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Kumawat, Ashok KumarORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2244-9816
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Reitsema, R. D., Kumawat, A. K., Hesselink, B.-C., van Baarle, D. & van Sleen, Y. (2024). Effects of ageing and frailty on circulating monocyte and dendritic cell subsets. npj aging, 10(1), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ageing and frailty on circulating monocyte and dendritic cell subsets
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2024 (English)In: npj aging, E-ISSN 2731-6068, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ageing is associated with dysregulated immune responses, resulting in impaired resilience against infections and low-grade inflammation known as inflammageing. Frailty is a measurable condition in older adults characterized by decreased health and physical impairment. Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes play a crucial role in initiating and steering immune responses. To assess whether their frequencies and phenotypes in the blood are affected by ageing or frailty, we performed a flow cytometry study on monocyte and DC subsets in an immune ageing cohort. We included (n = 15 in each group) healthy young controls (HYC, median age 29 years), healthy older controls (HOC, 73 years) and Frail older controls (76 years). Monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, non-classical) were identified by CD14 and CD16 expression, and DC subsets (conventional (c)DC1, cDC2, plasmacytoid (p)DC) by CD11c, CD1c, CD141 and CD303 expression. All subsets were checked for TLR2, TLR4, HLA-DR, CD86, PDL1, CCR7 and CD40 expression. We observed a lower proportion of pDCs in HOC compared to HYC. Additionally, we found higher expression of activation markers on classical and intermediate monocytes and on cDC2 in HOC compared to HYC. Frail participants had a higher expression of CD40 on classical and non-classical monocytes compared to the HOC group. We document a substantial effect of ageing on monocytes and DCs. Reduced pDCs in older people may underlie their impaired ability to counter viral infections, whereas enhanced expression of activation markers could indicate a state of inflammageing. Future studies could elucidate the functional consequences of CD40 upregulation with frailty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2024
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-112127 (URN)10.1038/s41514-024-00144-6 (DOI)001178127600001 ()38438383 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85186629789 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Note

This research has been performed in the context of the VITAL consortium. The VITAL project has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No. 806776 and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. The JU receives support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and EFPIA-members.

