i patientmöten och i samhällsdebatt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 2017
Keywords
Tobacco dependence; Smoking cessation; Counselling; Motivational interviewing; Pharmacological treatment, Tobaksberoende; Rökslutarstöd; Beteendestöd; Motiverande samtal; Farmaka
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63321 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. & Damberg, M. (2017). Tobaksberoende. In: Läkemedelsboken: . Läkemedelsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tobaksberoende
2017 (Swedish)In: Läkemedelsboken, Läkemedelsverket , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Läkemedelsverket, 2017
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64788 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M. (2017). Why do birds flock and fish shoal?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why do birds flock and fish shoal?
2017 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Series
The Naked Scientists
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64805 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Ekström, S. R. & Ranjbar, P. (2015). Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception. Noise & Health, 17(77), 227-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception
2015 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 77, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

Keywords
Gait, hearing, just follow conversation (JFC), masking, sounds of locomotion, speech
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45630 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.160711 (DOI)000358433800007 ()26168953 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937862373 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Örebro County Council

Cardiology Clinic of OUH

Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4164-6513

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