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Van Zalk, N. & Tillfors, M. (2017). Co-rumination buffers the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 11(1), Article ID 41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-rumination buffers the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence
2017 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We examined whether co-rumination with online friends buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms over time in a community sample.

Methods: In a sample of 526 participants (358 girls; M-age = 14.05) followed at three time points, we conducted a latent cross-lagged model with social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and co-rumination, controlling for friendship stability and friendship quality, and adding a latent interaction between social anxiety and co-rumination predicting depressive symptoms.

Results: Social anxiety predicted depressive symptoms, but no direct links between social anxiety and co-rumination emerged. Instead, co-rumination buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescents with higher but not lower levels of social anxiety.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that co-rumination exerted a positive influence on interpersonal relationships by diminishing the influence from social anxiety on depressive symptoms over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2017
Keywords
Social anxiety, Depressive symptoms, Co-rumination, Online friends, Early adolescence
National Category
Pediatrics Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60596 (URN)10.1186/s13034-017-0179-y (DOI)000408171900001 ()28852420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85027722465 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1233 2009-1444
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-16Bibliographically approved
Van Zalk, N. (2016). Social anxiety moderates the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use. Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 10(3), Article ID UNSP 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social anxiety moderates the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use
2016 (English)In: Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, ISSN 1802-7962, E-ISSN 1802-7962, Vol. 10, no 3, article id UNSP 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Excessive online chatting can lead to unwanted consequences such as compulsive Internet use over time. Not all adolescents use chatting for the same purpose, however, and these links may not be as pronounced for socially anxious adolescents as they likely communicate with others online in order to compensate for offline social inadequacies. The current study investigated whether social anxiety moderated the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use over time. Using a sample of 523 early adolescents (269 girls; M-age = 14.00) from a 3-wave longitudinal study, the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use were investigated via manifest autoregressive models, and moderating effects of social anxiety were tested via multiple group comparison procedures. The results showed bidirectional links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use from Time 2-Time 3, as excessive chatting predicted more symptoms of compulsive Internet use, whereas compulsive Internet use predicted more excessive chatting-over and above the effects of gender. These links were present for adolescents low on social anxiety, but they were largely missing for highly socially anxious adolescents. Thus, social anxiety may have protective effects for early adolescents who spend too much time chatting online, as it may help reduce the risk of developing symptoms of compulsive Internet use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Masaryk University, 2016
Keywords
social anxiety, excessive chatting, compulsive Internet use, synchronous communication, early adolescence
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57679 (URN)10.5817/CP2016-3-3 (DOI)000399972700003 ()2-s2.0-84994718410 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare 

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Tillfors, M. & Van Zalk, N. (2015). Easier to accelerate than to slow down: contributions of developmental neurobiology for the understanding of adolescent social anxiety. In: Ranta, K., La Greca, A.M., Garcia-Lopez, L.-J., Marttunen, M. (Ed.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestation and intervention strategies. Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Easier to accelerate than to slow down: contributions of developmental neurobiology for the understanding of adolescent social anxiety
2015 (English)In: Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestation and intervention strategies / [ed] Ranta, K., La Greca, A.M., Garcia-Lopez, L.-J., Marttunen, M., Springer, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38282 (URN)978-3-319-16703-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-10-30 Created: 2014-10-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Van Zalk, N. & Van Zalk, M. (2015). The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety. Journal of personality, 83(3), 346-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety
2015 (English)In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 346-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.