Available from: 2024-03-06 Created: 2024-03-06 Last updated: 2024-03-20Bibliographically approved
Hayderi, A., Kumawat, A. K., Shavva, V. S., Dreifaldt, M., Sigvant, B., Petri, M., . . . Ljungberg, L. U. (2024). RSAD2 is abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and promotes interferon-induced CXCR3-chemokines in human smooth muscle cells. Scientific Reports, 14(1), Article ID 8196.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RSAD2 is abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and promotes interferon-induced CXCR3-chemokines in human smooth muscle cells
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2024 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 8196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In atherosclerotic lesions, monocyte-derived macrophages are major source of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a pleotropic cytokine known to regulate the expression of numerous genes, including the antiviral gene RSAD2. While RSAD2 was reported to be expressed in endothelial cells of human carotid lesions, its significance for the development of atherosclerosis remains utterly unknown. Here, we harnessed publicly available human carotid atherosclerotic data to explore RSAD2 in lesions and employed siRNA-mediated gene-knockdown to investigate its function in IFN-γ-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs). Silencing RSAD2 in IFN-γ-stimulated hAoSMCs resulted in reduced expression and secretion of key CXCR3-chemokines, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Conditioned medium from RSAD2-deficient hAoSMCs exhibited diminished monocyte attraction in vitro compared to conditioned medium from control cells. Furthermore, RSAD2 transcript was elevated in carotid lesions where it was expressed by several different cell types, including endothelial cells, macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, RSAD2 displayed significant correlations with CXCL10 (r =  0.45, p = 0.010) and CXCL11 (r = 0.53, p = 0.002) in human carotid lesions. Combining our findings, we uncover a novel role for RSAD2 in hAoSMCs, which could potentially contribute to monocyte recruitment in the context of atherosclerosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2024
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-113037 (URN)10.1038/s41598-024-58592-9 (DOI)001198838600052 ()38589444 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85189798266 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Örebro UniversityKnowledge Foundation, 20180035Stiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor, 2020-01074; 2021-01198Stiftelsen Sigurd och Elsa Goljes minne, LA2020-0196Sjukvårdsregionala forskningsrådet Mellansverige, RFR-750481; RFR-940393
Available from: 2024-04-09 Created: 2024-04-09 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
Kapetanaki, S., Kumawat, A. K., Paramel Varghese, G., Persson, K. & Demirel, I. (2024). TMAO enhances TNF-α mediated fibrosis and release of inflammatory mediators from renal fibroblasts. Scientific Reports, 14(1), Article ID 9070.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TMAO enhances TNF-α mediated fibrosis and release of inflammatory mediators from renal fibroblasts
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2024 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 9070Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-derived metabolite and TNF-α is proinflammatory cytokine, both known to be associated with renal inflammation, fibrosis and chronic kidney disease. However, today there are no data showing the combined effect of TMAO and TNF-α on renal fibrosis-and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TMAO can enhance the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of TNF-α on renal fibroblasts. We found that the combination of TNF-α and TMAO synergistically increased fibronectin release and total collagen production from renal fibroblasts. The combination of TMAO and TNF-α also promoted increased cell proliferation. Both renal proliferation and collagen production were mediated through Akt/mTOR/ERK signaling. We also found that TMAO enhanced TNF-α mediated renal inflammation by inducing the release of several cytokines (IL-6, LAP TGF-beta-1), chemokines (CXCL-6, MCP-3), inflammatory-and growth mediators (VEGFA, CD40, HGF) from renal fibroblasts. In conclusion, we showed that TMAO can enhance TNF-α mediated renal fibrosis and release of inflammatory mediators from renal fibroblasts in vitro. Our results can promote further research evaluating the combined effect of TMAO and inflammatory mediators on the development of kidney disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2024
Keywords
Fibrosis, Inflammation, Renal fibroblasts, TMAO, TNF-α
National Category
Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-113326 (URN)10.1038/s41598-024-58084-w (DOI)001207737100003 ()38643262 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85190774511 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Örebro University
Available from: 2024-04-22 Created: 2024-04-22 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Thazhathveettil, J., Kumawat, A. K., Demirel, I., Sirsjö, A. & Paramel Varghese, G. (2024). Vascular smooth muscle cells in response to cholesterol crystals modulates inflammatory cytokines release and promotes neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Molecular Medicine, 30(1), Article ID 42.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vascular smooth muscle cells in response to cholesterol crystals modulates inflammatory cytokines release and promotes neutrophil extracellular trap formation
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2024 (English)In: Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 30, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The formation and accumulation of cholesterol crystals (CC) at the lesion site is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Although studies have shown the importance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the disease atherosclerosis, little is known about the molecular mechanism behind the uptake of CC in VSMCs and their role in modulating immune response.

METHODS: Human aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured and treated with CC. CC uptake and CC mediated signaling pathway and protein induction were studied using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, western blot and Olink proteomics. Conditioned medium from CC treated VSMCs was used to study neutrophil adhesion, ROS production and phagocytosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formations were visualized using confocal microscopy.

RESULTS: VSMCs and macrophages were found around CC clefts in human carotid plaques. CC uptake in VSMCs are largely through micropinocytosis and phagocytosis via PI3K-AkT dependent pathway. The uptake of CC in VSMCs induce the release inflammatory proteins, including IL-33, an alarming cytokine. Conditioned medium from CC treated VSMCs can induce neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. IL-33 neutralization in conditioned medium from CC treated VSMCs inhibited neutrophil ROS production and NETs formation.

CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that VSMCs due to its vicinity to CC clefts in human atherosclerotic lesion can modulate local immune response and we further reveal that the interaction between CC and VSMCs impart an inflammatory milieu in the atherosclerotic microenvironment by promoting IL-33 dependent neutrophil influx and NETs formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2024
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Cholesterol crystal, Inflammation, Interleukin-33 (IL-33), Neutrophil extracellular traps, Neutrophils, Vascular smooth muscle cells
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-112553 (URN)10.1186/s10020-024-00809-8 (DOI)001189265700002 ()38519881 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85188471703 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Örebro UniversityKnowledge Foundation, 20190120; 20220014Stiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor, dnr 2021-01166; dnr 2022-01329
Available from: 2024-03-25 Created: 2024-03-25 Last updated: 2024-04-03Bibliographically approved
Thazhathveettil, J., Kumawat, A., Demirel, I., Sirsjö, A. & Paramel, G. (2023). Cholesterol crystals uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates local immune responses. Paper presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023. Atherosclerosis, 379(Suppl. 1), S9-S9, Article ID SS026.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cholesterol crystals uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates local immune responses
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 379, no Suppl. 1, p. S9-S9, article id SS026Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109553 (URN)001060595800112 ()
Conference
91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Kurt, S., Pirronello, F., Reitsema, R., Demirel, I., Rangel, I., Sirsjö, A., . . . Kumawat, A. (2023). Increased proportion of circulating neutrophils with impaired phagocytosis capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Paper presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023. Atherosclerosis, 379(Suppl. 1), S22-S22, Article ID P068.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased proportion of circulating neutrophils with impaired phagocytosis capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 379, no Suppl. 1, p. S22-S22, article id P068Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, affecting arteries in the leg. Based on their symptoms and severity, PAD patients are characterized into three sub-groups: asymptomatic, intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischemia (CLI). Despite its high prevalence, PAD remains under diagnosed and the role of immune cells in PAD pathophysiology remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the innate immune responses in PAD patients compared to healthy controls.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 14 patients with PAD (IC) and 30 healthy controls, to assess the phenotype of monocytes and neutrophils by using 10-colour flow cytometry. Phagocytosis assay was performed with labelled E.coli particles. Mann-Whitney U non-parametrical test was used for statistical comparison between PAD patients and healthy controls.

Results: A significant higher proportion of leukocytes (p<0.05) and neutrophils (p<0.01) was observed in PAD patients compared to healthy controls, whereas monocyte subsets showed no significant differences. Interestingly, neutrophils showed a significantly impaired phagocytosis capability (p<0.05) and reduced expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) (p<0.05) in PAD patients compared to healthy controls.

Conclusions: Taken together these results, suggest that PAD patients have an increased proportion of neutrophils in circulation, with impaired phagocytosis capability, compared to healthy controls.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109555 (URN)001060595800354 ()
Conference
91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Zegeye, M. M., Matic, L., Lengquist, M., Hayderi, A., Grenegård, M., Hedin, U., . . . Kumawat, A. K. (2023). Interleukin-6 trans-signaling induced laminin switch contributes to reduced trans-endothelial migration of granulocytic cells. Atherosclerosis, 371, 41-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interleukin-6 trans-signaling induced laminin switch contributes to reduced trans-endothelial migration of granulocytic cells
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 371, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laminins are essential components of the endothelial basement membrane, which predominantly contains LN421 and LN521 isoforms. Regulation of laminin expression under pathophysiological conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-6 in regulating endothelial laminin profile and characterize the impact of altered laminin composition on the phenotype, inflammatory response, and function of endothelial cells (ECs).

METHODS: HUVECs and HAECs were used for in vitro experiments. Trans-well migration experiments were performed using leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. The BiKE cohort was used to assess expression of laminins in atherosclerotic plaques and healthy vessels. Gene and protein expression was analyzed using Microarray/qPCR and proximity extension assay, ELISA, immunostaining or immunoblotting techniques, respectively.