Keywords
social anxiety
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43428 (URN)10.1111/jopy.12108 (DOI)000354125400010 ()24957362 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929023874 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-07 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Mörtberg, E., Tillfors, M., Van Zalk, N. & Kerr, M. (2014). An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(4), 350-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 350-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keywords
Social anxiety disorder; anxious-impulsive subgroup; depressive symptoms; personality
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33477 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12117 (DOI)000339617500009 ()24716675 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84904120137 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Van Zalk, M. H., Van Zalk, N., Kerr, M. & Stattin, H. (2014). Influences Between Online-Exclusive, Conjoint and Offline-Exclusive Friendship Networks: The Moderating Role of Shyness. European Journal of Personality, 28(2), 134-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences Between Online-Exclusive, Conjoint and Offline-Exclusive Friendship Networks: The Moderating Role of Shyness
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research has indicated that shy adolescents are more motivated to form friendships online than to form friendships offline. Little is known about whether having friendships found exclusively online may impact self-esteem and forming offline friendships for these adolescents. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the moderating role of shyness in the longitudinal interplay between friendships in online and offline contexts in early adolescence. Adolescents and their friends (193 girls, 196 boys; M-age = 13.29) were followed with three consecutive measurements with intervals of eight months. Results showed that particularly for shy adolescents, having friends exclusively online predicted increases in self-esteem. Self-esteem, in turn, was found to predict forming more friendships found both offline and online and forming more friendships found exclusively offline. Thus, findings supported the social compensation perspective that shy adolescents may benefit from having friends exclusively online, as these friendships may increase self-esteem, thereby facilitating the formation of friendships found partially and completely offline. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keywords
friendships, online relationships, shyness, self-esteem
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34998 (URN)10.1002/per.1895 (DOI)000334033500003 ()
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Tillfors, M., Mörtberg, E., Van Zalk, N. & Kerr, M. (2013). Inhibited and impulsive subgroups of socially anxious young adults: their depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3(1A), 195-201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibited and impulsive subgroups of socially anxious young adults: their depressive symptoms and life satisfaction
2013 (English)In: Open Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 2161-7325, E-ISSN 2161-7333, Vol. 3, no 1A, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Socially anxious people are typically thought of as being behaviorally inhibited; however, an atypical subgroup, which is impulsive rather than inhibited, has recently been identified [1]. Theoretically, inhibition and impulsivity could be viewed as different strategies for coping with anxiety that have the same goal—escape from negative emotions—but they seem to have different implications. Previous studies have found that the socially anxious-impulsive subgroup was higher on risk-prone behavior, as for example drug use, compared with a socially anxious-inhibited subgroup [1]. In this study, we aimed to identify these subgroups in a general population, and asked whether they also experience various levels of depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, as well as moderating effects of gender.

Methods: Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of young adults (20 - 24 years old; N = 772) characterized by different profiles of social anxiety and impulsivity. These subgroups were compared on levels of internal adjustment, and the moderating effects of gender were also tested.

Results: We identified five clusters, including an Anxious-Inhibited and an Anxious-Impulsive cluster. In the interaction between gender and cluster membership, gender showed evidence of moderation regarding both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, with the young women in the Anxious-Inhibited and the Anxious-Impulsive clusters faring worst.

Conclusions: We replicated previous findings demonstrating the existence of a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup, thus solidifying current knowledge that may be important when it comes to diagnostics and treatment. This may prove particularly important for young women regarding internalizing symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Irvine: Scientific Research Publishing, 2013
Keywords
Social Anxiety, Impulsivity, Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Young Adults
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25326 (URN)10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31A016 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Tillfors, M., Van Zalk, N. & Kerr, M. (2013). Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(3), 267-273
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has identified a subgroup of socially anxious adults who are both anxious and impulsive. To date, however, this subgroup has not been identified in adolescence. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify this subgroup in a sample of adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that this subgroup would be higher on problem behaviors, and that these processes would be moderated by gender. We used longitudinal data from 714 adolescents who were in the 7th and 8th grades at Time 1. They were followed annually for three years. Cluster analyses identified an anxious-inhibited subgroup as well as an anxious-impulsive subgroup in early adolescence (Time 1). The socially anxious-impulsive adolescent boys were generally higher on both intoxication frequency and delinquency compared with all other adolescents in all clusters at each time point. Findings suggest that social anxiety subgroups may differ on problem behavior, and that early detection of an anxious-impulsive subgroup may be important to prevent maladjustment, especially for adolescent boys.

Keywords
Social anxiety, impulsivity, problem behaviors, adolescence
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29763 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12047 (DOI)000318441100012 ()
Available from: 2013-06-27 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
van Zalk, M., Kerr, M., van Zalk, N. & Stattin, H. (2013). Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(4), 627-639
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships
2013 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 627-639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M (age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia.

Keywords
Xenophobia, Tolerance, Friendship influence, Friendship selection, Immigrants
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29604 (URN)10.1007/s10802-012-9694-8 (DOI)000318368900010 ()
Available from: 2013-06-17 Created: 2013-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Tillfors, M., Ewa, M., Van Zalk, N. & Kerr, M. (2011). Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of young adults in relation to depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. In: : . Paper presented at 41st Annual EABCT Convention.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of young adults in relation to depressive symptoms and life satisfaction
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25307 (URN)
Conference
41st Annual EABCT Convention
Projects
Hur växer blyga violer? Utveckling av blyghet och social ångest under tonåren kopplat till olika former av kompisrelationer
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr: 421-2009-1446
Available from: 2012-08-25 Created: 2012-08-25 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3504-9037

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