RESULTS: Stimulation of ECs with IL-6+sIL-6R, but not IL-6 alone, reduces expression of laminin α4 (LAMA4) and increases laminin α5 (LAMA5) expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, IL-6+sIL-6R stimulation of ECs differentially regulates the release of several proteins including CXCL8 and CXCL10, which collectively were predicted to inhibit granulocyte transmigration. Experimentally, we demonstrated that granulocyte migration is inhibited across ECs pre-treated with IL-6+sIL-6R. In addition, granulocyte migration across ECs cultured on LN521 was significantly lower compared to LN421. In human atherosclerotic plaques, expression of endothelial LAMA4 and LAMA5 is significantly lower compared to control vessels. Moreover, LAMA5-to-LAMA4 expression ratio was negatively correlated with granulocytic cell markers (CD177 and myeloperoxidase (MPO)) and positively correlated with T-lymphocyte marker CD3.

CONCLUSIONS: We showed that expression of endothelial laminin alpha chains is regulated by IL-6 trans-signaling and contributes to inhibition of trans-endothelial migration of granulocytic cells. Further, expression of laminin alpha chains is altered in human atherosclerotic plaques and is related to intra-plaque abundance of leukocyte subpopulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, Chronic inflammation, Diapedesis, Endothelial basement membrane, Plaque stability
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-105279 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2023.03.010 (DOI)000994230600001 ()36996622 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85150807616 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2018-0035Stiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor, 2019-00851
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Pirronello, F., Kurt, S., Reitsema, R., Rangel, I., Dreifaldt, M., Sirsjö, A. & Kumawat, A. (2023). Phenotypic and functional characterization of T cell immune responses in peripheral arterial disease. Paper presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023. Atherosclerosis, 379(Suppl. 1), S25-S25, Article ID P076.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phenotypic and functional characterization of T cell immune responses in peripheral arterial disease
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 379, no Suppl. 1, p. S25-S25, article id P076Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, affecting the lower limbs. T cells are among the principal contributors to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, T cell immune responses in PAD pathophysiology are poorly understood and a detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of T cell immune responses in PAD is needed.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from PAD patients with claudicatio intermittens (n=14) and healthy controls (HCs, n=30). We assessed the phenotype of active, effector and memory T cell subsets by evaluating the expression of specific surface and intracellular markers analysed by 10-colour flow cytometry. Functional responses were evaluated by performing T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation of PBMCs in a 3D cell culture system to assess cytokine production by ELISA. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: No differences were observed between PAD and HCs in terms of active, effector and memory T cell phenotypes and in the frequency of cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3 (markers associated with T cells producing IL-17 and IFN-γ). However, lower frequencies of IFN-γ+ cells among CD8+ (P=0.04), and CD4+CD8+ cells (P=0.03) were observed in PAD compared to HCs. TNF-α production in PAD-derived PBMCs, via TCR stimulation was increased at both 48- (P=0.004) and 72-hour time points (P=0.003). No differences were observed in IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion.

Conclusions: Taken together these results suggest that increased TNF-α secretion by PBMCs in response to TCR activation might contribute to the pro-inflammatory environment in PAD pathogenesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109561 (URN)001060595800362 ()
Conference
91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Zegeye, M., Ljungberg, L., Nakka, S., Andersson, J., Söderberg, S., Kumawat, A. & Sirsjö, A. (2023). Soluble LDL-receptor is induced by TNF-Α and inhibits hepatocytic clearance of LDL-cholesterol. Paper presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023. Atherosclerosis, 379(Suppl. 1), S61-S61, Article ID P195.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soluble LDL-receptor is induced by TNF-Α and inhibits hepatocytic clearance of LDL-cholesterol
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 379, no Suppl. 1, p. S61-S61, article id P195Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: LDL-c is cleared from the circulation mainly by hepatic LDL-receptor mediated endocytosis. Defective LDL-c clearance and hence its elevation in circulation is one of the risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI). A soluble LDL-R (sLDL-R) exists in human plasma and exhibits strong correlation with circulating LDL-c and conditions that promote chronic inflammation. However, the mechanistic interplay between sLDL-R, inflammation and MI remains to be investigated.

Methods: In vitro studies using HepG2 cells treated with TNF-α, and a nested case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma sLDL-R, TNF-α and risk of future MI.

Results: Stimulation of HepG2 cells with TNF-α induces release of sLDL-R with limited effect on surface expression of LDL-R. TNF-α induces gene expression of peptidases ADAM17 and MMP14 in HepG2 cells, and inhibition of ADAM17 and MMP-14 significantly reduces the TNF-α induced sLDL-R release. Although TNF-α treatment of HepG2 cells has limited effect on LDL-c endocytosis, HepG2 cells incubated with recombinant sLDL-R showed reduced LDL-c uptake in a dose-dependent manner. In a nested case-control study, baseline sLDL-R in plasma was positively correlated with plasma total cholesterol level. Further, a 2-fold increase in plasma sLDL-R was associated with 2.1x higher risk of future MI. Using mediation analyses, we determined that significant proportion of the association is mediated by elevation in plasma cholesterol level.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that sLDL-R is generated by TNF-α via membrane shedding. Further, an increase in sLDL-R could inhibit hepatic clearance of LDL-c increasing its half-life in the circulation and contributing to the pathogenesis of MI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109565 (URN)001060595800481 ()
Conference
91st Annual Meeting of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS 2023), Mannheim, Germany, May 21-24, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Zegeye, M. M., Nakka, S. S., Andersson, J. S. O., Söderberg, S., Ljungberg, L., Kumawat, A. K. & Sirsjö, A. (2023). Soluble LDL-receptor is induced by TNF-α and inhibits hepatocytic clearance of LDL-cholesterol. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 101(12), 1615-1626
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soluble LDL-receptor is induced by TNF-α and inhibits hepatocytic clearance of LDL-cholesterol
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 0946-2716, E-ISSN 1432-1440, Vol. 101, no 12, p. 1615-1626Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Defective LDL-C clearance and hence its elevation in the circulation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as myocardial infarction (MI). A soluble LDL-receptor (sLDL-R) has been detected in human plasma which correlates strongly with circulating LDL-C and classical conditions that promote chronic inflammation. However, the mechanistic interplay between sLDL-R, inflammation, and CVDs remains to be investigated. Here, we report that stimulation of HepG2 cells with TNF-α induces the release of sLDL-R into culture supernatants. In addition, TNF-α induces gene expression of peptidases ADAM-17 and MMP-14 in HepG2 cells, and inhibiting these peptidases using TMI 1 significantly reduces the TNF-α induced sLDL-R release. We found that a soluble form of recombinant LDL-R (100 nM) can strongly bind to LDL-C and form a stable complex (KD = E-12). Moreover, incubation of HepG2 cells with this recombinant LDL-R resulted in reduced LDL-C uptake in a dose-dependent manner. In a nested case-control study, we found that baseline sLDL-R in plasma is positively correlated with plasma total cholesterol level. Furthermore, a twofold increase in plasma sLDL-R was associated with a 55% increase in the risk of future MI [AOR = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.10-2.18)]. Nevertheless, mediation analyses revealed that a significant proportion of the association is mediated by elevation in plasma cholesterol level (indirect effect β = 0.21 (95% CI = 0.07-0.38). Collectively, our study shows that sLDL-R is induced by a pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α via membrane shedding. Furthermore, an increase in sLDL-R could inhibit hepatic clearance of LDL-C increasing its half-life in the circulation and contributing to the pathogenesis of MI. KEY MESSAGES: TNF-α causes shedding of hepatocytic LDL-R through induction of ADAM-17 and MMP-14. sLDL-R binds strongly to LDL-C and inhibits its uptake by hepatocytic cells. Plasma sLDL-R is positively correlated with TNF-α and cholesterol. Plasma sLDL-R is an independent predictor of myocardial infarction (MI). Plasma cholesterol mediates the association between sLDL-R and MI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
ADAM-17, Chronic inflammation, Hypercholesterolemia, MMP-14, Mediation analyses, Myocardial infarction
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-109360 (URN)10.1007/s00109-023-02379-4 (DOI)001088058800001 ()37861809 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174533259 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Örebro UniversityKnowledge Foundation, 2018-0035 2021-0038
Available from: 2023-10-23 Created: 2023-10-23 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2244-9816

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